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Angiosperm Exam 2 Part 2
Vegetative parts of angiosperms (roots, stems, and leaves)
99
Biology
03/31/2010

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Term
duration
Definition
life span of a plant, life history
Term
annuals
Definition
-plants that live for one growing season
-Most energy allocated to flower, fruit
and seed
-make lots and lots of seeds
Term
Biennials
Definition
-plants that live for TWO seasons
-ex: parsley
-First year grow vegetatively
–Second year flower, fruit and seed
Term
perennials
Definition
-plants that live for three or more years
-Survival is key
–focused on own vegetative reproduction
–Sexual reproduction in one season is
not so important, got time to sow some
proverbial wild oats
-a lot of them flower only once a year
Term
habit
Definition
-the general appearance of plants
-varies greatly
Term
trees
Definition
-type of habit
-are woody plants with s single main trunk
-often taller than shrubs
Term
shrub
Definition
-type of habit
-a woody plant
-have multiple main trunks
-often shorter than trees
Term
herbs or herbaceous plants
Definition
-type of habit
-don't have a woody stem
-don't have secondary cell walls
-die back to ground level in winter
Term
Suffrutescent plants
Definition
-a plant with a woody base and herbaceous upper portion
-ex:perennial sunflowers
Term
Lianas
Definition
-a woody climbing plant
-what tarzan swings from
-ex:grapevines, poison ivy
Term
Vines
Definition
-a herbaceous climbing plant
Term
Terrestrials
Definition
-plants that grow in soil
Term
Epiphytes
Definition
plant that growing on another plant, which is used as support
Term
Lythophytes
Definition
-plants that grow on rocks
Term
Monopodial shoots
Definition
-shoots formed through the action of a single apical(top) meristem
Term
apical meristem
Definition
-a group of dividing cells at the growing apex of a stem
Term

Sympodial shoots

 

[image]

Definition

-a shoot formed through activity of a series of axillary meristems that take over the role of the main axis

 

 

Term
Orthotropic stems
Definition
stems that are erect
Term
Plagiotropic stems
Definition
stems that are horizontal
Term
Roots
Definition
-First organ produced by seed
-holds the plant in place
-absorbs water and minerals
-store water and carbs
-could assist in photosynthesis
-
Term

taproot

[image]

