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ant 2220
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51
Anthropology
07/14/2011

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Term
The term "barter" is used to refer to:
Definition
the direct
exchange of one
commodity for
another
Term
A number of factors have been implicated in the origin of chiefdom societies. Which of the
following is NOT one of these factors?
Definition
development
of a complex
writing system for
record keeping
Term
Large-scale, bureaucratic empires that organized and controlled wide-ranging territories
included:
Definition
the Mayan and
Aztec empires that
ruled over millions
of people
Term
One of the most significant causes of warfare among tribal horticulturalist societies is:
Definition
acquisition of
land
Term
A foraging society depends on __________ for food.
Definition
wild resources
Term
s
The potlatch feasts of the Northwest Coast societies are usually interpreted as a form of:
Definition
redistributional
exchange
Term
Like band societies, tribal societies:
Definition
have
decentralized
political
systems in
which
authority is
vested among
a number of
individuals,
groups, and
associations
Question
Term
The term "gerontocracy" refers to governance by:
Definition
a group of
village elders
Term
Archaeologists and historians have found that most chiefdom societies:
Definition
occupied
areas that were
rich in natural
resources and
conducive to
producing a
Term
In contrast to Paleolithic hunting-and-gathering societies, contemporary band societies exist
only in:
Definition
marginal
environments
Term
A society that is organized into moieties (a terminology derived from the French) has a
particular social organization that structures it into:
Definition
equal halves
with specific
functions
Term
In most tribal societies, rules of descent, marriage, and residence are:
Definition
flexible and
often subject to
lengthy discussion
and negotiations
Term
Individuals who cultivate land for their basic subsistence while paying tribute to a ruling elite
are called:
Definition
peasants
Term
The majority of archaeological studies suggest that life expectancy __________ with the
development of intensive agriculture.
Definition
decreased
Term
A typical __________ consists of two parents and their immediate biological offspring or
adopted children.
Definition
nuclear family
Term
Which of the following was NOT a region in which an ancient agricultural state flourished:
Definition
Australia
Term
The process in which an organism adjusts successfully to a specific environment is called:
Definition
adaptation
Term
Food production, as a subsistence pattern, developed about:
Definition
10,000 to
12,000 years ago
Term
Among the functions of bridewealth is:
Definition
compensation
to her family for
the loss of a
woman's labor
Correct Answer:
Term
Populations of agrarian civilizations grew rapidly because of:
Definition
higher
birthrates
Term
Food storage can directly affect political economy because:
Definition
accumulation of
surplus within
households
results in
differences in
social status
Term
When the descent group of a man transfers some of its wealth to the descent group of a
woman at or around the time of their marriage, this practice is known as:
Definition
bridewealth
Term
One type of "sodality" is defined as:
Definition
an association
of individuals that
cuts across
kinship groups
Term
Compared with hunting and gathering band-level societies, tribal societies are:
Definition
larger, more
sedentary, and
have fairly well
defined territories
Term
Marginal environments often sustain hunting and gathering societies where agricultural
societies cannot exist because:
Definition
foraging
societies have
lower resource
and energy
requirements
Term
A clan is a special kind of descent group whose members are defined by:
Definition
common
descent from
unknown or
sacred beings,
such as special
animals or
plants
Term
An important component of social structure is status, or the recognized position that a person
occupies within society. Societies recognize two kinds of status, one attached to a person
from birth called __________ status and the other based on a person's specific actions called
__________ status.
Definition
ascribed /
achieved
Term
Within any society, an individual occupies a status and plays a __________.
Definition
role
Term
Matrilocal residence:
Definition
requires a man
to reside with his
wife's parents
Term
The most common form of polyandry is __________, in which brothers share a wife.
Definition
fraternal
polyandry
Term
Unilineal descent groups are lineage groups that:
Definition
trace their
ancestry to either
the father's or the
mother's
ancestors
Term
The term shaman is used to designate:
Definition
an
individual who
had the ability
to sicken and
to cure, and
who often
served as
spiritual guide
to chiefs
Term
One of the chief advantages of slash-and-burn cultivation is that it:
Definition
produces food
without complex
technology
Term
Ethnographic research can be very demanding, and often ethnologists experience
psychological stress that results from adjusting to the realities of a society radically different
from their own. This reaction is called:
Definition
culture shock
Term
"Fission" and "fusion" in hunting and gathering societies refer to:
Definition
cyclical
change in
population density
relative to
resources
Term
The first codified laws originated in the Near Eastern civilization of Babylon. Based on
standardized procedures for dealing with civil and criminal offenses, this Babylonian code of
law is known as the:
Definition
Code of
Hammurabi
Term
The transition from foraging to food production:
Definition
leads to
higher mortality
rates, poorer
sanitation, and
decreased life
expectancies
Term
Divorce:
Definition
is easily
accomplished in
hunting-gathering
societies
Term
Which of the following is NOT a function of the family?
Definition
regulation of
statuses, roles,
and gender
Term
The two basic elements of social organization for foraging groups are the:
Definition
nuclear family
and band
Term
The most important belief underlying the practice of having a widow marry one of her
brothers-in-law is that:
Definition
the rights of
the deceased
husband must be
preserved
Term
Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, and Buddhism are considered __________ religions
because their spiritual messages apply to all of humanity rather than to just their own cultural
history and legacy.
Definition
universalistic
Term
Among many tribal societies, sorcery provides a way of explaining
Definition
severe
illnesses and the
spread of disease
Term
The main characteristic shared by all hunting and gathering societies, past and present, is:
Definition
mobility
Term
A common form of generalized reciprocity in our society is:
Definition
getting and
giving birthday
presents
Term
The term "hunter and gatherer" evokes for anthropologists a society:
Definition
whose
economic, social,
and political unit is
the band
Term
Studies of hunter-gatherer groups often include an investigation of the maximum population
that a specific environment can support, or what is called the __________, in order to
understand population change and distribution.
Definition
carrying
capacity
Term
Anthropologists use the term "pastoralists" to refer to peoples who:
Definition
rely primarily
on herd animals,
such as caribou,
cattle, sheep, or
goats
Term
Hunting and gathering societies will sometimes resort to infanticide in order to:
Definition
reduce the
effects of
anticipated food
shortages
Term
Monogamy is the primary form of marriage in most agricultural states. The probable reason
that this pattern is so prevalent is:
Definition
he fact
that in
agricultural
societies
where land is
a scarce
commodity,
peasants
cannot afford
the luxury of
polygyny
Term
Monogamy is the primary form of marriage in most agricultural states. The probable reason
that this pattern is so prevalent is:
Definition
he fact
that in
agricultural
societies
where land is
a scarce
commodity,
peasants
cannot afford
the luxury of
polygyny