Shared Flashcard Set

Details

AP American History Terms
AP American History Terms from American Pageant 12th Edition
92
History
12/19/2006

Additional History Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
New Immigration
Definition
The second major wave of immigrants where about 25 million immigrants entered the US
Term
Populist Party
Definition
they called for free coinage of silver and paper money; national income tax; direct election of senators; regulation of railroads; and other government reforms to help farmers.
Term
Sharecropping
Definition
Where blacks and poor whites were forced to share land with rich white folk enable to survive after slavery.
Term
Black Codes
Definition
were laws passed on the state and local level in the United States to restrict the civil rights and civil liberties of African Americans, particularly former slaves.
Term
Molly McGuires
Definition
Irish miners that employed the tactics of intimidation and violence in a confrontation against the hard coal mining companies in the 19th century.
Term
American Federation of Labor
Definition
the first labor union in the US
Term
Booker T. Washington
Definition
was an American political leader, educator and author.
Term
Dawes Act
Definition
authorized the President of the United States to survey Native American tribal land and divide the area into allotments for the individual Native Americans
Term
Sherman Anti-trust Act
Definition
was the first United States federal government action to limit monopolies.
Term
Settlement House Movement
Definition
The time when houses were set up for immigrants to live while trying to start their lives in the US
Term
William Jennings Bryan
Definition
was an American lawyer, statesman, and politician. He was a three-time Democratic Party nominee for President of the United States.
Term
Battle of Little Bighorn
Definition
An Indian-American battle fought near Little Bighorn river in Eastern Montana Territory
Term
Turner Thesis
Definition
the idea that American exceptionalism and vitatlity have always been the American frontier
Term
Pragmatism
Definition
is a collection of many different ways of thinking
Term
Tenure of Office Act
Definition
denied the President the ability to remove someone of their government office
Term
William Randolph Hearst
Definition
Served two terms in Congress and started two major newspapers
Term
Granger Laws
Definition
were a series of laws passed in western states of the United States after the American Civil War to regulate grain elevator and railroad freight rates
Term
Henry George
Definition
was an American political economist and the most influential proponent of the "Single Tax" on land. He is the author of Progress and Poverty, written in 1879.
Term
Bland Allison Act
Definition
is a United States federal law enacted in response to the Fourth Coinage Act demonetizing silver.
Term
Edwin Stanton
Definition
was an American lawyer, politician, United States Attorney General in 1860-61 and Secretary of War through most of the American Civil War and Reconstruction era.
Term
The Grange
Definition
was a farmers' movement involving the affiliation of local farmers into area "granges" to work for their political and economic advantages.
Term
YMCA
Definition
an ecumenical service organization based on Christian values. It was founded as a network of Protestant parachurch organizations. Used to be an all male organization.
Term
Open range
Definition
refers to a large, mostly unimproved section of land that is predominantly used for livestock grazing.
Term
Pullman Strike
Definition
when 50,000 Pullman Palace Car Company workers reacted to a 25% wage cut by going on a wildcat strike in Illinois on May 11, 1894, bringing traffic west of Chicago to a halt.
Term
Frederick Olmstead
Definition
was a United States landscape architect, famous for designing many well-known urban parks, including Central Park and Prospect Park in New York City.
Term
Injunction
Definition
is an equitable remedy in the form of a court order that either prohibits or compels a party from continuing a particular activity.
Term
Crime of '73
Definition
The time when the Fourth Coinage Act was enacted by the United States Congress in 1873 and embraced the gold standard and de-monetized silver.
Term
Horatio Alger
Definition
was a 19th-century American author who wrote 135 dime novels. Though often repetitive, Alger's novels remain popular. As bestsellers in their own time, Alger's books rivaled those of Mark Twain in popularity.
Term
Platt Amendment
Definition
was a United States federal law passed that stipulated the conditions for the withdrawal of United States troops remaining in Cuba since the Spanish-American War, and defined the terms of Cuban-U.S. relations
Term
John D. Rockefeller
Definition
was an American industrialist and philanthropist who played a pivotal role in the establishment of the oil industry, and defined the structure of modern philanthropy.
Term
Women's Christian Temperance Union
Definition
is the oldest continuing non-sectarian women's organization in the U.S. and worldwide.
Term
Old Immigrants
Definition
was used for someone who came to the United States from Northern or Western Europe during the second wave of immigration in the history of independent US
Term
13-15 Amendments
Definition
officially abolished, and continues to prohibit, slavery, and, with limited exceptions, prohibits involuntary servitude; It requires the states to provide equal protection under the law to all persons (not only to citizens) within their jurisdictions; provides that governments in the United States may not prevent a citizen from voting because of his race, color, or previous status as a slave.
Term
Bread and Butter Unionism
Definition
many workers turned away from utopian ideas establishing producer cooperatives emphasizing better pay, higher wages, and improved working conditions.
