Shared Flashcard Set

Details

AP Bio Chapter 29 (Plant Tissues) Flashcards - Snook 2011
100 flashcards made by Adam and Tiffany for the final exam project
100
Biology
05/17/2011

Additional Biology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
Three major groups of plant tissues
Definition
ground tissue, dermal tissue, vascular tissue
Term
________ include three basic kinds of cells that differ mostly in the nature of their cell walls
Definition
ground tissues
Term

 

 

 

 

________ consists of epidermis cells that cover the outside of palnt parts, guard cells that surround stomata, and carious specialized suraface cells such as hair cells, stinging cells, and glandular cells

Definition
Dermal Tissue
Term

 

_______ is a waxy protective substance that epidermal cells secrete

Definition
the cuticle
Term
Three main kinds of ground tissues
Definition
Parenchyma, Collenchyma, Sclerenchyma
Term
_______ cells are the most common compenent of ground tissue, have thin cell walls, and serve various functions including storage, photosynthesis, and secretion 
Definition
Parenchyma
Term

_______ cells have thicker but flexible cell walls, and serve mechanical support functions

(type of ground tissue)

Definition
Collenchyma
Term
_______ cells have the thickest cell walls of all ground tissues, and also serve mechanical support functions
Definition
Sclerenchyma
Term
_______ tissue consists of two major kinds of tissues, xylem and phloem
Definition
Vascular
Term
Xylem and Phloem usually occur together to form ______________
Definition
vascular bundles
Term
______ functions in the conduction of water and minerals, and also provides mechanical support
Definition
Xylem
Term
In addition to the primary cell wall that all plants have, xylem cells have a _______ cell wall that gives them additional strength
Definition
secondary
Term
Define: areas on the walls on xylem cells where the secondary wall is absent
Definition
pits
Term
Most xylem cells are _____ at maturity, and are essentially cell walls that completely lack cellular components; they contain only _______
Definition

dead

 

 

 

the material being transported

Term
Name for the 2 kinds of xylem cells
Definition

tracheids

 

 

vessel members (a.k.a. vessel elements)

Term
In _____, which are long and tapered, water from one __(same blank)__ to another through pits on the overlapping tapered ends of the cells
Definition
trachieds
Term
_____ are shorter and wider than the other kind of xylem cell, and have less or no taper at their ends. 
Definition
Vessel members
Term
Define: A column of vessel members
Definition
a Vessel
Term
Water passes from one vessel member to the next through areas devoid of BOTH primary and secondary cell walls, called _______, and are literally holes between cells
Definition
perforations
Term
_____ functions in the conduction of sugars
Definition
Phloem
Term
Phloem is made up of cells called ________ that form fluid-conducting columns called ______
Definition

sieve-tube members

 

 

 

 

sieve tubes

Term
Sieve-tube members are _____ at maturity
Definition
living
Term
_____ on the end walls of sieve tube members form _____, areas where the cytoplasm of one cell makes contact with the cytoplasm of the next cell.
Definition

Pores

 

 

Seive Plates

Term
Sieve-tube members are associated with ______ cells, living parenchyma cells that lie adjacent to each sieve-tube member
Definition
companion
Term
Companion cells are connected to adjacent sieve-tube members by thin tubes of cytoplasm called ______
Definition
plasmodesmata
Term
A seed consists of... (3 things)
Definition

an embryo

 

a seed coat

 

some kind of storage material

(may be Endosperm or cotyledons)

Term

The embryo of a seed consists of the main following parts... (5 things)

 

 

(these things vary between monocots & dicots)

Definition

the Epicotyl

 

the Plumule

 

the Hypocotyl

 

a Radicle

 

the Coleptile

Term
the top portion of the seed embryo, the _____, becomes the shoot tip
Definition
Epicotyl
Term
the part of the seed embryo often attached to the epicotyl; consists of young leaves
Definition
the Plumule
Term
in the embryo of a seed, the _____ becomes the young shoot. It is below the epicotyl and is attached to the cotyledons.
Definition
Hypocotyl
Term
Definition
Term
In some seed embryos, a _____ develops below the hypocotyl. It develops into the root.
Definition
Radicle
Term
In many monocots, a sheath called the _____ surrounds and protects the epicotyl. It will be the first thing to emerge, appearing as a leaf. However, it is NOT the first TRUE leaves.
Definition
Coleoptile
Term
the most important environmental cue for germination
Definition
water
Term

Germination begins with the __(a.k.a. absorption)__

of water

Definition
imbibition
Term
In the young seedling of a plant, growth occues at the tips of roots and shoots, called ____________
Definition
Apical Meristems
Term
The tip of roots and shoots are areas of actively dividing, or (a.k.a.) ___________ cells. This kind of growth is called ________ growth.
Definition

