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Anesthesia drugs
Anesthesia drugs
29
Veterinary Medicine
02/27/2011

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Cards

Term

 

 

Atropine

 

Definition
  • ANTICHOLINERGIC
  • Prevent/trt bardycardia, hypersalivation
  • Competetively antagonizes ACh
    • decreases vagal tone
    Pros-
    • Crosses the BBB
  • Cons-
    • May cause bradycardia, AV block, ventricular arrhythmias
    • Crosses the placenta!
    • Horse: colic
    • Ruminant: bloat
    • Dog: depression
Term

 

 

Glycopyrrolate

Definition
  • ANTICHOLINERGIC
  • Prevent/trt bardycardia, hypersalivation
  • Competetively antagonizes ACh
    • decreases vagal tone
  • Cons-
    • May cause bradycardia, AV block, ventricular arrhythmias
    • Does NOT cross the BBB
    • Horse: colic
    • Ruminant: bloat
    • Dog: depression
Term

 

 

Acepromazine

Definition
  • PHENOTHIAZINE derivative
  • Use: sedative/tranq; routinely used as preanesthetic
  • Alpha1 blockade => vasodilation, hypotension
  • Pros
    • Lasts for hours, antiemetic, mm. relaxant
  • Cons
    • NO analgesia, slow onset of sedation
    • Permanent penile paralysis in stalions
    • Hypotension (don't use in Boxers)
    • Metabolized by the liver

 

Term

 

 

Droperidol

Definition
  • BUTYROPHENONE
  • Use = sedative/tranq
  • Alpha1 blockade => vasodilation and hypotension
  • Pros
    • mm. relaxation, antiemetic, antiarrhythmic, antihistaminic
  • Cons
    • hypotension, hypothermia, inhibit platelet aggregation, NO ANALGESIA, may lower seizure threshold
    • NOT commonly used in vet med
Term

 

 

Azaperone

Definition
  • BUTYROPHENONE
  • Use = sedative/tranq
  • Alpha1 blockade => vasodilation and hypotension
  • Pros
    • mm. relaxation, antiemetic, antiarrhythmic, antihistaminic
  • Cons
    • hypotension, hypothermia, inhibit platelet aggregation, NO ANALGESIA, may lower seizure threshold
    • NOT commonly used in vet med
Term

 

Xylazine, Detomidine

Definition
  • ALPHA2 AGONIST
  • Use = sedatives/tranqs and preanesthetic
  • Action
    • Alpha2 agonist => mm relaxation
    • Acts centrally => sedation and analgesia
    • Peripheral vasoconstriction, increased BP and HR
  • Pros
    • reduces the dose of anesthetics required; reversible; analgesia
  • Cons
    • 1st or 2nd degree heart block; severe bradycardia; decreased HR and CO; hypertension, resp depression; vomiting; bloat; ileus
Term

 

 

Diazepam

Definition
  • BENZODIAZEPINE
  • Use = reliable preanesthetic in foals, sm.ruminants, rodents and potbelly pigs
    • Preanesthetic and induction
  • Action = enhanced CNS inhibitory NTs; causes mm. relaxation
  • Pros
    • minimal CV/pulm effects in SA
  • Cons
    • NO ANALGESIA; poorly water soluble (no IM); may cause nervousness in SA
  • Reversed w/ IM fumazenil
Term

 

 

Midazolam

Definition
  • BENZODIAZEPINE
  • Use = reliable preanesthetic in foals, sm.ruminants, rodents and potbelly pigs
    • Preanesthetic and induction
  • Action = enhanced CNS inhibitory NTs; causes mm. relaxation
  • Pros
    • minimal CV/pulm effects in SA; water soluble (IM=okay)
  • Cons
    • NO ANALGESIA; may cause nervousness in SA
  • Reversed w/ IM fumazenil
Term

 

 

Zolazopam

 

Definition
  • BENZODIAZEPINE
  • Use = reliable preanesthetic in foals, sm.ruminants, rodents and potbelly pigs
    • Preanesthetic and induction
  • Action = enhanced CNS inhibitory NTs; causes mm. relaxation
  • Pros
    • minimal CV/pulm effects in SA; water soluble (IM=okay)
  • Cons
    • NO ANALGESIA; may cause nervousness in SA
  • Reversed w/ IM fumazenil
Term

