Shared Flashcard Set

Details

AP Gov Vocab Chapter 2
Flashcards for Prosser's vocab quiz
27
History
09/15/2010

Additional History Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
Party competition
Definition
The battle of parties for control of public offices. Ups and downs of the two major parties are one of the most important elements in American politics.
Term
Political Party
Definition
"team of men and women seeking to control the governing apparatus by gaining office in a duly constituted election"
Term
linkage institutions
Definition
The channels or access points through which issues and people's policy preferences get on the government's  policy agenda. In the United States, elections, political, parties, interest groups, and the mass media are the three main linkage institutions.
Term
party image
Definition
The voter's perception of what the Republicans or Democrats stand for, such as conservatism or liberalism.
Term
rational-choice theory
Definition
A popular theory in political science to explain the actions of voters as well as politicians. It assumes that individuals act in their own best interest, carefully weighing the costs and benefits of possible alternatives.
Term
party identification
Definition
a citizen's self-proclaimed preference for one party or the other.
Term
ticket-splitting
Definition
Voting with one party for one office and with another party for other offices. It has become  the norm in American voting behavior.
Term
party machines
Definition
A type of political party organization that relies heavily on material inducements, such as patronage, to win votes and to govern.
Term
patronage
Definition
One of the key inducements used by machines. A patronage job, promotion, or contract is one of that is given for political reasons rather than for merit or competence alone.
Term
closed primaries
Definition
Elections to select party nominees in which only people who have registered in advance with the party can vote for that party's candidates, thus encouraging greater party loyalty.
Term
open primaries
Definition
Elections to select party nominees in which voters can decide on election day whether they want to participate in the Democratic or Republican contests.
Term
blanket primaries
Definition
Elections to select party nominees in which voters are presented with a list of condidates from all the parties. Voters can then select some Democrats and some Republicans if they like.
Term
national convention
Definition
The meeting of party delegates every four years to choose a presidential ticket and write the party's platform.
Term
national committee
Definition
One of the institutions that keeps the party operationg between conventions. The national committee is composed of representatives from states and territories.
Term
national chairperson
Definition
One of the institutions that keeps the party operating between conventions. The national chairperson is responsible for the day-to-day activities of the party and is usually selected by the presedential nominee.
Term
coalition
Definition
A group of individuals with a common interest upon which every political party depends.
Term
party eras
Definition
Historical  periods in which a majority of voters cling to the party in power, which tends to win a majority of elections.
Term
critical election
Definition
An electoral "earthquake" whereby new issues emerge, new colaitions replaces old ones, and the majority party is often displaced by the minority party. Critical election periods are sometimes marked by a national crisis and may require more than one election to bring about a new party era.
Term
party realignment
Definition
The displacement of the majority of party by the minority party, usually during a critical election period.
Term
New Deal coalition
Definition
A coalition forged by the Democrats, who dominated American politics from the 1930s to the 1960s. Its basic elements were the urban working class, ethnic groups, Catholic and Jews, the poor, Southerners, African Americans, and intellectuals.
Term
party dealignment
Definition
The gradual disengagement of people and politicians from the parties, as seen in part by shrinking party identification.
Term
party neutrality
Definition
A term used to describe the fact that many Americans are indifferent toward the two major political parties.
Term
third parties
Definition
Electoral contenders other than the two major parties. American third parties are not unusual, but they rarely win elections.
Term
winner-take-all system
Definition
an electoral system in which legislative seats are awarded only to the candidates who come in first in their constituencies. In American presidential elections, the system in which the winner of the popular vote in a state receives all the electoral votes of that state.
Term
proportional representation
Definition
AN electoral system used throughout most of Europe that awards legislative seats to political parties in proportion to the number of votes won in an election.
Term
coalition government
Definition
When two or more parties join together to form a majority in a national legislature. This form of government is quiet common in the multiparty systems of Europe.
Term
responsible party model
Definition
A view favored by some political scientists about how parties should work. According to the model, parties should offer clear choices to the voters who can then use those choices as cues to their own preferences ofcandidates. Once in offce, parties would carry out their campaign promises.