Term
Spanish-American War
Definition
was a conflict between the Kingdom of Spain and the United States of America. The war ended in victory for the United States and decimation of the Spanish empire in the Caribbean and Pacific.
Term
National Labor Union
Definition
was the first national labor federation in the United States.
Term
Helen Hunt Jackson
Definition
was an American writer best known as the author of Ramona, a novel about the ill-treatment of Indians in Southern California.
Term
Social Gospel
Definition
was a Protestant Christian intellectual movement that was most prominent in the late 19th century and early 20th century. Social Gospel principles continue to inspire newer movements such as Christians Against Poverty.
Term
Jingoism
Definition
is chauvinistic patriotism, usually with a hawkish political stance. In practice, it refers to sections of the general public who advocate bullying other countries or using whatever means necessary to safeguard a country's national interests.
Term
Alfred Thayer Mahan
Definition
was a United States Navy officer, geostrategist, and educator.
Term
Horizontal Integration
Definition
describes a type of ownership and control. It is a strategy used by a business or corporation that seeks to sell a type of product in numerous markets. To get this market coverage, several small subsidiary companies are created. Each markets the product to a different market segment or to a different geographical area.
Term
Freedmen's Bureau
Definition
was a federal agency that was formed during Reconstruction to aid distressed refugees of the American Civil War. It became primarily an agency to help the freed slaves in the South.
Term
Sioux Wars
Definition
were a series of conflicts between the United States and various subgroups of the Sioux people that occurred in the latter half of the 19th century.
Term
Gilded Age
Definition
refers to the post-Civil War and post-Reconstruction era, from 1865 to 1901, which saw unprecedented economic, territorial, industrial, and population expansion.
Term
Haymarket Incident
Definition
in Chicago, inspired the caricature of "a bomb-throwing anarchist." The causes of the incident are still controversial, although deeply polarized attitudes separating the business class and the working class
Term
Scalawags
Definition
were Southern White people who joined the Republican party in the ex-Confederate South during Reconstruction.
Term
Compromise of 1877
Definition
was an informal, unwritten deal that settled the disputed 1876 U.S. Presidential election.
Term
Atlanta Compromise
Definition
was an address by Booker T. Washington. Given to a predominantly White audience at the Cotton States and International Exposition in Atlanta, Georgia
Term
John Dewey
Definition
was an American philosopher, psychologist, and educational reformer, whose thoughts and ideas have been greatly influential in the United States and around the world.
Term
Thomas Nast
Definition
was a famous caricaturist and editorial cartoonist in the 19th century and is considered to be the father of American political cartooning.
Term
Sherman Silver Purchase Act
Definition
While not authorizing the free and unlimited coinage of silver that the Free Silver supporters wanted, it increased the amount of silver the government was required to purchase every month.
Term
Pendleton Act
Definition
federal law that established the United States Civil Service Commission, which placed most federal employees on the merit system and marked the end of the so-called "spoils system."
Term
Salvation Army
Definition
is an evangelical Christian denomination founded in 1865 by one time Methodist minister William Booth. It is a part of the mainstream Christian Church and has as its objectives.
Term
Munn v. Illinois
Definition
was a United States Supreme Court case dealing with corporate rates and agriculture. The Munn v. Illinois case allowed states to regulate certain businesses within their borders, including railroads.
Term
Interstate Commerce Act
Definition
was a regulatory body in the United States created by the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887, which was signed into law by President Grover Cleveland. The agency was abolished in 1995, and the agency's remaining functions were transferred to the Surface Transportation Board.
Term
Louis Sullivan
Definition
was an American architect, called the "father of modernism". He is considered by many as the creator of the modern skyscraper
Term
Long Drives
Definition
is an offshoot of golf which is focused on hitting a golf ball for pure distance within a target grid.
Term
John Peter Altgeld
Definition
was the governor of the U.S. state of Illinois. He was the first Democratic governor of that state since the 1850s.
Term
Chief Joseph
Definition
was the chief of the band of Nez Perce Indians during General Oliver O. Howard's attempt to forcibly remove his band and the other "non-treaty" Indians to a reservation in Idaho.
Term
J.P. Morgan
Definition
was an American financier and banker, who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation.
Term
Cross of Gold Speech
Definition
was a speech delivered by William Jennings Bryan wanting to standardize the value of the dollar to silver and opposed pegging the value of the United States dollar to a gold standard.
Term
Ida Wells
Definition
was an African American civil rights advocate, who was a fearless anti-lynching crusader, suffragist, women's rights advocate, journalist and speaker.
