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Anthropology 201 Midterm
First people to agriculture
51
Anthropology
02/06/2011

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Term
Bio-cultural approach
Definition
-Bio and culture closely linked
-One can't be explained without the other
EX: meat eating to brain size
Term
Linear time
Definition
Time is human construct that in Western societies goes in a line
Term
Garbology
Definition
What can we learn from our trash?
Term
4 tenets of natural selection
Definition
1) more organisms are produced than can survive
2)organisms within a species vary in their traits
3)Some of this variation is inherited
4)Only the fittest survive
Term
Hominin vs Ape
Definition
Hominins have:
-larger brains
-conspicuous sexual organs
-concealed estrus
-extended infancy
-no opposable toe
-bipedal
Term
Ardipithecus ramidus
Definition
"Ardi"=ground living hominid.
-5.8-4.4 mya
-Ethiopia
Term
Toumai
Definition
tchadensis "the sahara hominin of chad"
-earliest known hominin fossil
-6-7 mya
Term
Australopithecus afarensis
Definition
"Lucy" (Donald Johanson)
-3.9-2.9 mya
-Biped that could swing in trees
Term
Taung Child
Definition
Mosaic of primitive and newer features
-Gracile
-3.5-2mya
Term
Homo traits
Definition
-Brain size>6000cc
-Language (endocast)
-Opposable thumbs
-Stone tools
Term
3 models for acquiring meat
Definition
1)Hunting
2)Active Scavenging-fighting off predators
3)Passive scavenging-taking meat from dead carcasses
Term
Taphonomy
Definition
The study of decaying or fossilized organisms
Term
Olduvai Gorge
Definition
2 mya
-many creatures lived along the lake it used to be
-4000+ bones including hundreds of hominins
-Leakey Legacy
-Processing site?
Term
Homo habilis
Definition
"Handy man" (first stone tool maker)
-2.5mya
-larger brains than Australopithecines
-Oldowan tool culture
Term
Oldowan tool industry
Definition
2.5mya created from river-worn cobbles
-Cores
-Flakes
-Debitage (trash)
-Hammer stones
Term
Matuyama-Brunhes Boundary
Definition
Division b/w lower and middle pleistocene (~780kya)
-Marked by abrupt reversal in magnetic field
-climatic instability
Term
Nariokotome Boy
Definition
Homo ergaster
-had new ligament to support head
-were probably shorter and fatter than we once thought
Term
Sites associated with ergaster, erectus
Definition
-Zhoukoundian, China-"peeking man", fire, lots of bones, one of first erectus
-Atapuecca, Spain-(~900kya), 4 erectus, cannibals, stone tools
Term
Acheulian tools and their global distribution
Definition
-Used by erectus
-more cutting surface
-cleaver + hand ax
--Movius line theory
-loss of hand ax indicated diff selection of raw materials in asia
-or-
-Hominids that went to asia left before africans invented it
Term
Sites associated with archaic Homo sapiens
Definition
Schoningen, Germany-bone tools, schoningen wooden spears
-Borgrove site, England-(500kya), multiple tools, hole in horse same size as spear, more cannibalism
Term
Neanderthal
Definition
150-27 kya
-W. Europe
-Anatomically close to sapiens but larger brains, shorter and more robust
-buried with possessions in flexed positions
-may have interbred
-Mousterian tool tradition-more complex
Term
What differentiates modern humans from other members of our genus?
Definition
more gracile, larger brains
-most diff with behaviors and tech advancement
Term
2 models for human dispersal
Definition
1)Out of Africa/replacement
-humans evolved in africa 2kya then spread to europe (NO INTERBREEDING)
2)Multiregional model
-no single origin for humans
-Transmission of genes among individuals leads to modern humans
Term
Earliest humans (H. Sapiens) in Africa
Definition
160kya, Herto, Ethiopia
-1450cc, tall cranium, non-projecting face
Term
Atlatl
Definition
Spear thing, could throw far and fast
Term
Lascaux Cave
Definition
paintings found w/emphasis on pregnant animals=concern w/fertility?
Term
Qafzeh Cave
Definition
Israel (100kya)
-coexisted w/neanderthal
-evidence of trade
Term
Dolni Vestonice
Definition
Dolni Vestonice, Czech Republic
-800-900 mammoth remains
-100-125 people living there
-increased sedentism
-paralyzed face art
Term
Gravettian Complex
Definition
comprised of several hunter-gatherer societies
-"mammoth killers"
-hunted from a distance
Term
Gravettian Complex
Definition
comprised of several hunter-gatherer societies
-"mammoth killers"
-hunted from a distance
Term
Beringia
Definition
Bering Strait (15-10kya)
-most likely entrance into N. America
Term
Sinodonty
Definition
seen in Asians and Native Americans
-evidence for bering land bridge
Term
Kennewick Man
Definition
8.4kya
-found alone w/tool embedded in pelvis
Term
NAGPRA
Definition
Native American Grace Protection and Repatriation Act (1940)
Term
Folsom
Definition
Bi-face tools
-used for smaller game
-similar to clovis
Term
Clovis
Definition
Tool culture (~11.5kya)
-fluted points (N. America ONLY)
-used for megafauna
-similar to tools used in Europe at the time
Term
Pre-clovis
Definition
Some believe we were in N. America 15-50kya
-Topper site (50kya?)
Term
2 hypotheses for the extinction of megafauna
Definition
1)over kill hypothesis
-But many had already disappeared
2) Climatic Instability
-great variation in mean temps, harder on large animals
Term
Wallace Line
Definition
runs through wallancea, separates the unique flora and fauna of Australia from Asia
Term
Homo floresiensis
Definition
Very short (3.4ft tall)
-stone flakes and tools
-endemic dwarfing from isolation
Term
Mungo footprints
Definition
457 footprints, wider spread toes
-could run very fast
Term
Mungo Lady
Definition
40kya
-first cremated remains
Term
Attributes of complexity (Agriculture)
Definition
higher pop density
-diverse specialized diet
-food storage
-sedentism
-trading
-division of labor
Term
“Garden of Eden” theory vs. Last Resort Theory
Definition
--“Garden of Eden” theory
-Abundance of seafood allowed for sedentism, pop increased
--Last Resort Theory
-Aquatic resources were a last resort caused by pop pressures
Term
5 long-term technological developments
Definition
1)Diminution of toolkits
-gradual downsizing of tools
2)Bow+arrow
-very accurate, portable
3)Specialized tool kit
-tools made for specific tasks
4)Intensive exploitation
-Harvesting of local resources for later use
5)Storage
-Baskets
Term
Subsistence strategies
Definition
1)Horticulture
2)pastoralism
3)agriculture
Term
Domestication
Definition
Domesticated for meat or protection
-first was dog (45-10kya)
-choose animals based on behavior
Term
Cultivation
Definition
Manipulating the reproduction and harvesting of something
Term
Paleoethnobotany
Definition
Study of prehistoric use of plants
Term
Population Pressure Hypothesis
Definition
Farming is much more labor intensive than hunting and gathering
-may have been last resort due to increased populations
Term
Health consequences of domestication
Definition
less healthy diet but softer on the teeth
-infectious disease
-Nutritional deficiencies
-De-generative conditions