Shared Flashcard Set

Details

ANS 311 Principles of Animal Nutrition
Carbohydrates: Types and metabolic processes
45
Agriculture
10/06/2011

Additional Agriculture Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
Glucose
Definition
Building block of many other carbs: Starches, Glycogen, Cellulose. Hexose
Term
Sucrose gets broken down into:
Breaks down via which enzyme:
Definition
glucose and fructose
Sucrase
Term
Lactose gets broken down into:
Breaks down via which enzyme:
Definition
glucose and galactose
Lactase
Term
Maltose gets broken down into:
Breaks down via which enzyme:
Definition
alpha glucose and alpha glucose
Maltase
Term
Cellobiose gets broken down into:
Breaks down via which enzyme:
Definition
beta glucose and beta glucose
Cellobiase
Term
Heteropolysaccharides
Definition
Composed of 5C-6C chains. (pentose,hexose)
Term
Homopolysaccharides
Definition
6C chain (hexose)made from repeating units.
Term
Cellulose
Definition
Can only be broken down by Cellobiase via microbes. Homopolysaccharide. Very stable and strong
Term
Hemicellulose
Definition
Heteropolysaccharide, weaker chain, but still cannot be broken by mammal enzymes.
Term
Types of VFA's produced by ruminants
Definition
Acetic acid, Proprionic acid, Butyric acid
Term
Resistant starch
Definition
Starch that doesn't complete break down. Ferments in the hind gut, producing VFA's
Example: fiber
Term
Causes of rumen acidosis
Definition
Caused by introducing too much grain into the diet. Microbes overproduce too many VFA's, causing a change in pH level in the rumen and killing off the beneficial microbes. Shortage of amylolytic bacteria. Symptoms include sore hooves, low milk fat, diarrhea. Prevented by slowly entering grain into the diet
Term
Causes of lactose intolerance:
Definition
Caused by the absence of lactase enzyme. Undigested lactose in the small intestine is not absorbed and osmotic balance is disrupted, causing constipation and diarrhea. Remaining lactose in the Lg intestine is eaten by microbes, producing excess gas. Treat by avoiding lactose products or take a lactase enzyme.
Term
Benefits of fiber in animal companion diets
Definition
Weight loss/control
Gut health: Reduces constipation, enhances bowel movements.
Term
Differences between starch and cellulose
Definition
Cellulose: harder to break down. Req. microbe enzyme. Beta 1-4 linkage. Found in cell wall of plants.
Starch: Easier to break down. Alpha 1-4 linkage. Found in seed energy storages.
Term
Nutrition
Definition
Relationship of food to the functioning of the living organism. Animal assimilates food, mechanically and chemically and uses it for life processes.
Term
How quality of nutrients fed within the feed diet affect animal products
Definition
You are what you eat. Nutrients fed to the animal are used to enhance the animal, making it able to produce a better product, with less feed and less mess.
Term
6 essential nutrients
Definition
water, vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, proteins, fats
Term
the 3 nutrients that are considered energy
Definition
Proteins, carbohydrates, fats
Term
Proximate analysis
Definition
a method of looking at nutrient % of what is within the feed. Water is taken out, and the remains are divided into organic and inorganic compounds
Term
List the organic and inorganic components in proximate analysis
Definition
organic: protein, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins
inorganic: minerals
Term
Rumen
Definition
Largest part of the stomach. Fermentation vat. Microbe metropolis. Absorption of VFA's, increase surface area via papilae
Term
Reticulum
Definition
Initiates regurgitation. Honeycomb surface. Captures particles microbial fermentation.
Term
omasum
Definition
Food filter. Leaf-like membranes. Sieve large particles and digestive action.
Term
Abomasum
Definition
Glandular stomach. 2nd largest. Chemical (HCL) digestion. Limited enzyme and digestion action.
Term
Examples of monosaccharides (hexose)
*most common sugar in animal nutrition
Definition
Glucose, galactose, fructose
Term
Examples of other monosaccharides (pentose)
*most common sugar in animal nutrition
Definition
Arabinose, Xylose, Ribose
Term
Examples of disaccharides
Definition
Sucrose, lactose, maltose, cellubiose
Term
Examples of oligosaccharides
Definition
Raffinose, Starchyose
Term
Examples of homopolysaccharides
Definition
amylose, amylopectin, glycogen, cellulose, inulin
Term
Examples of heteropolysaccharides
Definition
hemicellulose, pectin
Term
Two forms of starch in plants
Definition
Amylose and Amylopectin
Term
3 dietary factors that affect ruman fermentation
Definition
1. Level of feeding: high starch intake= lower PH
2. Alteration of roughage/concentration ratio: higher in acetic acid, higher pH
3.Alteration of phy. form: Grinding and pelleting
Term
Energy Carrying molecules and their conversions.
Where are they carried to?
Definition
NADH = 3ATP
FADH = 2ATP
GTP = 1ATP
"cashed in" for ATP in the Mitochondria
Term
How to cells get energy(ATP) from glucose?
Definition
Cells use metabolic pathways and enzymes to break down glucose. Gets chemically converted from glucose to ATP.
Term
3 metabolic pathways/cycles
Definition
Glycolysis
Pyruvate dehydrongenase (TCA cycle)
Citric Acid Cycle
Term
Glycolysis
Definition
Occurs in the Cytosol. Energy production
6C glucose --> 3C pyruvate
Cost: 1 glucose molecule, 2 ATP
Produces: 2 pyruvate, 4 ATP, 2 NADH (total: 8 ATP)
Term
PDH
Definition
Enzyme that breaks down glucose to ATP
Links Glycolysis with TCA cycle via Pyruvate--Acetyl CoA. 6 ATP
Term
TCA
Definition
Occurs in the Mitochondria. Most energy production here. More efficient energy production. 24 ATP
Term
Ruminant CHO metabolism
Definition
VFA= primary energy source. Short chain.
Term
Form of starch stored in animals
Definition
Glycogen
Term
End product of carbs for monogastrics
Definition
Glucose
Term
End product of carbs for ruminants
Definition
Glucose and VFA's
Term
Starch
Definition
Alpha-D glucose. Alpha 1,4 linkage (amylase)
1,4 linkage with alpha, 1,6 linkage at branch points (Amylopectin)
Term
Cellulose
Definition
Beta D-glucose + beta D-glucose. Beta 1,4 linkage impossible to split alone. Cellulase can split it.