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Ancient Greece
The dates of important events from the Delian League to the Battle of Issus
25
Classics
12/18/2007

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Term
Delian League
Definition

What:  The league formed by Athens and surrounding allies, originally to defeat the Persians ore thoroughly than after they had been after the battle of Plataea.  Eventually became corrupted and ruled over by Athens.

Where: Attica and Ionia

When: 454 B.C.E., league treasury moved from Delos to Athens

Significance:  Slowly formed into the Athenian Empire, one of the most powerful hegemonies that ever ruled over Greece.

 

Term
Peace of Callius
Definition

What:  A treaty between Delian League and Persia, effectively ending the Persian War, and orchestrated by Callius, a politician at the time

Significance:  Ended the war and gave freedom to all Greek cities on the Ionian coast

When: 449 BCE

Where:  Athens, Ionian Coast

Term
Megarian Decree
Definition

What:  Economic sanctions placed upon Megara because of “trespass upon the land of Demeter”

Significance:  Really was meant to kill the Megarian economy by snuffing out all their trade—no trading in Athenian harbors—and help Athens.  One reason Sparta became angry.

When: 432 BCE

Where: Isthmus of Corinth

Term
Pericles
Definition

What: An Athenian statesman who contributed significantly to Athen’s history.  He promoted the construction of the Parthenon of Athena on the Acropolis

Where: Athens

When: 429 B.C.E. died of plague

Significance:  Turned Delian League into Athenian empire, promoted democracy, lead Athens in “Time of Pericles.”  Built up large wall, moved people inside to protect from Sparta, himself died of plague.

Term

Battle of Sphacteria

Definition

What:  A made of fail battle in which the Spartans were pussies and surrendered to Cleon and Demothenes after being trapped with no hope of victory on Sphacteria

Where:  A small island in the lower area of the Peloponnese

When:  425 B.C.E.

Significance:  Shook the Greek world, as the Spartans were never supposed to surrender.  Also, the Athenians used the captured Spartans as pawns, saying they’d kill them if Sparta entered the mainland.  Sparta stopped attacking.  Drove Athens into heightened battle fervor.

Term
Cleon
Definition

What:  Athenian statesman who was unpopular during Pericles’ reign, but took over once he was dead.  Proposed executing all of the rebels at Mytilene, doubles the tribute of “allies” and was a general in the battle of Sphacteria, taking captured Spartans to Athens

Where:  Athens, Sphacteria

When: 422 B.C.E., killed at Amphipolis

Significance:  Drew the Athenian Empire to new heights of Imperialism

Term

Thucydides

Definition

What:  A Greek historian who recorded many important and factual events from the Peloponnesian war

Where: From Attica, but exiled

When: History up to 411 B.C.E.

Significance:  Recorded the war in an impartial and scientific manner, and was around when it was happening

Term

Battle of Mantinea

Definition

What: A battle between Sparta and her allies against Athens and Argos in the Peloponnesian War

Where: Close to Mantinea, which is in the Peloponnese in central Arcadia

When: 418 B.C.E.

Significance:  The Spartans won, and imposed harsh sanctions upon the allies.  The battle showed Spartan supremacy with their hoplite warriors and raised their moral.  Right before disaster of Sicilian Expedition

Term
Nicias
Definition

What:  cautious, aristocratic, Athenian statesman who desired peace and established the temporary Peace of Nicias, had many victories, and became severely ill as he led the doomed Sicilian Expedition

Significance:  Caused Athens to be defeated, but made remarkable progress in other areas, and attempted to bring peace

When: 417 BCE, Hyperbolos exiled

Where: Executed at the Sicilian gates in 413 BCE

Term

Alcibiades

Definition

What: Influential and proud statesman who engineered the Sicilian Expedition, ran away to Sparta after mysteries scandal, ran away from Sparta after an affair with Spartan king’s wife to Persia.  Came back to Athens, but was defeated at Notium by Lysander.

Significance:  His removal + others = defeat of Athens.  However, his treachery also = defeat of Athens, started 3rd part of war

When: 415, Sicilian Expedition

Where: Athens, Sparta, Persia, Athens

Term

Sicilian Expedition

Definition

What:  A disastrous expedition promoted by overconfident Athenians.  Originally led by Nicias and Alcibiades, but Nicias was soon alone, and way too timid to take initiative

Where: Syracuse

When: 415-413 B.C.E.

Significance:  Pwnd Athens very badly, and Nicias was killed outside of the city he had sieged for such a long time. Delian League members rebel, Athens in panic.  Beginning of end.

Term
Lysander
Definition

What:  cold general who led Sparta to hegemonial victory over Greece.  Fought at battle of Aegospotami and won.

Significance:  Assisted the Spartans in destroying the hegemony of Athens, and burned out Athen’s walls in the end, taking it over.

