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Albert Bandura and Walter Mischel
Social Cognitive Theory of Personality:Social/Cognitive Learning
46
Psychology
12/07/2010

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Term
attentional processes
Definition
o Processes that determine what is attended to and therefore what is leaned through observation
Term
behavior-outcome expectancy
Definition
o Belief that acting a certain way in a certain situation will have a certain consequence
Term
chance encounter
Definition
o An unintended, or fortuitous, meeting of persons that has the potential to alter significantly the lives of those involved.
Term
cognitive social person variables
Definition
o Those variables thought by Michel to determine how a person selects, perceives, interprets, and uses the stimuli confronting him or her.
Term
competencies
Definition
o Cognitive social person variable that describes what a person knows and what he or she is capable of doing
Term
consistency paradox
Definition
o According to Mischel, the persistent belief that human behavior is more consistent than is indicated by experimental evidence
Term
delay of gratification
Definition
o Postponement of a small, immediate reinforcer in order to obtain a larger, more distant reinforcer
Term
delayed modeling
Definition
o Refers to the fact that there is often a long delay between when something is learned observationally and when that learning is translated into behavior.
Term
dysfunctional expectancies
Definition
o Expectancies that do not result in effective interactions with the environment.
o Such expectancies can result from inaccurate modeling, from overgeneralization of nonrepresentational personal experience, or from distorted perceived self-efficacy
Term
encoding strategies
Definition
o Cognitive social person variable that determines which aspects of the environment are selected for attention and how those aspects are interpreted by the individual
Term
expectancies
Definition
o Cognitive social person variable that determines how individuals anticipate events in their lives
Term
extrinsic reinforcement
Definition
o Reinforcement that results from sources outside of the person
Term
freedom
Definition
o Within social-cognitive theory, freedom is determined by the number of options available to people and their right to exercise them
Term
human agency
Definition
o Conscious planning and intentional execution of actions that influence future events
Term
interactionist
Definition
o Any theorist who contends it is the interaction of person variables and situation variables that determines behavior at any given moment
Term
intrinsic reinforcement
Definition
o Self-reinforcement
Term
model
Definition
o Anything that conveys information to an observer
Term
model
Definition
o Anything that conveys information to an observer
Term
moral conduct
Definition
o Behavior that is in accordance with internalized moral principles
o When a person acts in accordance with internalized moral principles, he or she experiences self-praise. If not, the person experiences self-contempt.
Term
motivational processes
Definition
o Those processes that determine the circumstances under which learning is translated into behavior
o Such a translation will not occur unless the person has an adequate incentive
Term
motor reproductive processes
Definition
o Those processes that determine what behavior a person is physically capable of performing
Term
observational learning
Definition
o Learning that results from attending to something
o Such learning is said to occur independently of reinforcement
Term
participant modeling
Definition
o Type of modeling that requires the observer to participate in the modeling experience.
o Typically, both the model and the observer engage in activities together that are anxiety-provoking to the observer.
o This type of modeling is generally found to be the most effective
Term
perceived self-efficacy
Definition
o What a person believed he or she is capable of doing
Term
performance standards
Definition
o Those standards that must be met or exceeded before one experiences self-reinforcement.
o If a person’s performance does not meet or exceed a performance standard, he or she experiences self-punishment
Term
person variables
Definition
o Variables contained within the person that determine how he or she responds to a situation
Term
personality coefficient
Definition
o Mischel’s quantification of the amount of consistency found in human behavior.
o He found that the correlation of behavior across time, across similar situations, and between personality questionnaires and behavior was about 0.30. This weak correlation suggested that human behavior was not nearly as consistent as it had been widely assumed to be.
Term
psychotherapy
Definition
o Within social-cognitive theory, any procedure that corrects dysfunctional expectancies.
o Typically, the procedure used is some type of modeling
Term
reciprocal determinism
Definition
o Contention that person variables, situation variables, and behavior constantly interact with one another.
o For example, the person influences the environment, the environment influences the person, and the consequences of one’s behavior change both the person and the environment.
Term
reinforcement
Definition
o Within social-cognitive theory, reinforcement (either direct or vicarious) provided information concerning what behavior will be effective in a given situation
o Also, reinforcement provides an incentive for translating leaning into performance
Term
retentional processes
Definition
o Those processes that determine how experiences are encoded into memory for possible future use
Term
self-control
Definition
o Ability to tolerate a delay in gratification
Term
self-efficacy
Definition
o What a person is actually capable of doing
Term
self-efficacy expectancy
Definition
o Expectancy one has concerning one’s ability to engage in effective behavior
Term
self-exonerating mechanisms
Definition
o Cognitive mechanisms a person can employ to escape the self-contempt that ordinarily results when a person acts contrary to an internalized moral principle
Term
self-regulated behavior
Definition
o Behavior governed by intrinsic reinforcement and punishment
o Self-regulated behavior is often directed at some major future goal that is approached through a series of subgoals
o Once goals are set, an individual organizes his or her life so as to increase the probability of their attainment
o Also, much of a person’s self-directed behavior is determined by his or her perceived self-efficacy
Term
self-regulatory systems and plans
Definition
o Cognitive social learning person variable that determines the circumstances under which an individual experiences self-reinforcement and self-punishment
o This variable also determines the setting of future goals and the formulation of plans (strategies) used in attaining those goals
Term
situation variables
Definition
o Variables in the environment that provide the setting in which person variables manifest themselves
Term
social-cognitive theory
Definition
o Name given to Bandura and Mischel’s theory because of its emphasis on the social and cognitive origins of human behavior
Term
stimulus-outcome expectancy
Definition
o Belief that one environmental event will be followed by another specific event that has been consistently associated with the first event in the past
Term
subjective values
Definition
o Cognitive social person variable that determines under what circumstances a person will translate what has been learned into behavior.
o Subjective values determine what is worth having or aspiring for, and what is not
Term
symbolic modeling
Definition
o Modeling involving something other than a live human, for instance, a film, television, instructions, reading material, or demonstration
Term
symbolic modeling
Definition
o Modeling involving something other than a live human, for instance, a film, television, instructions, reading material, or demonstration
Term
systematic desensitization
Definition
o Therapeutic procedure whereby a client is asked to imagine a series of interrelated anxiety-provoking scenes until they no longer cause anxiety
Term
vicarious punishment
Definition
o Punishment that comes from observing the negative consequences of another person’s behavior
Term
vicarious reinforcement
Definition
o Reinforcement that comes from observing the positive consequences of another person’s behavior