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Anatomical Kinesiology Exam 1
Anatomical Kinesiology Exam 1
82
Anatomy
02/17/2009

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Cards

Term

Kinesiology

Definition
The study of human movement
Term

Why Study Kinesiology?

*3 Fold Purpose

Definition

Safety

Eeffectiveness

Efficiency

Term

Qualitative vs. Quantitative

methods of study, what are the differences?

Definition

Quantitative is labratory based

 

Qualitative is more real world based, such as in a gym.

Term

3 elements of Kinesiological Analysis

D E P

Definition

Describing

Evaluating

Perscribing

Term

4 step outline

D A M P

Definition

Describing motor skills

Anatomical analysis

Mechanical analysis

Perscription for improvement

Term
Anatomical Analysis
Definition

Joint action and segment motion

 

muscle participation and the neuromuscular mechanisms involved.

Term
Simultaneous vs. Sequential motion
Definition

Simultaneous:Various body segments move as one

 

Sequential:Use of body segments in an orderly sequence

Term
Functions of the Skeletal System
Definition

Support, Protection, and an intracate system of levers

 

Term
Axial Skeleton
Definition

Skull, Vertabrea, and Ribs

71 bones

Term
Appendicular Skeleton
Definition

Extremities, Shoulder Girdle, and Pelvis

126 bones

Term
Body Segments
Definition

Trunk: Head, Neck Thorax Abdomen

Upper Extremeties: Arm, Forearm, Hand

 

Lower Extremeties

Thigh, Leg, and Feet

Term
Spatial & Directional Terms
Definition

Dorsal/Posterior=Back   Ventral/Anterior=Front

Superior=Top

Inferior=Bottom

Proximal=Closer to body

Distal=Away from body

Medial=inside

Lateral=outside

 

Term
Types of Bones
Definition

Long

Short

Flat

Irregular

Sesamoid

Term

Typical Boney Features

pt. 1

Definition

Diaphysis: Shaft

Epiphysis: Ends of long bones

Cancelleous:Spongey trabecular

Epiphyseal Plate: Growth plate, thin cartilage seperating Diaphysis & Epiphysis

Term

Typical Boney Features

pt. 2

Definition

Cortex: Dense bone forming walls of Diaphysis

Periosteum: Fiberous membrane covering Diaphysis

Endosteum: Lines inside of Cortex

Medullary: Marrow cavity

Term
Bone Properties
Definition

60-70% of dry bone weight is calcium carbonate/phosphate

 

25-30% of dry bone weight is collagen

 

25-30% of total bone weight is water

 

Term
Mechanical Axis of a Bone
Definition
Straight line that connects midpoint of the joint at one end of bone with midpoint of the joint at the other end
Term
3 Major Joint Classifications
Definition

Synarthrodial: No Movement

 

Amphiarthrodial: Slightly Moveable

 

Diarthrodial: Versatile

Term
Name the 6 Synovial Joints
Definition

1. Ball & Socket

2. Condyloid/Elliptical

3. Gliding Joint

4. Hinge Joint

5. Pivot Joint

6. Saddle Joint

Term
D.O.F. stands for.....
Definition
Degree of Freedom
Term

Stability

Definition

The resistance to displacement

Term
Flexibility
Definition
Range of Motion
Term
Three main planes
Definition

Sagital

Frontal

Transverse

Term
Three main axis
Definition

Transverse

Anteroposterior

Longitudial

Term
Name the 3 types of muscle
Definition

Smooth

Cardiac

Skeletal

Term
What is the main function of skeletal muscle
Definition
Movement and Posture
Term
Macrostructure of the Muscle
Definition

Muscle belly-

Epimysium-

Perimysium-

Fasciculus-

Endomysium-

Single Muscle Fiber-

Sarcoplasm-

Sarcolemma-

Myofibril

Term
Sliding Fillament Theory
Definition

Muscle contraction causes cross bridges to

grab and pull/rotate on the Actin. This pulls

Z lines closer together exerting

muscular force.

Term

I-SO Fibers

Definition
Slow twitch fibers
Term
IIA-FOG Fibers
Definition
Fast twitch fibers
Term
Tendon
Definition

Continuation of connective tissue

surrounding muscle

Gradual increase in stiffness from muscle

to bone

Term
Bursa Sacs
Definition

Little pockets of sunovial fluid that surround

tendons to pad them

Term
Line of Action
Definition

Effect of force occurs here.

