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Adolescent Psychology
Book Notes
41
Psychology
02/02/2012

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Term
G. Stanley Hall
Definition
1844-1924
influenced strongly by Darwin. proposed that development is controlled primarily by biological factors.
Term
storm-and-stress view
Definition
Hall's concept that adolescence is a turbulent time charged with conflict and mood swings
Term
Margret Mead
Definition
1928
Studied adolescents on the South Sea island of Samoa. She held a sociocultural view
Term
inventionist
Definition
the theory that the idea of adolescence was a sociohistorical invention at the beginning of the 18th century
Term
stereotype
Definition
a generalization that reflects our impressions and beliefs abuout a broad group of people
Term
adolescent generalization gap
Definition
Adelson's concept of geraliztions about adolescents based on information regarding a limited, often highly visible group of adolescents
Term
positive youth development
Definition
emphasizes the srenths of youth and the positive qualities and developmental trajectories that are desired for youth
Term
5 Cs of PYD
Definition
competence, confidence, connection, character, caring/compassion
Term
contexts
Definition
the settings in which development occurs; these are influenced by historical, economic, social, and cultural factors
Term
social policy
Definition
a national government's course of action designed to influence the welfare of its citizens
Term
development
Definition
the pattern of change that begins at conception and continues through the life span
Term
biological processes
Definition
physical changes in an individual's body
Term
cognitive processes
Definition
changes in ad indevidual's thinking and intelligence
Term
socioemotional processes
Definition
changes in an individual's personality, emotions, relationships with other people, and social contexts
Term
prenatal period
Definition
the time from conception to birth
Term
infancy
Definition
the developmental period that extends from birth to 18 or 24 months of age
Term
early childhood
Definition
the developmental period extending form the end of infancy to about 5-6 years of afe; sometimes called the preschool years
Term
middle and late childhood
Definition
the developmental period extending form about 6-10 or 11; elementary school years
Term
adolescence
Definition
the developmental period of transition from childhood to adulthood; it involves biological, cognitive, and socioemotional changes. 10-late teens
Term
early adolesence
Definition
the developmental period that corresponds roughly to the middle shcool or junior high school years and includes most puberal change
Term
late adolescence
Definition
period that corresponds approximately to the latter half of the second decade of life. career interests, dating, and identity exploration are often more pronounced in late adolescence than in early
Term
early adulthood
Definition
thbegins in late teens or early twenties and lasts through the thirties
Term
middle adulthood
Definition
starts in mid thirties to about mid sixties
Term
late adulthood
Definition
60 or 70- to the end of life
Term
resilience
Definition
adapting positievely and achieving successful outcomes in the face of significant risks and adverse circumstances
Term
nature-nurture issue
Definition
dabate about whether development is primarily influenced by an organsim's biological inheritance (nature) or by its enviromental experiences (nurture)
Term
continuity-discontinuity issue
Definition
whether development invoves gradual, cumulative change (continuity) or distinct stages (discontinuity)
Term
early-later experience issue
Definition
issue focusing on the degree to which early experinces or later experinces are the dey dterminants of development
Term
theory
Definition
an interrelated, oherent set of ideas that helps explain phenomena and make predicitions
Term
hypotheses
Definition
specific assertions and predictions that can be tested
Term
pschoanalytic theories
Definition
theories that describe development as primarily unconcious and heavily clored by emotion. Behavior is merely a suface characteristic, and the symbolic workings of the mind have to be analyzed to understand behavior.
Term
Freud's Theory
Definition
focus on pleasure and sexual impulses fhifts from the mouth to the anus andeventually to the genitals
Term
Freudian Stages
Definition
oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
Term
Freud's personality structures
Definition
id- consists of instincts
ego- deals with the demands of reality
superego- the moral branch of personality
Term
Anna Freud
Definition
regression during adolescence is normal and not a defence mechinism, unlike her father
Term
Erikson's theory
Definition
includes eight stages of human development. each confronts indeviduals with a crisis that must be faced
Term
Eight stages
Definition
trust vs. mistrust- first year
autonomy vs. shame and doubt- late infancy and toddlerhood
initiative vs. guilt- preschool years
industry vs. inferiority- elementary school years
identity vs. identity confusion- adolescents
inimacy vs. isolation- early adulthood
generativity vs. stagnation- middle adulthood
integrity vs. despair- late adulthood
Term
define generativity
Definition
primarily a concern for helping the younger generation to develop and lead useful lives
Term
piaget's theory
Definition
children actively construct their understanding of the world and go through four stages of cognitive development
Term
what two processes underlie this cognitive construction of the world
Definition
organization and adaptation
Term
what are Piaget's four theories?
Definition
sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operatinal