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Anatomy 2 - Respiratory
The Respiratory System
34
Science
02/25/2011

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Term
What is the main function of the respiratory system?
Definition

The function of the respiratory system is to deliver air to the lungs. Oxygen in the air diffuses out of the lungs and into the blood, while carbon dioxide diffuses in the opposite direction, out of the blood and into the lungs. Respiration includes the following processes:

 

  • Pulmonary ventilation is the process of breathing—inspiration (inhaling air) and expiration (exhaling air).

  • External respiration is the process of gas exchange between the lungs and the blood. Oxygen diffuses into the blood, while CO2 diffuses from the blood into the lungs.

  • Gas transport, carried out by the cardiovascular system, is the process of distributing the oxygen throughout the body and collecting CO2 and returning it to the lungs.

  • Internal respiration is the process of gas exchange between the blood, the interstitial fluids (fluids surrounding the cells), and the cells. Inside the cell, cellular respiration generates energy (ATP), using O2 and glucose and producing waste CO2.

Term
What are the four processes of respiration?
Definition

  1. Pulmonary ventilation is the movement of air into and out of the lungs (breathing).
  2. External respiration is the exchange of O2 (loading) and CO2 (unloading) between blood and alveoli (air sacs).
  3. Transport of respiratory gases between lungs and tissues.
  4. Internal respiration is gas exchange between blood and tissue cells.

Term
What are the differences between the respiratory and conducting zone?
Definition

The difference between the respiratory and conducting zones is their function: the conducting zone transports the air into and out of the lungs; the respiratory zone allows gas exchange between the lungs and the blood.

Term
What is the major function of the nose?
Definition

1.Airway for respiration
2.Moistens & warms entering air
3.Filters & cleans inspired air
4.Resonating chamber for speech
5.Houses olfactory receptors

 

the main function of the nose is to help us breathe. When we inhale through our nose, air passes through our nostrils into a short and narrow area known as the nasal passage that leads to the back of the throat (pharynx), and on down into the windpipe and lungs. From there it continues throughout the respiratory system.

 

It helps filter air using nasal hairs so particles do not reach our lungs.

 

We are able to smell as the air flows through the nose and over structures called turbinates in the nasal cavity. The turbinates slow the air and direct it toward the olfactory epithelium, where odor molecules reach olfactory receptor neurons that send electrical impulses to our brain. 

Term
What is the major function of the paranasal sinuses?
Definition

the biological role of the sinuses is debated, but a number of possible functions have been proposed:

  • Decreasing the relative weight of the front of the skull, and especially the bones of the face.
  • Increasing resonance of the voice.
  • Providing a buffer against blows to the face.
  • Insulating sensitive structures like dental roots and eyes from rapid temperature fluctuations in the nasal cavity.
  • Humidifying and heating of inhaled air because of slow air turnover in this region.

Term
What is the major function of the pharynx?
Definition

The main function of pharynx is to act as a common passage for both food and air. Thus the pharynx should channel food without choking. Pharynx plays a major role in the first phase of swallowing. As the food bolus is pushed by the tongue into the pharynx, it pushes the food down by muscular contraction down the esophagus.

The other important function of Pharynx is to equalize pressure that gets built near the ear drums. This is made possible by the two eustachian tubes (one from each ear) that connect the middle ear with pharynx.

Nasophraynx: Solely for air.

Oropharynx & Laryngopharynx: Passage for food and air

 

Term
What is the major function of the larynx (voice box)?
Definition

The main function is to prevent choking. 

 

Secondary is voice production.

Term
What is the major function of the epiglottis?
Definition
To prevent food and drink from falling down the airway. The epiglottis, a flap at the base of the throat, touches the back of the tongue and opens when swallowing occurs. It allows food and drink to safely pass into our digestive system. Failure of epiglottis functioning results in choking or a drink "going down the wrong way." This simply means that food or drink has been taken into the respiratory system by mistake, and it must be coughed up
Term
What is the major function of the trachea?
Definition
The function of the trachea is to maintain and protect the air way. It's lined with mucus glands which is humidifying as the air passes through it and catches the small particles before they enter. Trachea is supplied by nerves that are part of the cough reflex that helps get rid of irritation.
Term
What is the major function of the bronchi?
Definition

The bronchi, or bronchus is where the air entering the lungs are sent to each lung. The bronchioles are smaller airways that send the air on to the inside walls of the lungs where the alveolia allow the oxygen to be absorbed by the blood cells and oxegenate the blood for transfer throughout the body.