 

 

 

Butorphanol

Definition
  • OPIOID
  • Uses = analgesic; CNS depression
  • Kappa agonist
  • Pros
    • Good analgesic; CV sparing; reduces dose of subsequent anesthetic
    • Great sedation in dogs; short acting
  • Cons
    • Resp depression; causes excitement in cats and horses; can cause histamine release, ADH release
  • Will reverse activity of mu agonists
Term

 

 

 

Buprenorphine

Definition
  • OPIOID
  • Uses = analgesic; CNS depression
  • Partial mu agonist
  • Pros
    • Good analgesic; CV sparing; reduces dose of subsequent anesthetic
    • Great sedation in dogs; long acting
  • Cons
    • Resp depression; causes excitement in cats and horses; can cause histamine release, ADH release
  • Difficult to reverse with Naloxone
Term

 

 

 

Hydromorphone

Definition
  • OPIOID
  • Uses = analgesic; CNS depression
  • Pure mu agonist
  • Pros
    • STRONG analgesic; CV sparing; reduces dose of subsequent anesthetic
    • Great sedation in dogs; medium duration
  • Cons
    • Resp depression; causes excitement in cats and horses; can cause histamine release, ADH release
    • Cats = HYPERthermia
Term

 

 

 

Morphine

Definition
  • OPIOID
  • Uses = analgesic; CNS depression
  • Pure mu agonist
  • Pros
    • STRONG analgesic; CV sparing; reduces dose of subsequent anesthetic
    • Great sedation in dogs; medium duration
  • Cons
    • Resp depression; causes excitement in cats and horses; can cause histamine release, ADH release
  • Will reverse activity of mu agonists
Term

 

 

 

Fentanyl

Definition
  • OPIOID
  • Uses = analgesic; CNS depression
  • Pure mu agonist
  • Pros
    • STRONG analgesic; CV sparing; reduces dose of subsequent anesthetic
    • Great sedation in dogs; VERY short acting
  • Cons
    • Resp depression; causes excitement in cats and horses; can cause histamine release, ADH release
  • Will reverse activity of mu agonists
Term

 

 

 

Methohexitol

Definition
  • BARBITUATE
  • Use= injectable anesthetic, sedative, anxiolytic, relaxant, anticonvulsant
    • Induction
  • Causes GABA receptors to go w/out GABA
  • Pros
    • high quality anesthesia; well-rounded
  • Cons
    • be careful of OD (coma)
    • *NO reversal agent; not as smooth recovery
Term

 

 

 

Thiopental

Definition
  • BARBITUATE
  • Use= induction agent
  • CNS depression by interacting with GABA receptors
  • Pros
    • in SA, use w/ Propofol to induce (esp with head trauma); well rounded
  • Cons
    • Ultra-short acting; resp depression; very alkaline; initial spike in BP/HR and then CV depression; crosses placenta; DEA level 3 controlled substance; metabolized in the liver; NO reversal; careful of OD!
Term

 

 

 

Ketamine

Definition
  • DISSOCIATIVE ANESTHETIC
  • Activation of the cortex, depression of the thalamoneocortical system; increased sympathetic tone
  • Pros
    • profound analgesia; increases HR, BP, CO
  • Cons
    • CNS excitation instead of depression - seizures
    • hypersalivation; poor visceral analgesia; mm. rigidity; apnea
    • NO reversal agen; eyes stay open/dilated
Term

 

 

 

Tiletamine

Definition
  • DISSOCIATIVE ANESTHETIC
  • Activation of the cortex, depression of the thalamoneocortical system; increased sympathetic tone
  • Pros
    • profound analgesia; increases HR, BP, CO
  • Cons
    • lack of control of anesthetic depth and duration
    • CNS excitation - seizures, mm.rigidity
    • poor visceral analgesia
    Sold in a 1:1 combo with Tiletamine
Term

 

 

 

Propofol

Definition
  • NON-barbituate
  • Used for induction and anesthesia
  • Acts on GABA receptors => CNS depression
  • Pros
    • Rapid acting; ultra short; rapid extra-hep metabolism 
    • no cardiac arrhythmias
  • Cons
    • Expensive; must be used within 6 hours of opening
    • No reversal agent
    • CV/Pul depression
Term

