Shared Flashcard Set

Details

AP Bio chapters 22-25
AP Bio chapters 22-25
60
Biology
01/23/2010

Additional Biology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
What is the name of the person who devised a taxonomic system that used morphological (i.e., anatomical) features as the primary criteria for classifying organisms? 
Definition
Carolus Linnaeus 
Term
Which statement is most consistent with the natural theology that was prevalent in Europe and America during Darwin's life?
Definition
Nature reflects God's intelligent design.
Term
On which of the following did Linnaeus base his classification system?
Definition
morphology and anatomy 
Term
Catastrophism was Cuvier's attempt to explain 
Definition
the fossil record. 
Term
What was the prevailing notion prior to the time of Lyell and Darwin?
Definition
The Earth is 6,000 years old and populations are unchanging.
Term
During a study session about evolution, one of your fellow students remarks, "The giraffe stretched its neck while reaching for higher leaves; its offspring inherited longer necks as a result." Which statement most accurately corrects the student's misconception?
Definition
Characteristics acquired during an organism's life are not passed on through genes.
Term
The statement "Improving the intelligence of an adult through education will result in that adult's descendants being born with a greater native intelligence" is an example of
Definition
Lamarckism.
Term
Increased UV irradiation causes the skin of humans to become more darkly pigmented over a period of days. The notion that the offspring of such tanned individuals should consequently inherit darkened skin from their parents is consistent with the ideas of
Definition
Jean Baptiste Lamarck. 
Term
Darwin's mechanism of natural selection required long time spans in order to modify species. From whom did Darwin get the concept of the Earth's ancient age?
Definition
Charles Lyell 
Term
The naturalist who synthesized a concept of natural selection independently of Darwin was
Definition
Alfred Wallace.
Term
Linnaeus' concept of taxonomy is that the more closely two organisms resemble each other, the more closely related they are in a classification scheme. In evolutionary terms, the more closely related two organisms are, the
Definition
more recently they shared a common ancestor.
Term
Darwin's mechanism of evolution differed from Lamarck's by proposing that
Definition
inherent variations in the population are more important in evolution than variations acquired during individual lifetimes.
Term
Natural selection is based on all of the following except 
Definition
use or disuse of organs during one generation causes modifications of these same organs in subsequent generations.
Term
All of the following statements are part of the Darwin-Wallace theory of natural selection except
Definition
characteristics that are acquired during the life of an individual are passed on to offspring.
Term
Insects with mutations that prevent flight (e.g., the "vestigial wing" mutation in fruit flies) usually can't survive long in nature. But in four of the following environments, flightlessness could be selected for. Which environment should favor the survival of fruit flies that can actually fly?
Definition
a cage in which food cannot be reached by sole use of the legs
Term
What is the most important missing evidence or observation in Darwin's theory of 1859?
Definition
the source of genetic variation 
Term
Which of the following is the unit of evolution? In other words, which of the following can evolve in the Darwinian sense?
Definition
population
Term
What effect do sexual processes (meiosis and fertilization) have on the allelic frequencies in a population? 
Definition
They have no effect on allelic frequencies. 
Term
What is the most reasonable conclusion that can be drawn from the fact that the frequency of the recessive trait (aa) has not changed over time?
Definition
The two phenotypes are about equally adaptive under laboratory conditions.
Term
What is the estimated frequency of allele a in the gene pool?
Definition
0.70
Term
What proportion of the population is probably heterozygous (Aa) for this trait?
Definition
0.42
Term
All of the following are criteria for maintaining a Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium involving two alleles except
Definition
the frequency of all genotypes must be equal.
Term
In a population that is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, the frequency of the allele a is 0.3. What is the percentage of the population that is homozygous for this allele?
Definition
9
Term
In a population that is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, the frequency of the allele a is 0.3. What is the percentage of the population that is heterozygous for this allele?
Definition
42
Term
In a Hardy-Weinberg population, the frequency of the a allele is 0.4. What is the frequency of individuals with Aa genotype?
Definition
0.48
Term
In a population with two alleles, A and a, the frequency of a is 0.6. What would be the frequency of heterozygotes if the population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?
Definition
0.48
Term
Most copies of harmful recessive alleles in a population are carried by individuals that are
Definition