Term

What is the value of cilia & mucus in the respiratory system passages?

Definition

cilia are tiny hairs that protect the nasal passageways and other parts of the respiratory tract, filtering out dust and other particles that enter the nose with the breathed air. As air is inhaled, the cilia move back and forth, pushing any foreign matter (like dust) either toward the nostrils, where it is blown out, or toward the pharynx, where it travels through the digestive system and out with the rest of the body's waste.

 

In the lungs, mucus functions to smooth the airways linings and traps foreign substances that invade the respiratory system. When foreign substances make their way into the lungs they will be coughed out instantly.

Term

 

How is sound (your voice) produced?

 

Definition
The voice box contains the two vocal cords. They are strips of material that are next to each other, edge to edge. When air comes up from the lungs, through the trachea, it passes through the vocal cords. When you choose to make a sound, the air causes the vocal cords vibrate, and the sound continues up and out through the mouth.
Term
What type of tissue forms the larynx? What is the benefit?
Definition

Connection tissue called hyaline cartilage forms the larynx. 

 

The function of hyaline cartilage is to provide flexible support. It has great tensile strength (due to the collagen) and is highly resistant to pressure (due to the ground substance)

Term
How and why are the left and right lungs different?
Definition

Even though they may look alike in pictures or diagrams, our lungs have a difference, and that is in its number of lobes. The left lung is composed of only two lobes, separated midway by an interlobular fissure. Basically, these lobes are named according to their position in reference to the fissure, thus named superior and inferior lobes.

The right lung, on the other hand, has three lobes still separated by a fissure. It is comprised of a superior lobe, middle lobe, and inferior lobe. This makes it different from the left lung.

The anatomical reason for the difference between the left and right lungs is to leave room in the chest for the heart, while the actual developmental reason is genetic cues set up in the embryo before the lungs form that tell the left lung to branch less and grow less than the right.

 

Term
In regrards to the respiratory member of the alveoli, what are the 2 types of cells?
Definition

Alveolar walls are composed of single layer of squamous epithelium (type I cells)
Scattered type II cuboidal cells secrete surfactant & antimicrobial proteins

Term
What is the importance of surfacant? What happens if infants are born too early?
Definition

Surfactant reduces surface tension. Without surfactant, the wet surfaces of the alveoli in your lungs would stick together and your lungs would not be able to expand - so, you would not be able to breath.
 

Insufficient quantity in premature infants causes infant respiratory distress syndrome

Term
Define visceral and parietal pleura
Definition

Thin, double-layered serosa
Parietal pleura on thoracic wall & superior side of diaphragm
Visceral pleura on external lung surface
Pleural fluid fills pleural cavity & provides lubrication & surface tension

Term
What is atmospheric pressure? How is this related to breathing? And what does it mean to have negative and positive respiratory pressure?
Definition
Term
What is transpulmonary pressure?
Definition

Transpulmonary pressure is a term used to describe the difference between the alveolar pressure and the intrapleural pressure in the lungs. During human ventilation, air flows because of pressure gradients.

 

760 mm Hg

–756 mm Hg

= 4 mm Hg = value

 

Term
What is intrapleural pressure?
Definition

Intrapleural pressure is the pressure difference between the lungs and the pleural cavity of the lungs.

 

756 mm Hg

(–4 mm Hg) = value

 

Term
What is intrapulmonary pressure?
Definition

Pressure within the lungs. Causes the lungs the lungs to remain slightly inflated after expiration.


Pressure within the alveoli of the lungs.

 

760 mm Hg

(0 mm Hg) = value

 

Term
What 3 factors can influence breathing?
Definition

1. Airway Resistance

(Friction is major source of resistance to gas flow)

 

2. Alveolar surface tension

(Surface tension – attraction of liquid molecules to one another

Alveolar film contains surfactant Detergent-like lipid & protein complex that reduces surface tension of alveolar fluid) 
                              3. Lung Compliance
          (Lung compliance - ability of lung to extend. Can be influences by inflammation)
Term

What is the relationship between flow, pressure, & resistance?

