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Anatomy & Physiology 33 - Endocrine
Review of the Endocrine System and related Hormones.
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Biology
09/05/2010

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Term
Where is Thymosin produced?
Definition
Thymosin is produced in the Thymus.
Term
What does Thymosin target?
Definition
Thymosin targets white blood cells.
Term
What is the effect of Thymosin on its intended target?
Definition
Thymosin helps build a healthy immune response.
Term
What is the result of a lack of Thymosin?
Definition
Hypo-thymosin results in an inability for the body to develop complete immune protection.
Term
What hormone is produced in the Thymus Gland?
Definition
Thymosin is produced in the Thymus Gland.
Term
What hormones are produced by the Gonad Glands?
Definition
Estrogen and Progesterone are produced in the Ovaries, and Testosterone is produced by the Testes.
Term
What hormone is produced by the Pineal Gland?
Definition
Melatonin is produced by the Pineal Gland.
Term
What does Melatonin target?
Definition
Melatonin targets body cells.
Term
What is the effect of Melatonin on its intended target?
Definition
Melatonin inhibits GnRH secretion, helps regulate sleep cycles, and decreases cellular activity.
Term
What is the result of a lack of Melatonin?
Definition
Hypo levels of Melatonin is associated with an increased risk of suicide.
Term
What hormones are produced by the Pancreas?
Definition
Insulin and Glucogen are produced by the Pancreas.
Term
What causes production of Glucagon?
Definition
Glucagon is produced by alpha-cells in the Pancreas in response to a drop in the bodies blood sugar levels.
Term
What does Glucagon target?
Definition
Glucagon targets body and liver cells.
Term
What is the effect of Glucagon on its intended target?
Definition
Glucagon triggers body cells to signal the liver to break down glycogen into glucose. The end result is an increase of blood sugar levels.
Term
What causes production of Insulin?
Definition
Insulin is produced by beta-cells in the Pancreas in response to an increase in blood sugar levels.
Term
What does Insulin target?
Definition
Insulin targets body cells.
Term
What is the effect of Insulin on its intended target?
Definition
Insulin causes body cells to bring glucose into their cellular compartments. Insulin stimulates the liver to process glucose into glycogen.
Term
What is the eventual result of Insulin on the body?
Definition
Insulins eventual result is a decrease in blood sugar levels.
Term
What does hypo-insulin levels result in?
Definition
Hypo-insulin levels result in Diabetes Mellitus.
Term
What are normal blood sugar levels?
Definition
Normal blood sugar levels are 90mg/100ml.
Term
Where are Androgens produced?
Definition
Androgens are produced in the Adrenal Glands.
Term
What do Androgens target?
Definition
Androgens target fetal cells.
Term
What is the result of Androgens on their intended targets?
Definition
Androgens stimulate the production of steroid hormones in the fetus. This results in hair and testicular development.
Term
What can be caused by increased Androgen production?
Definition
Increased Androgen production can result in digestive problems in infants.
Tumors causing Adrenal Hyperplasia are now checked for at birth.
Term
Where is Cortisol produced?
Definition
Cortisol is produced in the Adrenal Glands.
Term
What organs are in the Endrocrine System?
Definition
The following organs make up the Endocrine System: Posterior Pituitary (Hypothalamus), Anterior Pituitary, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal Glands, Pancreas, Pineal Glands, Gonads, and the Thymus.
Term
What hormones are secreted from the Posterior Pituitary?
Definition
The Posterior Pituitary creates and secretes Oxytocin and Anti-diuretic Hormone.
Term
What does Oxytocin target?
Definition
Oxytocin targets the smooth muscle cells of the uterus and the lactating breast.
Term
What is the effect of Oxytocin on it's targeted cells?
Definition
Oxytocin causes contractions in the uterine walls and milk to drop in the lactating breast.
Term
What can Oxytocin be given for in a medical setting?
Definition
Oxytocin can be given to start contractions during the labor process.
Term
What is the target of Anti-diuretic Hormone?
Definition
Anti-diuretic Hormone targets cells in the kidneys.
Term
What causes Anti-diuretic Hormone to be released?
Definition
Anti-diuretic Hormone is released in response to a high blood osmolality.
Term
What is the reaction of Anti-diuretic Hormone on its intended target?
Definition
Anti-diuretic Hormone causes a decrease in uric volume, an increase in uric osmolality, a decrease of blood osmolality, and an increase in blood volume.
Term
What can improper ADH production show up as?
Definition
Improper ADH production can show up medically as Diabetes Insipidus, this will display in the patient as frequent urination.
Term
What hormones are produced by the Anterior Pituitary?
Definition
The Anterior Pituitary produces Growth Hormone, TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone), ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic Hormone), LH&FSH, and Prolactin.
Term
What does Growth Hormone target?
Definition
Growth Hormone targets connective tissues in the bones and the cartilage.
Term
What is the reaction of Growth Hormone on its target?
Definition
Growth Hormone causes an increase in protein synthesis, a decrease in protein breakdown, an increase in tissue growth, an increase in fat breakdown, an increase in glucose storage, and a decrease in glucose usage.