Term
Radical Recontsruction
Definition
a period in United States history that resolved the issues of the American Civil War when both the Confederacy and its system of slavery were destroyed. The period of Reconstruction addressed the return of the southern states that had seceded, the status of ex-Confederate leaders
Term
Plessy v. Ferguson
Definition
was a landmark United States Supreme Court case upholding segregation and the constitutionality of the "separate but equal" doctrine.
Term
John Pulitzer
Definition
was a Hungarian-American publisher best known for posthumously establishing the Pulitzer Prizes and for originating yellow journalism.
Term
Knights of Labor
Definition
was a labor union founded as a fraternal organization; it was designed to protect all who worked for a living.
Term
Crop Lien System
Definition
In exchange for working on the owner's land, the sharecropper would give some of his harvest as payment.
Term
A Century of Dishonor
Definition
a writing by Helen Hunt Jackson, chronicles the experiences of Native Americans in the United States, focusing on examples of injustices.
Term
Gospel of Wealth
Definition
was an essay written by Andrew Carnegie that described the responsibility of philanthropy by the new upper class of self-made rich; who's central thesis was the peril of allowing large sums of money to be passed into the hands of persons or organizations ill-equipped mentally or emotionally to cope with them.
Term
Yellow Journalism
Definition
is a pejorative reference to journalism that features scandal-mongering, sensationalism, jingoism or other unethical or unprofessional practices by news media organizations or individual journalists.
Term
Social Darwinism
Definition
is the idea that biological ideas can be extended and applied to the social realm.
Term
Vertical Integration
Definition
describes a style of ownership and control. Vertically integrated companies are united through a hierarchy and share a common owner.
Term
Cult of Domesticity
Definition
the belief that a woman's role in marriage was to: 1. Maintain the home as a refuge for her husband, 2. train the children, and 3. set a moral example for children to follow.
Term
Boxer Rebellion
Definition
was a Chinese rebellion against foreign influence in areas such as trade, politics, religion and technology that occurred in China during the final years of the Qing Dynasty.
Term
Samuel Gompers
Definition
was an American labor and political leader. Gompers founded the American Federation of Labor (AFL) and held the position as president of the organization for all but one year
Term
Civil Rights of 1866
Definition
gave further rights to the freed slaves after the end of the American Civil War. This act was the Republicans' counterattack against the Black Codes in the South.
Term
Farmer's Alliance
Definition
was an organized agrarian economic movement among U.S. farmers that flourished in the 1880s.
Term
Jim Crowe Laws
Definition
were state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and affected Asians and many other races. The most important laws required that public schools and most public places have separate facilities for whites and blacks.Jim
Term
Redemption (Redemeers)
Definition
were a great political coalition in the Southern United States during the Reconstruction era, who sought to overthrow the Radical Republican Negro Lovers coalition of Freedmen, carpetbaggers and Scalawags.
Term
Seward's Folly
Definition
the purchase of the Alaskian Territory from Russia by the US
Term
Edward Bellamy
Definition
was an American author, most famous for his utopian novel set in the year 2000, Looking Backward,
Term
"waving the bloody shirt"
Definition
a symbol referring to the gore of the Civil War
Term
Boss Tweed
Definition
was an American politician and head of Tammany Hall, the name given to the Democratic Party political machine that played a major role in New York City politics. He was convicted and eventually imprisoned for stealing millions of dollars from the city through graft.
Term
Chataugua Movement
Definition
John Heyl Vincent and Lewis Miller proposed to a Methodist Episcopal camp meeting that secular as well as religious instruction be included in the summer Sunday-school institute.
Term
"forty acres and a mule"
Definition
is the colloquial term where freed slaves were awarded 40 acres (16 ha) of land to farm, and a mule with which to drag a plow so the land could be cultivated.
Term
Coxey's Army
Definition
was a protest march by unemployed workers from the United States, led by the populist Jacob Coxey.
Term
Chinese Exclusion Act
Definition
was a United States federal law passed that allowed the U.S. to suspend immigration, and Congress subsequently acted quickly to implement the suspension of Chinese immigration.
Term
Andrew Carnegie
Definition
was a Scottish-American businessman, a major and widely respected philanthropist, and the founder of the Carnegie Steel Company which later became U.S. Steel.
Term
Teller Amendment
Definition
stated that when the United States defeated the Spanish Occupants in Cuba, it would give the Cubans their freedom and independent control of their affairs.
Term
Wounded Knee "massacre"
Definition
the last major armed conflict between the Lakota Sioux and the United States; troops ventured too close to the line and shooting broke out resulting in 240 fatalities.
Term
Anti-Saloon League
Definition
it became a national organization and quickly rose to become the most powerful prohibition lobby in America. It drew most of its support from pietistic Protestants and their ministers, especially Methodists, Congregational, Disciples, and Baptists.
Term
Jacob Riis
Definition
a Danish-American muckraker journalist, photographer, and social reformer. He is known for his dedication to using his photographic and journalistic talents to help the less fortunate