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Anatomy Orbit and Eye
KYCOM Block 3
120
Anatomy
10/22/2012

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Term
what does the orbit contain
Definition
eyeball, extraocular muscles, nerves, blood vessels, fat, lacrimal gland
Term
how is the orbit shaped
Definition
pyrmidal
Term
what direction is the base and apex of the orbit located
Definition
base is in front apex is in back
Term
what is the roof of the orbit
Definition
orbital plate of the frontal bone
Term
what is the lateral wall of the orbit
Definition
zygomatic bone and greater wing of sphenoid
Term
what is the floor of the orbit
Definition
orbital plate of maxilla
Term
what does the floor of the orbit seperate
Definition
orbital cavity from maxillary sinus
Term
what is the medial wall of the orbit
Definition
frontal process of maxilla, larcimal bone, orbital plate of the ethmoid, body of sphenoid
Term
what is another name for the oribtal plate of the ethmoid
Definition
lamina propriocia
Term
what is the larcimal bone
Definition
small bone at the corner of the eye
Term
what is the function of the eye lid
Definition
protect from injury and excessive light
Term
which eye lid is larger, what is its other feature
Definition
upper, more mobile
Term
what are the corners of the eye called
Definition
medial and lateral angle
Term
what is the opening between the eyelids called
Definition
palpebral fissure
Term
where is the opening to the conjunctival sac located
Definition
palpebral fissure
Term
what is the deep surface of the eyelid covered by
Definition
mucous membrane called conjunctiva
Term
how are eyelashes arranged
Definition
in double or triple rows
Term
where are eyelashes located
Definition
mucocutaneous junction
Term
where are the sebacous glands of the eyelid located, what is their function
Definition
open into eyelash follicles to lubricate them
Term
what is a tarsal gland
Definition
modified sebacous gland
Term
where do tarsal glands open into
Definition
margin of eyelid behind the eyelashes
Term
what do tarsal glands secrete, what is the function
Definition
oily substance that prevents overflow of tears (during normal situations)
Term
what does the tendon of the levator palpebrae superioris muscle connect
Definition
levator palpebrae superiorus to obcularis oculi muscle
Term
where does the conjunctiva reflect, onto what
Definition
superior and inferior fornices onto the eyeball
Term
what is the epithelium of the conjunctiva continous with
Definition
the cornea
Term
what is the cornea located over
Definition
iris
Term
what does the conjunctiva form, where does it open
Definition
potential space that opens into the palpebral fissure
Term
what occurs at the bulbular conjunctiva covering the sclera
Definition
where the conjunctiva converge with eye
Term
what are the eyelids supported by
Definition
orbital septum
Term
what gives the eyelid its structure
Definition
orbital septum
Term
what does the orbital septum attach to
Definition
periosteum at the orbital margins
Term
what are the tarsal glands embedded in
Definition
tarsal plates
Term
what does the larcimal gland consist of
Definition
large orbital part and small palpebral part that are continous
Term
where is the larcimal gland located
Definition
above eyeball in the upper lateral and anterior aspect of the orbit
Term
what does the larcimal gland open into
Definition
lateral part of the superior fornix of the conjunctiva
Term
where do parasympathetic fibers come from that are going to the larcimal gland
Definition
larcimal nucleus of the facial nerve to the petrygopalatine ganglion via the greater petrosal nerve and nerve of the pterygoig canal, they leave the canal and join branches of V3, postganglionic fibers reach the gland via the larcimal nerve
Term
where do sympathetic fibers that innervate the larcimal gland come from
Definition
internal carotid plexus, join deep petrosal nerve, nerve of the pterygoing canal, zygomatic nerve, and larcimal nerve
Term
what are the branches of V3
Definition
zygomatic nerve and zygomaticotemporal nerve
Term
what does parasympathetic innervation do to the larcimal gland
Definition
increase tears
Term
