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Anthropology
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Anthropology
04/20/2011

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Term
Black English Vernacular (BEV)
Definition
A rule governed dialect of American English with roots in southern English. BEV is spoken by African American youth and by many adults in their casual, intimate speech-sometimes called Ebonics.
Term
Call Systems
Definition
Systems of communication among nonhuman primates, composed of a limited number of sounds that vary in intensity and duration. Tied to environmental stimuli.
Term
Cultural Transmission
Definition
A basic feature of language; transmission through learning.
Term
Daughter Languages
Definition
Languages developing out of the same parent language; for example, French and Spanish are daughter languages of Latin.
Term
Descriptive Linguistics
Definition
The scientific study of a spoken language, including its phonology, morphology, lexicon and syntax.
Term
Diglossia
Definition
The existence of "high" (formal) and "low" (familial) dialects of a single language, such as German.
Term
Displacement
Definition
A linguistic capacity that allows humans to talk about things and events that are not present.
Term
Focal Vocabulary
Definition
A set of words and distinctions that are particularly important to certain groups (those with particular foci of experience or activity), such as types of snow to Eskimos or skiers.
Term
Historical Linguistics
Definition
Subdivision of linguistics that studies languages over time.
Term
Kinesics
Definition
The study of communication through body movements, stances, gestures, and facial expressions.
Term
Lexicon
Definition
Vocabulary; a dictionary containing all the morphemes in a language and their meaning.
Term
Morphology
Definition
The study of form; used in linguistics (the study of morphemes and word construction) and for form in general-for example, biomorphology relates to physical form.
Term
Phoneme
Definition
Significant sound contrast in a language that serves to distinguish meaning, as in minimal pairs.
Term
Phonemics
Definition
The study of the sound contrasts (phonemes) of a particular language.
Term
Phonetics
Definition
The study of speech sounds in general; what people actually say in various languages.
Term
Phonology
Definition
The study of sounds used in speech.
Term
Productivity
Definition
The ability to use the rules of one's language to create new expressions comprehensible to other speakers; a basic feature of language.
Term
Protolanguage
Definition
Language ancestral to several daughter languages.
Term
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
Definition
Theory that different languages produce different ways of thinking.
Term
Semantics
Definition
A language's meaning system.
Term
Sociolinguistics
Definition
Study of relationships between social and linguistic variation; study of language in its social context.
Term
Style Shifts
Definition
Variations in speech in different contexts.
Term
Subgroups
Definition
Languages within a taxonomy of related languages that are most closely related.
Term
Syntax
Definition
The arrangement and order of words in phrases and sentences.
Term
Animism
Definition
Belief in souls or doubles.
Term
Cargo Cults
Definition
Postcolonial, acculturative, religious movements common in Melanesia that attempt to explain European domination and wealth and to achieve similar success magically by mimicking European behavior.
Term
Communal Religions
Definition
In Wallace's typology, these religions have-in addition to shamanic cults-communal cults in which people organize community rituals such as harvest ceremonies and rites of passage.
Term
Communitas
Definition
Intense community spirit, a feeling of great social solidarity, equality, and togetherness; characteristic of people experiencing liminality together.
Term
Leveling Mechanisms
Definition
Customs and social actions that operate to reduce differences in wealth and thus to bring standouts in line with community norms.
Term
Liminality
Definition
The critically important marginal or in-between phase of a rite of passage.
Term
Magic
Definition
Use of supernatural techniques to accomplish specific aims.
Term
Mana
Definition
Sacred impersonal force in Melanesian and Polynesian religions.
Term
Monotheism
Definition
Worship of an eternal, omniscient, omnipotent, and omnipresent supreme being.
Term
Olympian Religions
Definition
In Wallace's typology, develop with state organizations; have full-time religious specialists-professional priesthoods.
Term
Definition
Term
Polytheism
Definition
Belief in several deities who control aspects of nature.
Term
Religion
Definition
Beliefs and riguals concerned with supernatural beings, powers, and forces.
Term
Revitalization Movements
Definition
Movements that occur in times of change, in which religious leaders emerge and undertake to alter or revitalize a society.
Term
Rites of Passage
Definition
Culturally defined activities associated with the transition from one place or stage of life to another.
Term
Rituals
Definition
Behavior that is formal, stylized, repetitive, and stereotyped, performed earnestly as a social act; rituals are held at set times and places and have liturgical orders.
Term
Shaman
Definition
A part-time religious practitioner who mediates between ordinary people and supernatural beings and forces.
Term
Taboo
Definition
Prohibition backed by supernatural sanctions.
Term
What does the word "genba" mean?
Definition
Actual Site
Term
When imported to Tokyo, hip hop moved into all-night clubs, but retained the ethic of ______________.
Definition
The Street.
Term
B-boys and B-girls in Japan have rejected Japanese culture in favor of a quotidian existence that is more in line with global hip hop culture.
Definition
False.
Term
Which category used in the article is more of an umbrella term that encompasses multiple cultural expressions like graffiti?
Definition
Hip Hop
Term