 

 

Guaifensin

 

Definition
  • NON-barbituate
  • Used for induction and anesthesia
  • Central acting mm. relaxant - - blocks impulses at SpCord/brain stem
  • Pros
    • Minimal CV effects
  • Cons
    • No reversal agent
    • Irritating to tissues
    • Decreases resp tidal volume
Term

 

 

 

Etomidate

Definition
  • NON-barbituate
  • Used for induction and anesthesia
  • Acts on GABA receptors => CNS depression
  • Pros
    • Rapid acting; ultra short; rapid extra-hep metabolism 
    • no cardiac arrhythmias
    • Minimal CV effects
  • Con
    • Lack of control of anesthetic depth/duration
    • Expensive; IV ONLY; depresses adrenocorticotropic functions
Term

 

 

 

Alfaxalone

Definition
  • NON-barbituate
  • Used for induction and anesthesia - NOT avail. in US
  • Acts on GABA receptors => CNS depression
  • Pros
    • Rapid acting; ultra short; rapid extra-hep metabolism 
    • no cardiac arrhythmias
    • IM or IV = not painful
  • Cons
    • lack of control of anesthetic depth
Term

 

 

 

Pentobarbital

Definition
  • BARBITUATE
  • Used for induction and anesthesia
  • Acts on GABA receptors => CNS depression
  • Pros
    • Rapid acting
    • 45-90 minute duration
    • no cardiac arrhythmias
Term

 

 

 

Phenobarbital

Definition
  • BARBITUATE
  • Used for induction and anesthesia
  • Acts on GABA receptors => CNS depression
  • Pros
    • Rapid acting
    • 8-12hr duration
    • no cardiac arrhythmias
Term

 

 

 

General info on inhalant anesthetics

Definition
  • Iso, Sevo, Des, NO
  • Produces general anesthesia (unconciousness, analgesia, hyporeflexia) in ALL species
  • MAC = min alveolar [] (ED50)
  • Pros
    • Allows controlled dose; eliminated by lungs
    • rapid induction and recovery
    • mm. relaxation
  • Cons
    • Must be given with O2; NOT analgesic at low doses
    • can cause hypotension and resp depression
  • 1Tc=63%; 2Tc= 86%; 3Tc=95; 4Tc=98%
Term

 

 

 

Isoflurane

Definition
  • INHALANT ANESTHETIC
  • MACs
    • 1.3% (dog), 1.63% (cat), 1.31% (horse)
  • Pros
    • All species = rapid induction and recovery
    • Easy on kidneys (decrease RBF and GFR)
    • No hepatocellular damage; inexpensive
  • Cons
    • Resp depression (decreases tidal vol, resp rate; increases PaCOs)
    • CV depression: decreased CO and BP; vasodilation
    • produces Carbon monoxide in absorbent
Term

 

 

 

Sevoflurane

Definition
  • INHALANT ANESTHETIC
  • MACs
    • 2.34% (dog), 2.58% (cat), 2.34% (horse)
  • Pros
    • All species = rapid induction and recovery
    • Better odor
  • Cons
    • Resp depression (decreases tidal vol, resp rate; increases PaCOs)
    • CV depression: decreased CO and BP; vasodilation
    • produces "Compound A" in absorbent
    • can be nephrotoxic
Term

 

 

 

Nitrous oxide

Definition
  • INHALANT ANESTHETIC
  • MACs
    • 200% (dog), 255% (cat), 190% (horse)
  • Pros
    • All species = rapid induction and recovery
    • Minimal CV effects; enhanced takeup of 2nd gas
  • Cons
    • Low potency (MAC = 200%)
    • diffusion hypoxia if recovered on room air
    • diffuses into closed gas spaces
Term

 

 

 

Desflurane

Definition
  • INHALANT ANESTHETIC
  • MACs
    • 7.2% (dog), 9.8% (cat), 7.23% (horse)
  • Pros
    • All species = rapid induction and recovery
    • Lower B/G = faster; Lower fate/B coefficient = quicker recovery
  • Cons
    • requires expensive equipment
    • CV depression