what does sympathetic stimulation do to the larcimal gland
Definition
decrease tears
Term
where do tears cross then accumulate
Definition
cross cornea and accumulate in lacus lacrimalis
Term
after tears enter the larcimal lacrimalis where do they go
Definition
larcimal canliculi
Term
after tears enter the larcimal canliculi where do they go
Definition
pass medially and open into larcimal sac
Term
where is the larcimal sac located
Definition
in larcimal groove behind medial palpebral ligament
Term
what is the larcimal sac part of
Definition
upper blind end of the nasolarcimal duct
Term
where does the nasolarcimal duct begin
Definition
lower end of the larcimal sac
Term
where does the nasolarcimal duct decend to
Definition
downward in a bondy canal and opens in the inferior meatus of the nose
Term
where does the optic nerve enter the orbit
Definition
optic canal
Term
what accompanies the opric nerve in the orbit
Definition
opthalmic a
Term
what is the optic nerve surrounded by
Definition
meningeal sheaths of pia mater, arachnoid, and dura mater
Term
what does the optic nerve pierce, where
Definition
sclera and point medial to posterior pole of eyeball
Term
what occurs at the point where the optic nerve fuses with the sclera
Definition
meninges fuse
Term
what happens when there is a rise in pressure in the eyeball
Definition
CSF is contained in the subsrachnoid space around the optic nerve so pressure in the cranial cavity is transmitted to the back of the eye ball
Term
what passes through the superior orbital fissure, what does it supply
Definition
opthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve, supplies orbit
Term
what does the opthalmic division of the trigeminal divide into
Definition
frontal, larcimal, and nasociliary
Term
what does the frontal nerve divide into
Definition
supratrochlear and supraorbital
Term
what does the frontal nerve supply
Definition
skin of forehead and mucous membrane of frontal sinus
Term
where does the larcimal nerve pass
Definition
forward along upper border of lateral rectus muscle
Term
what is the larcimal nerve joined by
Definition
branch of the zygomaticotemporal nerve
Term
what does the zygomaticotemporal nerve do after joining the larcimal nerve
Definition
leaves to enter the larcimal gland
Term
what fibers does the zygomaticotemporal bring to the larcimal gland
Definition
parasympathetic
Term
what does the larcimal nerve supply
Definition
skin of lateral part of upper eye lid
Term
where does the oculomotor nerve enter the orbit
Definition
through lower part of the superior orbital fissure
Term
what are the divisions of the oculomotor nerve
Definition
superior and inferior
Term
what does the superior branch of the oculomotor nerve supply
Definition
superior rectus and levator palpebrae superioris muscles
Term
what does the inferior branch of the oculomotor nerve supply
Definition
inferior rectus, medial rectus, and inferior oblique muscles
Term
where does the nerve to the inferior oblique come from
Definition
oculomotor nerve
Term
what does the branch of the nerve to the inferior oblique supply, how does it get there, what type of fibers
Definition
ciliary ganglion which carries parasympathetic fibers to the sphincter pupillae and ciliary muscle
Term
where does the trochlear nerve enter the orbit
Definition
upper part of the superior orbital fissure
Term
where does the abducens nerve enter the orbit
Definition
lower part of the superior orbital fissure
Term
describe the path of the nasociliary nerve to the orbit
Definition
crosses above optic nerve, runs forward along upper margin of medial rectus muscle, divides into anterior ethmoid and infratrochlear nerves
Term
what are the branches of the nasociliary nerve
Definition
communicating branch of ciliary ganglion, long ciliary nerves, anterior ethmoidal, infratrochlear
Term
what fibers does the communicating branch of the ciliary ganglion contain
Definition
sensory
Term
what fibers do the long ciliary nerves contain
Definition
sympathetic
Term
what do the long ciliary muscles innervate
Definition
dilator pupillae muscle
Term
what do the long ciliary muscles pierce
Definition
sclera of eyeball
Term
what does the posterior ethmoidal nerve supply
Definition