Meristematic

 

Primary

Term
Name for the root tip. It protects the apical meristem behind it. 
Definition
Root cap
Term
The dividing cells of the apical meristem form the _________________
Definition
Zone of Cell Division
Term
Newly formed cells absorb water and elongate, forming the next zone of primary growth, the ___________
Definition
zone of elongation
Term
The zone of primary growth where differentiation occurs
Definition
Zone of Maturation
Term
Name: the kind of growth where actively dividing cells occur only at the apical meristems, producing growth that increases the length of a shoot or root
Definition
primary growth
Term
Name: the general name for tissues that develop from primary growth
Definition
primary tissues
Term
primary ____ and primary _______ refer to vascular tissues originating from apical meristem growth
Definition

xylem

 

phloem

Term
Whereas primary growth extends the length of plant parts, ______ growth extends their girth, or lateral dimension, and is the origin of _____ plant tissues
Definition

secondary

 

woody

Term
secondary growth occurs at two ______
Definition
lateral meristems
Term

Name: the two different types of lateral meristems

 

(these types of cells are _____, capable of dividing and producing new cells throughout the lifetime of the plant)

Definition

vascular cambium

 

cork cambium

 

 

 

 

 

meristematic

Term
Name: the tissues that originate from the vascular cambium are... (2)
Definition

secondary xylem

 

secondary phloem

Term
the cork cambium gives rise to _______
Definition
periderm
Term
_________ is the general name for the protective material that lines the outside of woody plants
Definition
periderm
Term
_______ is the type of tissue that lines the outside surface of the root
Definition
epidermis
Term
Root epidermal cells produce _______, which increase the absorptive surface of the roots
Definition
root hairs
Term
Root hairs must ______ grow, because as the zone of ___ ages, root hairs die
Definition

constantly

 

maturation

Term
the _____ makes up the bulk of the root
Definition
cortex
Term
The main fuction of the cortex in the roots is...
Definition

the storage of starch

 

 

(it also often contains numerous intercellular spaces, providing aeration of cells for respiration)

Term
In roots, the ______ is a ring of tightly packed cells at the innermost portion of the cortex
Definition
endodermis
Term
A band of fattly material, called _____, impregnates the endodermal cell walls where they make contact with adjacent endodermal cell walls. This encircling band around each cell is called the __________, 
Definition

suberin

 

casparian strip

Term
The the root endodermis, the casparian strip creates...
Definition
a water-impenetrable barrier between the endodermis cells
Term

As a result of the ______ in roots, all water passing through the endodermis must pass _____ endodermal cells, and not _______ them.

 

 

Because of this, endodermal cells control the movement of water into the _______ of the root (where the vascular tissue resides), and prevent water mocement back out to the cortex

Definition

casparian strip

 

through

 

between

 

 

 

center

Term
In roots, the ______ (a.k.a. the ______) makes up the tissues inside the endodermis
Definition

vascular cylinder

 

stele

Term
The outer part of the vascular cylinder consists of one to several layers of cells called the ______, from which lateral roots arise. 
Definition
pericycle
Term
Roots: Inside the pericycle is the ______ tissue
Definition
vascular
Term

Primary tissue in the stem possesses many of the same characterisitics as that in the _____. In most cases, however, and ____ and the _____ are lacking

(b/c the last 2 are specialized for water absorption)

Definition

root

 

endodermis

 

casparian strips

Term

Stem epidermal cells are covered with a protective layer called the _____.

 

Definition

cuticle

 

(There are also specialized cells such as guard cells and stinging cells)

 

Term
In stems, the _____ consists of the various ground tissue types that lie between the eipdermis and the vascular cylinder. Many of these contain chloroplasts.
Definition
Term
In stems, the vascular cylinder consists of _____, ______, and _______
Definition

xylem

 

phloem

 

pith

Term
In stems, a single layer of cells between the xylem and phloem may remain undifferentiated and later become the ______________
Definition
vascular cambium
Term
The ______ originates b/w the xylem and phloem and becomes a cylinder of tissue that extends the length of the stem and root. This layer is _______, producing new cells on both the inside and outside of the cambium cylinder
Definition

vascular cambium

 

meristematic

Term
Cells on the inside of the vascular cambium differentiate into ________ cells
Definition
secondary xylem
Term

 

Cells on the outside of the vascular cambium differentiate into ________ cells

 