heterozygous for the allele.
Term
What is the allele frequency in the founding population?
Definition
0.1 a, 0.9 A
Term
If one assumes that Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium applies to the population of colonists on this planet, about how many people will have attached ear lobes when the planet's population reaches 10,000?
Definition
100
Term
If four of the original colonists died before they produced offspring, the ratios of genotypes could be quite different in the subsequent generations. This is an example of 
Definition
genetic drift.
Term
Which of the following applies to both anagenesis and cladogenesis?
Definition
speciation
Term
What is true of speciation? It
Definition
occurs via anagenesis or cladogenesis, but only the latter increases biodiversity.
Term
Which of the following statements about species, as defined by the biological species concept, is (are) correct?
I. Biological species are defined by reproductive isolation.
II. Biological species are the model used for grouping extinct
forms of life.
III. The biological species is the largest unit of population in which gene
flow is possible.
Definition
I and III
Term
Which of the various species concepts separates species based on the degree of genetic exchange between gene pools?
Definition
biological
Term
Which of the following is not considered an intrinsic reproductive isolating mechanism?
Definition
geographic isolation
Term
Two closely related species can best remain distinct biological species by
Definition
reproductive isolation from one another. 
Term
The usual isolating mechanism keeping closely related species of birds reproductively isolated from each other is __________ isolation.
Definition
behavioral
Term
Some species of Anopheles mosquito live in brackish water, some in running fresh water, and others in stagnant water. What type of reproductive barrier is most obviously separating these different species?
Definition
habitat isolation
Term
two species of orchids with different floral anatomy
Definition
mechanical
Term
two species of trout that breed in different seasons
Definition
temporal
Term
two species of meadowlarks with different mating songs 
Definition
behavioral
Term
Two species of garter snakes live in the same region, but one lives in water and the other lives on land.
Definition
habitat
Term
Two species of pine shed their pollen at different times.
Definition
temporal
Term
Mating fruit flies recognize the appearance, odor, tapping motions, and sounds of members of their own species, but not of other species.
Definition
behavioral
Term
The scarlet oak is adapted to moist bottomland, whereas the black oak is adapted to dry upland soils. 
Definition
habitat
Term
Which combination of the following species characteristics would cause the greatest likelihood of fossilization in sedimentary rock?
I. aquatic
II. tropical
III. hard body parts
IV. presence of organic material
V. flight
VI. long duration as a species
Definition
I, III, and VI
Term
Which of the following should not be considered fossils? 
Definition
All of the below are properly considered fossils. 
Term
Peat bogs can have pHs as low as 3.8. Animals classified as fossils have been exhumed from such bogs with most of their bodies intact (except bones), and with DNA still present. What probably accounts for the persistence of the fleshy parts of these animals while in peat bogs? The peat bogs
Definition
harbor relatively few bacteria.
Term
The best index fossils for assigning relative ages to different strata are those of
Definition
widespread, shelled marine organisms.
Term
Which of the following can be used to determine the absolute age of fossils?
Definition
the half-life of isotopes 
Term
If the half-life of carbon-14 is about 5,730 years, then a fossil that has one-eighth the normal proportion of carbon-14 to carbon-12 is probably __________ years old.
Definition
16,800
Term
Theoretically, how can absolute dates be determined by radiometric means? By measuring 
Definition
only A and B.
Term
How many half-lives should have elapsed if 12.5% of the parental radioisotope remains in a fossil at the time of analysis?
Definition
three
Term
Racemization of amino acids might be a useful technique for dating all of the following except
Definition
petrified trees. 
Term
A biologist discovers two new species of organisms, one in Africa and one in South America. The organisms resemble one another closely. Which type of evidence would probably be least useful in determining whether these organisms are closely related or are the products of convergent evolution?
Definition
analysis of the behavior of the two species 
Term
All of the following are usual methods for dating fossils except 
Definition
molecular clocks.
Term
The fossil record of a hypothetical taxon is likely to be incomplete if
Definition
A, B, and C are true.
Term
If two continental land masses converge and are united during continental drift, then the collision should bring about
Definition
all of the above.
Term
Active tectonic subduction zones are characterized by
1. trenches.
2. earthquakes.
3. volcanoes. 
Definition
all of these
Term
Which of the following can best be explained by continental drift?
Definition
The scarcity of eutherian (placental) mammals in Australia.