ethmoidal and sphenoidal air sinuses
Term
what does the infratrochlear nerve pass
Definition
forward below the pulley of the superior oblique muscle
Term
what does the infratrochlear nerve supply
Definition
medial part of upper eye lid and adjacent part of nose
Term
describe the path of the anterior ethmoidal nerve
Definition
passes through the anterior ethmoidal foramen and enters the anterior cranial fossa, enters the nasal cavity
Term
what does the anterior ethmoidal nerve supply
Definition
mucosa of nasal cavity, nose down to tip
Term
what is a branch of the anterior anterior ethmoidal nerve
Definition
external nasal branch
Term
what does the external nasal branch of the anterior ethmoidal nerve supply
Definition
nose to tip
Term
what is the opthalmic artery a branch of
Definition
internal carotid
Term
where does the opthalmic artery enter the orbit
Definition
optic canal
Term
where does the opthalmic artery enter the eye
Definition
at the center of the optic disc
Term
what do the muscular branches of the opthalmic artery supply
Definition
extraocular muscles
Term
what do the cilliary arteries divide into
Definition
anterior and posterior groups
Term
where do the cilliary arteries anterior enter the eyeball
Definition
near the corneoscleral junction
Term
what do the posterior cilliary arteries anter the eyeball
Definition
near the optic nerve
Term
whaat does the larcimal artery supply
Definition
larcimal gland
Term
what does the superior opthalmic vein communicate with
Definition
facial vein
Term
what does the inferior opthalmic vein communicate with
Definition
inferior orbital fissure with the petrygoing venous plexus
Term
what do the opthalmic veins drain into
Definition
cavernous sinus
Term
what fibers does the ciliary ganglion have
Definition
parasympathetic
Term
how big is the ciliary ganglion
Definition
size of pin head
Term
where is the ciliary ganglion located
Definition
posterior part of orbit
Term
what does the ciliary ganglion recieve
Definition
parasympathetic fibers from the oculomotor nerve via the nerve to the inferior oblique
Term
where do postganglionic fibers from the ciliary ganglion go
Definition
short ciliary nerves which enter back of eyeball
Term
what do the short ciliary nerves innervate
Definition
sphinctor pupillae and ciliary muscle
Term
what is the best place for vision in the eye
Definition
macula densa
Term
what does contraction do to the pupil
Definition
open it
Term
what is the ciliary muscle stimulated by, what does it cause it to do
Definition
parasympathetic, contract, see up close
Term
what does elevate mean in reference to the eye
Definition
look up
Term
what does depress mean in reference to the eye
Definition
look down
Term
what are the extraocular muscles
Definition
superior oblique, medial rectus, inferior rectus, levator palpebrae superioris, superior rectus, lateral rectus, superior tarsus, inferior oblique
Term
what anchors most of the extraocular muscles
Definition
common tendenous ring
Term
what are the movements of the extraocular muscles
Definition
extorsion, intorsion, medial, lateral, adduction, abduction
Term
what is extorsion
Definition
looking to the outer corner (up or down)
Term
what is intorsion
Definition
looking to the inner corner (up or down0
Term
what is abduction
Definition
looking away from the nose
Term
what is adduction
Definition
looking towards the nose
Term
what muscles would cause one to look up and to their right
Definition
inferior oblique and superior rectus
Term
what muscles would cause one to look up with both eyes
Definition
superior rectus and inferior oblique
Term
what muscles would cause one to look up and to their left
Definition
superior rectus inferior oblique
Term
what muscles would cause one to look to their right
Definition
lateral and medial rectus
Term
what muscles would cause one to look to their left
Definition
lateral and medial rectus
Term
what muscles would cause one to look down and to the right
Definition
superior oblique, inferior rectus,
Term
what muscles would cause one to look down
Definition
superior oblique, inferior rectus
Term
what muscles would cause one to look down and to the left
Definition
superior oblique, inferior rectus,