Term
What happens if the body does not produce enough Growth Hormone?
Definition
Too little Growth Hormone results in Pituitary Dwarfism.
Term
What happens if the body produces too much Growth Hormone?
Definition
Too much Growth Hormone results in Giantism, and eventually Acromegally when the epiphysial plates fuse and cause bone deformations and a decreased life span.
Term
What is the target of TSH?
Definition
TSH targets the Thyroid.
Term
What is the reaction of TSH on its target?
Definition
TSH stimulates the thyroid gland to increase metabolism, increase body temperature and produce thyroxine.
Term
What can be a medical cause of decreased TSH?
Definition
Decreased TSH can be caused by Graves Disease. In this disorder an autoimmune immunoglobin imitates TSH and causes an over stimulation of the thyroid gland and hyper secretion of the thyroid hormones.
Term
What does ACTH target?
Definition
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone targets cells in the Adrenal Glands.
Term
What is the effect of ACTH on its target?
Definition
When ACTH is released it causes its targeted cells in the adrenal gland to produce cortisol and other hormones.
Term
What are LH&FSH active in?
Definition
LH&FSH are active in the production of sperm and oocytes.
Term
What does Prolactin target?
Definition
Prolactin targets cells in the mammary glands.
Term
What is the effect of Prolactin on the cells that it targets?
Definition
Prolactin causes the synthesizing of breast milk in the mammary glands.
Term
What hormones are produced in the Thyroid?
Definition
The Thyroid produces T3&T4(Thyroxine) and Calcitonin
Term
What is targeted by Thyroxine (T3-T4)?
Definition
Thyroxine targets body cells.
Term
What is the effect of Thyroxine on its target?
Definition
Thyroxine causes an increase in cell metabolism.
Term
What is the effect of Thyroxine on its target?
Definition
Thyroxine causes an increase in cell metabolism.
Term
What can be a medical reason for an increase of Thyroxine?
Definition
An elevated Thyroxine level can present as Graves Disease.
Term
What is the medical term for a lack of Thyroxine?
Definition
The lack of Thyroxine is called Hypothyroidism.
Term
What can result from a lack of iodine?
Definition
A lack of iodine can result in improper thyroxine intake, which causes the formation of a goiter or growth on the Thyroid gland.
Term
What does Calcitonin target?
Definition
Calcitonin targets bone cells.
Term
What is the reaction of Calcitonin on its target?
Definition
Calcitonin causes bone cells to absorb excess calcium from the blood stream, resulting in a decreased blood calcium level.
Term
What causes the release of Calcitonin?
Definition
The release of Calcitonin is caused by increased blood calcium levels.
Term
What hormone does the Parathyroid produce?
Definition
The Parathyroid produces the Parathyroid Hormone.
Term
What does Parathyroid Hormone target?
Definition
Parathyroid Hormone targets bone cells.
Term
What causes the release of Parathyroid Hormone?
Definition
Parathyroid Hormone is released in response to a decreased blood Calcium level.
Term
What is the reaction of Parathyroid Hormone on its target?
Definition
Parathyroid hormone causes an increase in blood calcium levels by triggering osteocytes to break down bone. In response to this breakdown calcium and phosphate ions are released, calcium absorption is increased, vitamin D is activated and calcium reabsorption is increased.
Term
What hormones are made in the Hypothalamus?
Definition
The Hypothalamus produces Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone, Thyroid Releasing Hormone, Cortisone Releasing Hormone, and Gonadatropin Releasing Hormone.
Term
What Hormones are created in the Anterior Pituitary?
Definition
The Anterior Pituitary creates Growth Hormone, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone, Adrenocorticotropic Hormone, and FSH&LH.
Term
What does Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone stimulate?
Definition
Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone stimulates the release of Growth Hormone from the Anterior Pituitary.
Term
What does Thyroid Releasing Hormone stimulate?
Definition
Thyroid Releasing Hormone stimulates the release of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone from the Anterior Pituitary.
Term
What does Cortisone Releasing Hormone stimulate?
Definition
Cortisone Releasing Hormone stimulates the release of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone from the Anterior Pituitary.
Term
What does Gonadatropin Releasing Hormone Stimulate?
Definition
Gonadatropin Releasing Hormone stimulates FSH&LH to be released from the Anterior Pituitary.
Term
What hormones are made in the Adrenal Gland?
Definition
The Adrenal Gland produces epinephrine/norepinephrine, cortisol, aldosterone and androgens.
Term
What does Epinephrine/Norepinephrine target?
Definition
Epinephrine/Norepinephrine targets the heart, lungs and nervous system.
Term
What causes the production of Epinephrine/Norepinephrine?
Definition
Epinephrine/Norepinephrine is triggered by stress when ACTH is released from the Anterior Pituitary.
Term
What is the result of Epinephrine/Norepinephrine on its target?
Definition
The end result is an increased heart rate and increased respiration.
Term
How long does Epinephrine/Norepinephrine stay in the bodily system?
Definition
Epinephrine/Norepinephrine has a very quick response time and in accordance a very short half life.