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ANTH 111
Midterm
44
Anthropology
02/15/2012

Additional Anthropology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
The birth of anthropology correlates closely with what world event?
Definition
European Colonialism
Term
What is adaption?
Definition
A process by which oganisms develop physiological and behavioral characteristics that allow them to survive and reproduce in their environment.
It is an interaction between changes an organism makes in environment and changes the environment makes in the organism.
Term
How is adaption achieved in humans?
Definition
genetically and physiologically.
By means of natural selection.
Term
What are the steps in the process of human adapation? Are there any other adaptation processes?
Definition
- ecological adaptation
- social adaptation
- psychological adaption

extra:
- spiritual adaptation
- economic adaptation
Term
what are patterns of adaptation also known as?
Definition
also known as patterns of subsistence
Term
what are the patterns of subsistence?
Definition
- foraging (hunting and gathering)
- horticulture (including slash and burn cultivation)
- intensive agriculture
- pasotralism (or herding)
- industrialism (including mechanized agriculture)
Term
what is production?
Definition
patterned and organized activities by which people transform natural resources into things (products) that satisfy their needs/wants.

It is a social activity that involves the division of labour, patterns of cooperation, allocation of rights to resources.
Term
what are the components of production?
Definition
Labour, technology, resources
Term
what is swidden agriculture?
Definition
It is also known as slash and burn. It is an extensive form of agriculture.
Term
Describe the food foraging lifestyle?
Definition
Nomadic culture, moving with the seasons.
small population sizes, under 100 people.
populations stabilize well below the carrying capacity of their land.
rights to resources are flexible.

EGALITARIAN--> populations have few posessions and share what they have (reciprocal sharing) (includes food)
- division of labour by gender
- the camp is the center of daily activity and the place where food is shared
Term
What does affluent mean?
Definition
affluent - have a great lifestyle, not living in poverty, felt enriched in many ways.
Term
what is horticulture? what are the types of horticulture?
Definition
people use mainly or only energy of their own muscles to clear land, turn over the soil, plant, weed, and harvest crops.

types:
- shifting (swidden) -> cultivation (slash and burn)
- dry land gardening
Term
What are the cultural consequences of horticulture?
Definition
- improves productivity of land
- Modifies natural environment
- Requires people to make labour investment into land
- Rights to land are becoming better defined (ownership rights to well-defined parcels of land)
- Introduces sedentary lifestyle
--> storing posessions became possible
Term
Intensive agriculture
Definition
- relies on energy other than human, IE animal energy
- fields are farmed more frequently
- substantial fertilization
- crop rotation
- irrigation
Term
What are the cultural consequences of intensive agriculture?
Definition
- single farm family unit
- surplus produced, which can be used to feed others
- people become politically (inter)dependent
Term
politically interdependent
Definition
When division of labour begins among trades, such as blacksmith, carpenter, basket weavers.
*segregation of labour
Term
What are the cultural consequences of intensive agriculture?
Definition
The development of state and the development of a farming class of peasants.
Term
what is economic activity governed by?
Definition
the scarcity of resources
Term
What is the economic system?
Definition
The pattern by which the goods are produced, distributed and consumed in society.
Term
Who makes up the labour force in an agriculturalist culture?
Definition
Households make up the labor force (children etc.)
households produce more children in order to provide more workers
Term
What is economics?
Definition
Economics - the study of ways in which the choices people make determine their society's use of its scarce resources to produce and distribute goods and services.
Term
production relies on the availability of what?
Definition
Production relies on the availability of basic resources (land, water, raw materials), labour and technology.
Term
What are the foragers right of access to land?
Definition
There is no idea of ownership as of yet.
Term
What are the pastoralists right of access to land?
Definition
Social contract must be completed with land owners.
arrangements may need to be made with authorities.
Term
What are the horticulturalists rights of access to land?
Definition
the right to land is through collective ownership.
*the rights can be transferred within the group. It can only be differentiated within the group!!**
land cannot be sold.
Term
what are intensive agriculturalists relationship to land? what is their ownership?
Definition
right to ownership by right of sale within the limits of the law.
land becomes principle capital.
Term
To say that a society is egalitarian means what?
Definition
That the only status difference is in age and sex.
Term
someone who uses irrigation, fertilizers and plow to produce food on large plots of land are a/an
Definition
intensive agriculturalist
Term
what is a household?
Definition
household - group of people united by kinship or other links who share a residence and organize production, consumption and distribution among themselves.
Term
what are the patterns of work by gender?
Definition
flexible/integrated pattern
rigid segregation pattern
dual sex pattern
Term
describe flexible/integrated pattern of work. Who are they normally?
Definition
- 35% of tasks performed equally by men and women.
- boys and girls grow up in much of the same way and learn to value cooperation over competition.
- usually foragers and horticulturalists
Term
Describe the rigid segregation pattern of work. Who are they normally?
Definition
- almost all work is defined as masculine or feminine
- men and women rarely engage in joint efforts
- children are usually raised by women

usually are pastoral nomadic, intensive agricultural and industrial societies.
Term
Describe the dual sex configuration pattern of work. Who are they normally?
Definition
- Men and women carry out their work separately
- The relationship is one of balanced complementarity rather than inequality.
- each gender managers its own affairs.

typically are some North American Aboriginal cultures, some West African kingdoms.
Term
dual sex configuation is found in what types of societies?
Definition
Present in societies which define themselves by geneological continuity, linking themselves through past members
Term
what are cultigens?
Definition
cultigens are cultivated foods.
Term
What are the primary modes of distributing goods?
Definition
- Reciprocity
- redistribution
- market exchange
Term
What are the types of reciprocity?
Definition
- generalized reciprocity
--> the value of what is given is not calculated and repayment is not specified.
--> usually occurs among close kind, highest degree of moral obligation.

- balanced reciprocity
--> an exchange of goods of nearly equal value with a clear obligation to return them within a specified period of time
--> point is to establish connection within a social group
- negative reciprocity
--> The giver tries to get the better of the deal. (bargaining).
--> unsociable extreme in exchange (theft, gambling, cheating)
Term
Which ways do the necklaces and bracelets move during the Kula ring?
Definition
Necklaces, soulava's, move clockwise through the islands
Bracelets, Mwali, move counter clockwise through the islands
Term
what is redistribution?
Definition
A form of exchange - goods are collected from or contributed by members of a group and then redistributed to the group, often in the form of ceremonial feasts.
typical in:
- household food sharing,
- societies where political organization is the one of chiefdoms,
- state societies, through taxation
Term
What is market exchange?
Definition
An economic system in which goods and services are bought and sold at a money price determined primarily by the forces of supply and demand.
-- impersonal
-- occurs without regard to the social position of the participants
*the most 'purely' economic mode of exchange.
Term
What are the Berdache?
Definition
a "third-gendered" culture that is culturally regulated.
Term
What is endogamy?
Definition
Endogamy - marriage within a group of individuals. Marriage within the kinship group.
Term
Which is better for the evolution of man, endogamy or exogamy?
Definition
Exogamy, marriage outside of your immediate or extended family.
Term
What is exogamy?
Definition
Exogamy - marriage outside the group. Marriage outside of your immediate family or your extended family. **the preferential mode since it generates better genetics.