Must be offset from joint center

force is equally distributed at both ends

Term
7 Fiber Arrangements
Definition

Strap

Fusiform

Tricipital

Triangular

Uipennate

Bipennate

Multipennate

Term
Concentric Muscle Contraction
Definition
Muscle shortens during action
Term
Ecentric Muscle Contraction
Definition

Muscle is trying to shorten,

but is pulled apart instead

Term
Isometric Muscle Contraction
Definition

Muscle tries to shorten but

external load equals force

so no shortening action

or contraction occurs

Term
Isotonic
Definition
Same force in muscle throughout activity
Term
Isokinetic
Definition

Muscle shortens or lengthens at

same speed throughout activity

Term
Agonist Muscle
Definition
Muscle that shortens during activity.
Could be passive or active shortening
Term
Antagonist Muscle
Definition

Muscle that lengthens during the

action, could be active or passive

Term
Synergist/Stabalizer Muscle
Definition
Prevents movement at a joint
Term
Neutralizer Muscle
Definition

Acts to prevent undesired

muscle movement at a joint

Term
Do more sacromeres=more force?
Definition
No, it depends more on their arrangement
Term

Sacomeres arranged in series means

they are arranged:

Definition
end to end
Term

Sacomeres arranged in Parallel

means they are arranged:

Definition
side by side
Term
Advantage of Pennation
Definition
Muscle can exert on average more force
Term
Disadvantage of Pennation
Definition
Limited distance of muscle travel
Term

Force Modifiers

Definition

Length (relative to resting length)

Velocity of shortening/lengthening

Activation level

Term
Influences of Gravity
Definition
  • Horizontal movement NOT affected by gravity.
  • Lifting against gravity is a CONCENTRIC CONTRACTION
  • Slower lowering with gravity is an ECENTRIC CONTRACTION
Term
Passive movement
Definition

Muscle changes length, but is

NOT activated by nervous system

Term

Active movement

(2 types)

Definition

1. Slow: Muscle will remain

active throughout motion

 

2.Fast/Ballistic: Muscle will usually

only be active for a short

period of time

Term

Central Nervous System

Definition

Core, axial skeleton

Term
Peripheral Nervous System
Definition
Nerves outside Central Nervous System
Term
Somatic Functions
Definition
Voluntary
Term
Autonomic
Definition
sub-conscious movement/reflexes
Term
3 types of Neurons
Definition

Sensory

Motor

Interneurons

Term
What is a nerve?
Definition

Bundle of Neurons enclosed in connective

tissue known as a sheath

Term
A motor unit is....
Definition

Single motor Neuron and all the fibers

it innervates

10-2000+ fibers

 

(all fibers of the same type and contract together)

Term
Small motor units
Definition

contain few fibers: 10-100

Slow twitch type 1

Fine control

Term
Large motor units
Definition

Many fibers: 1,000+

Fast twitch fibers

Gross movement

Term
Twitch summation implies that....
Definition

Over time stimulation of the muscle will

"plateau" or reach a point known

as "fused" tetanus

Term
Exteroceptors
Definition

Neurons that react to our 5 senses and

the external enviroment

Term
Interoceptors
Definition

React to internal enviromental conditions

Term
Proprioceptors
Definition
Monitor musculoskeletal status
Term
Pancinian Corpuscles
Definition
Monitor change in pressure
Term
Ruffini Endings
Definition
Constant Pressure Levels
Term
Muscle Spindles
Definition
determine muscle length and stretch
Term
Golgi Tendon Organs (GTO)
Definition
Tendon Force
Term
Inner Ear (labyrinthine)
Definition

Balance, Position, and Acceleration

 

Term
Righting Reflex
Definition

Protect Head.

 

If you are falling, want to get head out of harms way, reflex will be to hyperextend or flex the neck

Term

 

Tonic Neck Reflexes

Definition

Protect the Head

Induces hand movement to cover/protect face

Term
Neck Flexion
Definition

Head goes forward,

Pull arms in

Term
Neck Extension
Definition

Head goes back or stays in place

Push arms out

Term
Cataneous Pain Receptors
Definition

Flexor and Crossed Extensor Reflexes 

Skin level.

Upper and Lower extremities

Term
Flexor Reflex
Definition

Withdraw Reflex

Upper & Lower Extremities

Withdraw limb from source of pain

Term
5 Levels of Volational Control
Definition

1. Cerebral Cortex

2. Basal Ganglia

3. Cerebellum

4. Brainstem

5. Spinal Cord

Term
Kinesthesis
Definition
Body awareness and control
Term
Proprioception
Definition

Idea that we know where we are in relation

to joint positioning

Term
Reciprocal Inhibition
Definition

Downregulation of opposite side

pertaining to muscle

Term
Coactivation
Definition
More than one muscle is active
Term
Neuromuscular Analysis
Definition

Part of Anatomical Analysis.

Asessing how you might be able

to make a movement more effective