Definition
-major root of seed plants -usually enlarged and growing downward
Term
Adventitious roots
Definition
-roots that do not develop from the taproot
-they develop from stems or leaves
Term
Fibrous roots
Definition
-an ex. of adventitious roots
-a root system with roots of more or less equal thickness and often well branched
-Tap root absent or not obvious
Term
Root hairs
Definition
-outgrowths of epidermis
-absorbs water
Term
mycorrhizae
Definition
-symbiotic association of various fungi with roots of vascular plants
Term
prop roots
Definition
-adventitious roots
-usually arising from the basal portion of a trunk and assisting in support of the plant
-ex:corn, mangrove
Term
Pneumatophores
Definition
is a specialized root involved in gas exchange in some mangrove or swamp species; has large air spaces in it
Term
climbing roots
Definition
an example of these roots are posion ivy
Term
Haustoria
Definition
-a parasitic root
-ex.-mistle toe, daughter vine
Term
storage roots
Definition
examples of this kind of root are: carrots, yams
Term
Stems
Definition
the plant axis bearing leaves with axillary buds at the nodes separated by internodes usually above ground
Term
Functions of stems
Definition
– Maximize exposed photosynthetic surface area
– Display flowers and fruits
– Secondary – photosynthesis, storage (water/carbs), climb, protection
Term
Nodes
Definition
region of the stem where the leaf and bud are born
Term
Internodes
Definition
the stem between two adjacent nodes
Term
Internodes
Definition
the stem between two adjacent nodes
Term
Axillary bud
Definition
a bud located in the leaf axil
Term
thorn
Definition
a reduced, sharp-pointed stem
Term
Rhizome
Definition
-a horizontal stem
-often underground or on the surface of the ground
-has scalelike leaves
Term
Corm
Definition
-short,erect, underground, more or less fleshy stem
-covered with thin, dry leaves
-ex: Stapelias
Term
acaulescent plant
Definition
a plant that is apparently stemless
-sometimes the stem is subterranean
Term
caulescent plant
Definition
a plant with a distinct stem
Term
lenticel
Definition
wartlike protuberance on the stem surface involved in gas exchange
Term
scape
Definition
-erect, leafless, stem bearing an inflorescence or flower at its apex
-usually composed of a single, elongated internode
Term
leaves
Definition
-structures that are usually flat, determinate, photosynthetic part of a plant
-born on a branch or stem
Term
blade
Definition
-a flat, photosynthetic portion of a leaf
-aka lamina or leaflets in a compound leaf
Term
petiole
Definition
stalk of a leaf
Term
Adaxial
Definition
"top" of the leaf, faces the stem
Term
abaxial
Definition
"bottom" of the leaf, faces away from the stem
Term
ligule
Definition
adaxial projection from the top of the leaf sheath
ex:in gingers or grasses
Term
sessile
Definition
lacking a stalk
Term
Pulvinus
Definition
-swollen portion of the petiole involved in movement
-usually positioned at the petiole base, but sometimes at the apex
Term
stipules
Definition
-one, usually of a pair of appendages located on either side of (or on) the petiole base
-part of the leaf
Term
bracts
Definition
-a reduced leaf, in the axil of which arises a flower or an inflorescence branch
Term
spines
Definition
-a reduced, sharp-pointed leaf or stipule
Term
succulent
Definition
-fleshy and juicy
Term
tendrils
Definition
-elongated and twining structure (modified from an inflorescence, leaf or stem)
-assists in climbing
Term
climbing stem
Definition
- a type of stem
-ex: Vitis (grape)
Term
bulb
Definition
-a short, erect underground stem surrounded by thick, fleshy, leaves or leaf bases
Term
alternate leaves
Definition
-a pattern of leaf arrangement
-leaves are borne singly (alone) at a node
Term
opposite leaves
Definition
-a leaf arrangement pattern
-two leaves occur at the same node, and are placed on opposite sides of the stem
Term
whorled leaves
Definition
-a pattern of leaf arrangement
-more than two leaves occur at the same node
Term
Pinnately compound leaf
Definition
-a type of compound leaf
-has more than three leaflets
-is attached along two sides of an axis
-"feather-like"
Term
Palmately compound leaf
Definition
-a type of compound leaf
-has more than three leaflets attached to a common point (like the fingers of hand)
Term
Trifoliate leaf
Definition
-is a compound leaf with three leaflets
Term
Unifoliate leaf
Definition
-a compound leaf that through evolutionary reduction has only a single leaflet
-distinguished from a simple leaf by the presence of a pulvinus at the blade-petiole junction
Term
simple leaf
Definition
-a type of leaf
-has just a single blade
Term
Deciduous leaves
Definition
-leaves that fall at the end of the growing season
Term
Evergreen leaves
Definition
-plants are leafy throughout the year
Term
Marcrescent leaves
Definition
-leaves wither but do not fall off during
winter (e.g. white oaks)
Term
midvein
Definition
-aka primary vein
-most prominent vein in a leaf (may not have one)
Term
Secondary veins
Definition
-a type of vein that branches off the primary vein
Term
Teritary veins
Definition
-a type of vein
-link secondary veins which forms a Ladderlike pattern (precurrent or
scalariform) or a netlike pattern (reticulate)
Term
Pinnate
Definition
-a pattern of organization of the major veins
-single primary vein with secondary veins arising along its length like the teeth of a comb
Term
Palmate
Definition
-a type of pattern of organization of the major veins
-Several major veins radiating from a point at the base of the leaf
Term
Parallel venation
Definition
-a major vein pattern of organization
-many parallel veins running the length of the leaf
Term
Ovate
Definition
-a basic leaf shape
-widest near its base
Term
Obovate
Definition
-a type of leaf shape
-widest near the apex
Term
Elliptic
Definition
-a type of leaf shape
-widest in the middle
Term
Oblong
Definition
-a type of leaf shape
-equally wide throughout a large section of the leaf
Term
linear leaves
Definition
-a type of leaf shape
-long and narrow
Term
peltate leaves
Definition
-a type of leaf shape
-have the petiole attached away from the margin/base of the leaf – often in the center
Term
Heterophylly
Definition
a condition wheremore than one leaf shape occurs on the same plant
– Shade/sun leaves
– Mature/juvinile leaves
– Leaves modified for
specific functions
Term
apex
Definition
top of the leaf
Term
base
Definition
-bottom of the leaf
Term
leaf margins
Definition
- the edge of the leaf
Term
lobed margins
Definition
-a type of margin
-has large rounded projections along margin
Term
entire margins
Definition
-with a smooth margin
-lacking any teeth
Term
Revolute
Definition
-rolled to the the abaxial side
Term
Membranous
Definition
-a type of leaf texture
-very thin and delicate
Term
Chartaceous
Definition
-a type of leaf texture
-papery
Term
Coriaceous
Definition
-type of leaf texture
-very thick and leathery
Term
Leaf Indumentum
Definition
-A covering of hairs or other structures that gives the surface of the leaf a certain texture
Term
Trichomes
Definition
-hairs
Term
Glabrous
Definition
-lacking hairs
Term
Pubescent
Definition
-possessing hairs (can be of various
types)
Term
Glaucous
Definition
-means with a waxy covering that imparts a bluish or whitish coloration that can be rubbed off
Term
Domatia
Definition
-means "tiny homes"
-Regions of leaves that house ants or
mites who in turn protect the plant
against herbivory
Term
Ant domatia
Definition
-type of domatia
-tend to be pouch-like and found at the base of the leaf blade
Term
Mite domatia
Definition
-a type of domatia
-tend to be small and found at the junction of veins