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AP Human Geography Barron's Ch.2 Vocab
Maps, Scale, Space, and Place
56
Geography
11/02/2011

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Term
absolute distance
Definition
distance that can be measured with a standard unit of length
Term
absolute location
Definition
the exact position or place, measured within the spatial coordinates of a grid system
Term
accessibility
Definition
relative ease with which a destination may be reached from some other place
Term
azimuthal projection
Definition
map projection in which the plane is the most developable surface
Term
breaking point
Definition
the outer edge of a city's sphere of influence, used in the law of retain gravitation to describe the are of a city's hinterlands that depend on that city for its retail supply
Term
cartograms
Definition
type of thematic map that transforms space such that the political unit with the greatest value for some type of data is represented by the largest relative area
Term
choropleth map
Definition
thematic map that uses tones or colors to represent spatial data as an average value per unit area
Term
cognitive map
Definition
an image of a portion of the earth's surface that an individual creates in their mind. can include knowledge of actual locations and relationships between locations as well as personal perceptions and preferences of particular places
Term
complementarity
Definition
actual or potential economic relationship between two places
Term
connectivity
Definition
the degree of economic, social, cultural, or political connection between two places
Term
contagious diffusion
Definition
spread of disease, innovation, or cultural traits through direct contact with another person/place
Term
coordinate system
Definition
a standard grid composed of lines of longitude and latitude used to determine absolute location
Term
distance decay effect
Definition
decrease in interaction between two phenomena, places, or people as distance between them increases.
Term
dot maps
Definition
thematic maps that used points to show precise locations of specific observations or occurrences
Term
expansion diffusion
Definition
spread of ideas, innovations, fashion, or other phenomena to surrounding areas through contact and exchange
Term
friction of distance
Definition
a measure of how much absolute distance affects the interaction between two places
Term
fuller projection
Definition
a type of map projection that maintains the accurate size and shape of landmasses but rearranges the cardinal directions
Term
Geoid
Definition
The actual shape of the earth, which is rough and oblate; slightly squashed
Term
gravity model
Definition
mathematical formula that describes the level of interaction between two places, based on size of population and their distance from each other
Term
hazards
Definition
anything in a landscape (real or perceived) that is potentially threatening
Term
hierarchial diffusion
Definition
something is transmitted between places because of something the two places have in common
Term
international date line
Definition
line of longitude that marks where each new day begins; 180th meridian
Term
intervening opportunities
Definition
Concept that- Place #1 wants something that place #2 and #3 have for sale with equal prices and equal quality. place #2 represents an intervening opportunity because it is closer, which means cheaper transportation
Term
isoline
Definition
map that connects points of equal or similar values
Term
large scale
Definition
relatively small ratio between map scale and ground scale
Term
latitude
Definition
angular distance north or south of the equator; aka parallels
Term
law of retail gravitation
Definition
law that states that people will be drawn to larger cities to conduct their business
Term
location charts
Definition
on a map, a chart or graph that gives specific statistical info of a particular political unit or jurisdiction
Term
longitude
Definition
angular distance east and west of the prime meridian; aka meridians
Term
map projection
Definition
mathematical method involving transferring the earth's sphere onto a flat surface
Term
mental maps
Definition
AKA COGNITIVE MAPS;
Term
mercator projection
Definition
true conformal cylindrical map projection; accurate direction, distortion in polar regions
Term
meridian
Definition
lines of longitude
Term
parallel
Definition
lines of latitude
Term
peters map projection
Definition
cylindrical map projection that attempts to retain the accurate size of all the world's landmasses
Term
preference map
Definition
map that displays individual preferences for certain places
Term
prime meridian
Definition
imaginary line passing through the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England; marks the 0 degree line of latitude
Term
Proportional map symbols
Definition
a thematic map in which the size of a chosen symbol indicated the relative magnitude of a statistical value
Term
reference map
Definition
a map type that shows reference information for a particular place, making it useful for finding landmarks for navigating
Term
relative distance
Definition
measure of distance that includes the costs of overcoming the friction of absolute distance separating two places. Often relative distance describes the amount of social, cultural, or economic connectivity between two places
Term
relative location
Definition
position relative to places around it
Term
relocation diffusion
Definition
the diffusion of ideas, innovations, behaviors, etc through migration
Term
resolution
Definition
map's smallest discernable unit. If object has to be 1 meter long to show up on a map, then the map's resolution is 1 meter
Term
robinson projection
Definition
projection that attempts to balance several possible projection errors. minimizes errors in each field of distortion
Term
scale
Definition
ratio between size of area on the map and size of area on the earth's surface
Term
site
Definition
absolute location of a places, described by physical or cultural characteristics
Term
situation
Definition
relative location of places, described by physical or cultural characteristics and connections and interdependencies within that system
Term
small scale
Definition
map scale ratio where the map usually depicts large areas
Term
spatial diffusion
Definition
refers to the way in which a phenomena (ie technology) travel
Term
stimulus diffusion
Definition
when a trait of one culture prompts invention or innovation in another
Term
thematic map
Definition
type of map that depicts one or more variables (ie population) in a specific area
Term
time-space convergence
Definition
idea that distance between some places is actually shrinking as technology enables more rapid communication and increased interaction
Term
topographic maps
Definition
maps that use isolines to represent constant elevation
Term
topological space
Definition
amount of connectivity between places, regardless of absolute distance
Term
transferability
Definition
the cost in moving goods from one place to another
Term
visualization
Definition
use of sophisticated software to create dynamic computer maps, some of which are 3D or interactive