Definition
secondary phloem
Term
Accumulating xylem and phloem cells force outside tissues to shed; in order to replace the shed epidermis with a new protective covering, new cells are produced by the _________
Definition
cork cambium
Term
On the outside of the cork cambium a protective layer of _______ cells are produced
Definition
cork
Term

On the inside of the cork cambium, _____ may be produced

Definition
phelloderm
Term
_____ tissue is the actual wood of a plant
Definition
xylem
Term
______ is xylem that has been produced during the more recent years, and remains active in the transport of water
Definition
sapwood
Term
Older xylem, located toward the center of the stem, is called _______ and functions only as support
Definition
heartwood
Term
the alternation of growth and dormancy produces _____ in the secondary xylem tissue
Definition
annual rings
Term
Leaf tissues, from top to bottom of a leaf 
Definition

Cuticle

Upper epidermis

Palisade mesophyll

Spongy mesophyll / Vascular bundle

Lower epidermis

Cuticle

Term

Leaves

 

The _______ consists of parenchyma cells equipped with numerous chloroplasts and large surface areas, specializations for photosynthesis

Definition
palisade mesophyll
Term
The cuticle reduces _______
Definition
transpiration (the loss of water through evaporation)
Term

Leaves

 

The __________ consists of parenchyma cells loosely arranged below the palisade mesophyll, w/ numerous intercellular spaces that provide air chambers that provide CO2 to photosynthesizing cells (and O2 to respiring cells)

Definition
spongy mesophyll
Term
_____ cells are specialized epidermal cells that control the opening and closing of stomata
Definition
Guard
Term
_______ are openings in the epidermis that allow gas exchange b/w the inside of the leaf and the external environment
Definition
Stomata
Term
In leaves, _______ consist of xylem, phloem, and bundle sheath cells
Definition
vascular bundles
Term
In leaves, _________ cells surround the vascular bundles in such a way that no vascular tissue in exposed to intercellular spaces. B/c of this, air bubbles cannot enter vessels where they could _____ the movement of water. 
Definition

bundle sheath

 

impede, stop, mess with, etc.

Term
Explain: the two pathways by which water moves toward the center of the root after entering through root hairs
Definition

1. Water moves through cell walls and intercellular spaces from one cell to another w/o ever entering the cells. This pathway is called the APOPLAST and consists of the nonliving portion of cells

 

2. Water moves from one cell to another through SYMPLAST (living portion of cells). Water moves from the cytoplasm of one cell to the cytoplasm of the next through PLASMODESMATA

Term
In roots, endodermal cells are _____ as to what minerals are allowed to enter
Definition
selective
Term
Definition
Term

The main three mechanisms that are involved in the movement of minerals and water through xylem

 

(starting from what brings water in

& ending at what gets it to stomata)

Definition

Osmosis

 

Capilary Action

 

Conhesion-tension theory (transpirational pull)

^most significant is this last one^

Term

Define: the rise of liquid in narrow tubes

 

*the force of ____ typically drives it*

Definition

Capillary action (a.k.a. capillarity)

 

adhesion

Term

Define: the formation of small droplets of water and minerals (sap) on the ends of leaves of grasses and small herbs in the early morning

 

*caused by the osmotic force of ________*

Definition

Guttation

 

root pressure

Term

The three main concepts that cause/are behind

Cohesion-tension theory

Definition

Transpiration

 

Cohesion

 

Bulk Flow

Term

Translocation is the mocement of carbohydrates through phloem from a ______, such as leaves, to a ______, a site of carbohydrate use

 

(Translocation is described by the _______ hypothesis)

Definition

source

 

sink

 

 

 

pressure-flow

Term
Describe the major steps of the pressure-flow hypothesis (4)
Definition

1. Sugars enter the sieve-tube members

2. Water enters sieve tube members

3. Pressure in sieve-tube members at the source moces water and sugars to sieve-tube members at the sink through sieve tubes

4. Pressure is reduced in sieve-tube members at the sink as sugars are remoced for utilization by nearby cells

Term
Two cellular actions that can make a cell into a sink for carbohydrates
Definition

1. Storing sugars as starch 

(starch is insoluble in water)

 

2. Breaking down sugars for energy

 

Term
The opening and closing of the stomata is controlled by...
Definition
the movement of water into and out of the guard cells.
Term
When water diffuses into guard cells, stomata... 
Definition
open
Term

When water diffuses out of guard cells, stomata... 

Definition
close
Term

3 Observations of stomata 

(things that control opening and closing of them)

Definition

1. Stomata close when temperatures are high

 

2. Stomata open when CO2 concentrations

are low inside the leaf

 

3. Stomata close at night & open at day

 

Term

What chemical is most associated with

stomatal opening and closure?

Definition
K+      -       (potassium ions)