Which of the following is NOT one of the functions of hip hop clubs in Japan mentioned by Ian Condry?
Definition
1. Encountering live performances by Japanese artists
2. Discussing the appropriation of African American culture and organizing political action
3. Listening to the latest releases from American hip hop groups
4. Networking among professionals in the hip hop industry as well as among other like minded individuals

Correct Answer: 2
Term
During what time frame are Japanese hip hop clubs most active?
Definition
1am-4:30am
Term

The cover charge for one of these clubs is approximately _________ USD, which is ___________ as expensive as a movie ticket.
Definition
25; half
Term
What is localization?
Definition
The idea that even in the face of globalization, local identities can thrive and even intensify
Term
What does the phrase "you are what you buy" mean?
Definition
In a capitalist system, the symbols of our identity are commodified and available for us to purchase if that is how we want to portray ourselves to others.
Term
Condry found that the demands of globalization make old methods of data collection, like participating in daily life, obsolete.
Definition
False
Term
Anthropologists are most at home working from the observable aspects of a culture and building narratives from those observations.
Definition
True
Term
Which of the following is NOT one of the things Royce tells us anthropologists should focus on when studying performance?
Definition
What happens when people cannot master the form.
Term
According to Royce, art is....
Definition
...a transformation of the mundane
Term
Performance has always been a big concern for anthropologists.
Definition
False.
Term
Who does Turner credit with shifting the focus of anthropology from studying competence to studying performance?
Definition
Milton Singer
Term
How do traditional genres like ritual and drama make room for variation and improvisation?
Definition
They have both requisite and variable features.
Term
How is Royce using the word "formal" in this chapter?
Definition
As something related to technique [ex. form of a perfect shot].
Term
According to Royce, Sally Ness reflects what movement in anthropology?
Definition
Using embodiment theory as a way to study dance in a larger cultural context
Term
Yvonne Daniel criticized Royce for insisting that dance is a legitimate and sometimes superior way to know a culture.
Definition
False
Term
Who said that we need to shift our focus away from reading the body as text and give due attention to how people use their sense to understand the world?
Definition
Paul Stoller
Term
Candomble is a religion that is predominantly run by men.
Definition
False
Term
What is syncretism?
Definition
The synthesis of 2 or more religions
Term
religious unit devoted to a specific saint
Definition
irmandade
Term
divine being
Definition
orixa
Term
temple
Definition
terreiro
Term
According to Selka, the way politicians and the tourism industry has appropriated Afro-Brazilian religion has led to...
Definition
the religion becoming less powerful as a basis of resisting racism
Term
What functions were served by the original irmandades?
Definition
1.Paying for members' funerals
2.Paying for special masses and festivals
3.Purchasing slaves' freedom
Term
According to Selka, what was Brazil's answer to the "race problem"?
Definition
miscegenation
Term
What state in Brazil has the highest percentage of African-descended residents?
Definition
Bahia
Term
Why does the MNU take issue with the Irmandade da Boa Morte?
Definition
Because they don't take a strong enough stance against racism.
Term
Why is Boa Morte often taken up as a political symbol?
Definition
Because its syncretic nature matches with the national discourse of mesticagem
Term
According to Selka, we should shift our attention away from the essential nature of hybridity to the arena of action. In other words, we should study how people deploy discourses of hybridity in their everyday lives.
Definition
True
Term
Ethnoscience
Definition
Using the people's language to understand their way of thinking. Sees language (Esp. vocabulary) as a window into cognition.
Term
Synthesis
Definition
We speak differently in different contexts. The setting matters, the amount of power people have matters and the level of rapport you have matters. We are experts at tailoring our speech to social contexts.
Term
Dialect
Definition
A regional, ethnic, or class variation of a language that are sufficiently similar to be mutually intelligible.
Term
Form
Definition
Norms of producing or performing a work of art.
Term
Aesthetics
Definition
The appreciation of what is pleasing to the senses.
Term
Virtuosity
Definition
Complete mastery of a finite body of technique.
Term
Animatism
Definition
A supernatural force that does not derive its power from the spirit or the soul. Generalized belief in the supernatural. A force that pervades the world.
Term
3 Stages in Rite of Passage
Definition
Seperation, liminality, reincorporation
Term
Identity
Definition
The sense of self that comes from both individualistic characteristics and group membership, which are always in dialog with the larger social context in which an individual is embedded.
Term
Ethnicity
Definition
An important part of our identity, it unites us with our families and ancestry and it gives us a sense of belonging.
Term
Hypodescent
Definition
A rule that automatically places the child of a union or mating between members of different socio-economic groups in less privileged group. The one-drop rule.
Term
Assimilation
Definition
Process of change a minority group may experience when it moves to a country where another culture dominates; the minority is brought into the main culture to the point that it no longer exists as a separate unit.
Term
Multiculturalism
Definition
The view of cultural diversity in a country as something good and desirable, a multicultural society socializes individuals not only into the dominant (national) culture, but also into an ethnic culture.