Definition
Pressure = Flow x resistance. (akin to Ohm's law: Voltage = current x resistance)

Resistance is mostly determined by the contractile state of the arterioles, which are the resistance vessels. Capillary resistance also contributes.
Term
What is tidal volume?
Definition

            Amount of air inhaled or

           exhaled with each breath

            under resting conditions

 

average male AND female  = 500 ml

Term
What is dead space?
Definition

dead space is air that is inhaled by the body in breathing, but does not take part in gas exchange. Not all the air in each breath is able to be used for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. About a third of every resting breath has no change in O2 and CO2 levels. In adults, it is usually in the range of 150 mL.[a]

Because of dead space, taking deep breaths more slowly (e.g. ten 500 mL breaths per minute) is more effective than taking shallow breaths quickly (e.g. twenty 250 mL breaths per minute). Although the amount of gas per minute is the same (5 L/min), a large proportion of the shallow breaths is dead space, and does not allow oxygen to get into the blood.

Dead space can be enlarged (and better envisaged) by breathing into a long tube. Even though one end of the tube is open to the air, when one inhales, it is mostly the carbon dioxide from expiration. Using a snorkel increases a diver's dead space in the airways.

Term
Compare and contrast internal and external respiration.
Definition

External respiration is the exchange of gases between the alveoli and lung capillaries. Oxygen diffuses from the alveoli into the blood, while carbon dioxide moves from the blood in the alveoli. Internal respiration, in contrast, is the exchange of gases in body tissues.

 

External respiration is the exchange if oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood and air in the lungs, and internal resparation is the exchange of gases between blood cells of the body.

Term
what is ventilation-perfusion coupling?
Definition

matching of alveolar ventilation & pulmonary blood perfusion.

 

'coupling between amount of gasreaching alveoli & blood flow in pulmonary capillaries; local autoregulation'

 


Term
What are 3 ways CO2 is transported in the body?
Definition

CO2 is transported in the blood in 3 forms:
1.Dissolved in plasma (7-10%)
2.Bound to globin of hemoglobin (20%)
3.Transported as bicarbonate ions (HCO3) in plasma (70%)

Term
What is hypoxia?
Definition
Hypoxia is low oxygen supply to the body's tissues/cells.

Many underlying conditions could cause insufficient oxygen supply.

These conditions usually affect the red blood cells (the 'carriers' of oxygen). Apart from heavy or prolonged bleeding, where red blood cells are lost, - either red blood cells aren't produced enough, or they are destroyed more quickly then could be produced. 
Term
What is COPD?
Definition

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
Exemplified by chronic bronchitis & emphysema
Irreversible decrease in ability to force air out of lungs
Other common features:
History of smoking in 80% of patients
Dyspnea: labored breathing (“air hunger”)
Coughing & frequent pulmonary infections
Most victims develop respiratory failure (hypoventilation) accompanied by respiratory acidosis

Term
What is asthma?
Definition

Characterized by coughing, dyspnea, wheezing, chest tightness
Active inflammation of airways precedes bronchospasms
Airway inflammation is an immune response
Airways thickened with inflammatory exudate magnify the effect of bronchospasms

Term
What is tuberculosis?
Definition

Infectious disease caused by bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Symptoms include: fever, night sweats, weight loss, a racking cough, & spitting up blood
Treatment entails a 12-month course of antibiotics

Term
What is lung cancer?
Definition

Leading cause of cancer deaths in North America
90% of all cases are result of smoking
3 most common types
1.Squamous cell carcinoma (20–40% of cases) in bronchial epithelium
2.Adenocarcinoma (~40% of cases) originates in peripheral lung areas
3.Small cell carcinoma (~20% of cases) contains lymphocyte-like cells that originate in the primary bronchi and subsequently metastasize

Term
What is the pathway of air?
Definition
air - nasal cavity - nasopharynx -oropharynx - larynopharynx - larynx - trachea - bronchi - bronchioles - alveoli