When: 404, blockaded Piraeus until Athenians surrendered

Where: Sparta, fought battles on Ionian coast and in Attica

Term
Battle of Aegospotami
Definition

What:  A sea battle that took place Ionian Greece between the Spartans and the Athenians

Significance: Was the last major battle, and completely destroyed the remaining Athenian fleet.  After this battle, the Athenians could no longer fight.

When: 404 BCE

Where: Ionian coast, at the mouth of a small river going into the Hellespont

Term
King's Peace
Definition

What: A treaty that ended the Corinthian War

Where: Susa, where negotiated with Persians

When: 387 B.C.E

Significance:  Gave the Persians more control, because they gained much of their land back, until the age of Alexander the Great, and Spartans held control over the Greek political system from now on

Term

Phoebidas

Definition

What:  Spartan general who, unadvised, took over the city of Thebes, and was relieved of his command for it

Where:  Thebes, from Sparta

When: 382 B.C.E., took Thebes

Significance:  Although he had acted against orders, the Spartans did not punish him, because he benefited Sparta, and kept control of Thebes

Term
Sphodrias
Definition

What:  Lulzy guy who failed.  Tried to take Athens without the orders of Sparta, but misestimated his march and ended up being caught.

Where:  Outside Athens, in Attica

When:  379 B.C.E.

Significance:  Athens was furious, and demanded his death.  However, his son was gay with the king’s son and he was allowed to live.  Athens was so pissed they formed an alliance with Thebes.

Term

Pelopidas

Definition

What:  An aristocratic Theban commander who switched sides when the Agaves saved his life and Sparta invaded his homeland

Where: Leuctra, great victorious battle against Spartans, in command

When:  379 B.C.E., his surprise and secret attack on the Spartans inside Thebes succeeds, and he gets his city back from the invaders.

Significance:  Heavily assisted the rise of Theban hegemony and the destruction of Spartan power.

Term

Second Athenian Confederacy

Definition

What: A confederacy of various city-states and Athens, who were attempting to oppose Sparta’s growing power in the Peloponnese and elsewhere.  A treaty was written up to present Athens from taking control, unlike with the Delian League

Where:  Controlled from Athens

When: 378 B.C.E – founded

Significance:  Opposed Sparta’s power, attempting for “freedom” in Greece, until Sparta’s defeat.

Term

Demosthenes

Definition

What:  The most famous and well-known Greek orator of all time

Significance:  Argued in favor of fighting Philip II, and stood up for Greece as a collection of independent city-states

When:  347 B.C.E.  Went to discuss with Philip and include him into the council of the League

Where: Athens

Term

Epaminondas

Definition

What: An influential Theban statesman who led Thebes during its hegemony, freed helots of Messenia.

Where: Thebes

When:  371 B.C.E., peace talks fail, battle commences

 Significance:  Lead the battle of Leuctra, destroying Spartan hegemony.  Campaigned for freedom of Boeotians, but overall increased the likelihood Greece would eventually be subjugated

Term
Battle of Leuctra
Definition

What:  A battle fought between the Spartans and the Thebans, who were lead by Epaminondas, severely outnumbered.  It was mainly due to Sparta attempting to keep its hegemony and Thebes attempting to expand its influence.

Significance:  Ended Spartan hegemony, their king Cleombrotus died.  Caused brief Theban hegemony

When: 371 BCE

Where: Leuctra, in Boeotia

Term

Peace of Philocrates

Definition

What:  A peace treaty between Phillip II’s Macedon and the city-state of Athens, which eventually collapsed.

Significance:  Helped Athens have time to regroup, however, the peace fell through in 344 BCE

When:  346 BCE

Where:  In Pella, capital of the Macedonian empire

Term

Battle of Chaeronea

Definition

What:  Battle of Macedon vs Athens and Thebes, which was the greatest victory of Phillip II.  Theban band massacred.

Significance:  Caused Phillip to win Grecian Hegemony and signaled the end of independent city-states

When: 338 BCE

Where: Chaeronea in Boeotia

Term
Battle of Issus
Definition

What: A significant battle between the Persians and the Macedonians, in which an outnumbered Alexander of Macedon defeated Darius III’s enormous army

Significance:  It was the end of Persian power.  Darius fled, and Alexander found it much easier to maneuver his troops through Persian territory.  First time a Persian army defeated with the king in battle

When: 333 BCE

Where: Issus, in southern Anatolia

Term

Proskynesis

Definition

What: The idea of bowing/prostrating yourself to your emperor/ruler in the Persian context, often included kissing on the cheek or hand

Where:  Persia, Babylon

When: around 320s B.C.E., Alexander proposed his subjects do the same to him

Significance:  Caused the Greeks to believe that the Persians worshipped their king, which was false.  They disapproved of the practice…and it did not go over well when Alexander adopted it.