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Advanced Foods
Yeast Breads
60
Other
10/13/2010

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Cards

Term
Baguette
Definition
Bread of French origin, shaped into a skinny loaf
Term
fermentation
Definition
process of yeast acting to breakd own sugars into CO2 gas and alcohol
Term
Scoring
Definition
cutting the surface of an item at regular inervals to allow it to cook evenly, allow excess fat to drain, help the food to absorb marinades, or for decorative purposes
Term
lean dough
Definition

Flour, yeast, salt, water

chewy texture, more bite, crisp crust

Term
enriched dough
Definition

flour, yeast, salt, water, sugar, fat

-introduced fats change dough's texture

-softer, more tender bite

Term
biological leaveners
Definition

microorganisms that release CO2

-must be alive

Term
pick up period
Definition

ingredients are blended on low speed until just combined

-dough is rough mass

Term
clean-up period
Definition

preliminary development

-dough is mixed at moderate speed

-appears somewhat rough

Term
development period
Definition

development of gluten

-dough begins to pull away from sides of mixing bowl

Term
final gluten development
Definition

dough is smooth and elastic

-leaves sides of bowl clean as mixer runs

Term
bulk fermentation
Definition

1st fermentation period

-develops flavor of the bread

Term
folding over
Definition

redistributes available food supply for yeast

-equilizes temp of dough, expels built-up fermentation gases and futher develops gluten

Term
scaling
Definition
creates uniformity of size, proofing, and baking times
Term
preshaping
Definition

gives dough smooth, tight skin that will help trap the gases that develop during fermentation

-allows gluten to relax so dough is easier to manipulate

Term
Flour
Definition

made up of starch and protein

contains amylases

Term
Why wheat/bread flour for breads?
Definition

Higher percentage of protein

higher protein content= higher gluten development

Term
Function of Yeast
Definition

breaks down starch for sugar

-sugar=energy

biological leavener

Term
Function of Fat
Definition

Traps CO2

Increases tenderness

-when melted becomes more mobile

Term
Function of Amylase
Definition
breaks down bonds to get sugar from starch
Term
Why does milk have to be scalded if using it to make bread?
Definition

unscalded milk will break down gluten

-glutathione

Term
Function of liquids in bread making
Definition

manipulates transportation of ingredients (yeast, food)

gelatinizes starch

provides steam

Term
Function of salt in bread making
Definition

adds flavor

favors amylase activity

inhibits proteases

slows CO2 reaction

strengthens polypeptide bonds

Too much is an inhibitor!

Term
Function of sugar
Definition

ready source of eneregy for yeast

mallard reaction (browning)

tenderizer (as it melts)

Greater than 10% sugar by weight is an inhibitor

Term
Function of egg
Definition

Add protein

Improves elasticity of dough

Term
Proofing
Definition
allow yeast dough to rise
Term
proof box
Definition
sealed cabinet taht allows control over temperature and humidity
Term
wash
Definition

made of beaten eggs

-creates glossy, shiny crust and seals in the moisture of the bread

Term
Baking differences for lean and enriched doughs
Definition

lean- baked with steam

enriched- baked at slightly lower temperature

Term
What are some things that affect the baking process?
Definition

Type of oven

size and shape of product

desired crust color and development

length of pan proofing

Term
What reaction occur during the baking process?
Definition

Oven spring

coagulation of protein

gelatinization of starch

Term
key to cooling
Definition
cool rapidly to prevent sour bread
Term
boute
Definition

french for 'ball'

-resembals a squashed ball

Term
banneton
Definition
type of basket used to provide structure for soudough as it proofs
Term
couche
Definition

proofing cloth

-used to proof dough on or under

-course material that dough does not stick to

Term
T/F: Loaves of bread baked with yeast should be wrapped while still warm to preserve moisture
Definition
False
Term
T/F: Lean dough should be baked in a hot oven with steam
Definition
True
Term
T/F: Scoring patterns for oblong loaves are on the loaves' higest points
Definition
True
Term
T/F: In bread production, salt is a flavoring ingredient taht may be omitted without any significant impant on the dough
Definition
False
Term
T/F: To proof yeast, combine yeast with warm liquid and a small amount of flour or sugar
Definition
True
Term
T/F: Wheat flour is the basis for most yeast-raised doughs because it has a low percentage of protein
Definition
False
Term
T/F: Doughs should be left uncovered during bulk fermentation adn covered during proofing
Definition
False
Term
T/F: Egg wash should be applied after preshaping but before resting
Definition
False
Term
T/F: Relatively speaking, yeast doughs may be divided into two categories: unleavened doughs and leavened doughs
Definition
False
Term
T/F: The way a panis prepared depends on the type of dough to be baked
Definition
True
Term
In order for active dry yeast to grow properly, water, milk, or other liquids used in bread formula should fall within a temperature range of:
Definition
105-110°F
Term
What is an appropriate method for preparing a pan for lean dough?
Definition

Directly on hearth

line with parchment paper

dust with cornmeal or semolina flour

Term
What is an appropriate method for preparing a pan for enriched dough?
Definition

line with parchment paper

grease

Term
After the first fermenation period, doughs hould be carefully folded to:
Definition

release carbon dioxide

equalize temperature

redistribute food for yeast

Term
Once the dough is scaled, it should rest briefly before being shaped in order to:
Definition
allow strands of gluten to relax
Term
After bulk fermentation, the dough:
Definition
will have doubled in size
Term
Lean doughs can be produced with only _____, _____, _____, and ______
Definition
flour, yeast, salt, water
Term
Enriched doughs can be produced with _____, ______, _______, _______, _______ and/or ______
Definition
flour, yeast, salt, water, sugar/fat
Term
The viability of yeast may be tested by _____; if no _____ develops, the yeast should be discarded
Definition
proofing, foam
Term
Proof and proofing are terms used to describe both _____ and _____
Definition
fermentation and yeasting using sugar for food
Term
Scale and scaling are terms used to describe both ______ and ______
Definition
measuring ingredients, dividing dough/ingredients by weight
Term
What are the two basi categories of yeast doughs? List typical ingredients
Definition

lean- flour, yeast, salt, water

enriched- lean with fat and/or sugar

Term
What is scoring? Explain how and why it is used.
Definition

Cutting the surface of the dough before baking. Releases built up fermentation gases and allows for the bread to cook evenly.

Also used to distinguish certain types of breads

Term
After the loaves are baked, how should they be handled and why?
Definition
Should be left in pan for final stage of cooking. Then removed from pan to prevent dough from becoming soagy. Cooling should happen rapidly to prevent souring of bread
Term
List the seven basic stages of yeast dough, in order
Definition
Mixing, kneading, fermentation, punching, panning, proofing, baking
Term
When and why is dough folded over? How should it be done?
Definition
After bulk fermentation to redistribute available food sources, equalize temperature, and release CO2. Should carefully fold one side of dough over the other to protect developed structure