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abpsych exam1
chapter 2 section 2
46
Psychology
10/02/2011

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Term
Behavioral Model
Definition
-concentrates on behaviors
-external (actions)
-internal (thoughts, feelings)
-treatments are based on the principles of learning
Term
behaviors
Definition
responses an organism makes to its environment
Term
learning
Definition
the process by which behaviors change in response to the environment
Term
conditioning
Definition
simple form of learning
-manipulate stimuli and rewards, then observe how manipulations affect responses
Term
operant conditioning
Definition
process of learning in which behavior that leads to satisfying consequences (rewards) is likely to be repeated
Term
rewards
Definition
any satisfying consequence
Term
modeling
Definition
process of learning in which an individual acquires responses by observing and imitating others
Term
Albert Bandura (1963)
study of modeling
Definition
children learned to hit a doll after watching adult do it first
-the children that didn't see an adult hitting the doll did not hit the doll
-modeling can account for abnormal behavior
Term
classical conditioning
Definition
process of learning by temporal association in which two events that repeatedly occur close together in time become fused ini a person's mind and produce the same response
-unconditioned stimulus (US) elicits unconditioned response (UR); conditioned stimulus (CS) is a previously neutral stimulus that comes to be linking with the US, which then eilicits the conditioned response (CR); then the response is produced by the CS rather than the US
Term
Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)
Definition
first demonstrated classical conditioning (salivating dogs...)
Term
behavioral therapy
Definition
aims to identify behaviors causing a person's problems and then tries to replace them with more appropriate ones by applying the principles of classical conditioning or modeling
Term
dogs can be conditioned...
Definition
3% know how to sing
21% know how to sit
Term
systematic desensitization
Definition
behavioral treatment in which clients with phobias learn to react calmly instead of with intense fear to the objects or situations they dread
-first learn relaxation, then construct fear hierarchy - confront/imagine each item on hierarchy while in a state of relaxation; don't move down the list until they master each step
Term
fear hierarchy
(systematic desensitization)
Definition
list of feared objects or situations starting with the least fearful to the most dreaded
Term
behavioral techniques and therapists today...
Definition
used by about 10% (check with lecture notes graph) of therapists today
-greater appeal- can be tested in lab (stimulus, response, reward), can be observed and measured (found evidence in lab that abnormal behavior can be learned)
-helpful in people with specific fears, compulsive behavior, social deficits, intellectual disabilities, and others...
Term
behavioral therapy weaknesses
Definition
-some specific symptoms ordinarily acquired improper conditioning
-have limitations
-improvements don't always extend to real life and don't necessarily last without continued therapy
-some think it's too simplistic and therefore can't account for complexity of behavior
Term
Albert Bandura (1977)
(self efficiancy)
Definition
argued that in order to feel happy and funtion effectively people must develop positive sense of self efficiancy
Term
self efficiancy
Definition
know they can master and perform nedded behaviors whenever necessary
Term
cognitive-behavioral explanations
Definition
in 60s, realized humans engage in cognitive behaviors (anticipating or interpreting) (which was ignored by behavioral theory) so developed cognitive-behavioral explanations that took unseen congitive behaviors into greater account and cognitive-behavioral therapies that help clients change counterproductive behaviors and dysfunctional ways of thinking
(bridged behavioral and cognitive model gap)
Term
Cognitive Model
Definition
congitive processes are the center of behaviors, thoughts, and emotions and we can best understand abnormal by looking into cognition
-people can make assumptions and adopt attudides that are disturbing and inaccurate, have illogical thinking processes, and overgeneralization
-people can overcome problems by developing new more functional ways of thinking (since differently abnormally involves different cognitive dysfuntion, many different strategies)
Term
illogical thinking processes
Definition
some consistently think in illogical ways and keep arriving at self-defeating conclusions
Term
overgeneralization
Definition
drawing of broad negative conclusions on basis of single insignifant event
Term
Aaron Beck
(his approach...)
Definition
many forms of abnormal behavior can be traced to cognitive factors (upsetting thoughts or illogical thinking
-his approach commonly used for depression
Term
Beck's cognitive therapy
Definition
therapy developed by Aaron Beck that helps people recognize and change their faulty thinking processes (negative thoughts, biased interpretations, errors in logic
-clients guided to also challenge their dysfuntional thoughts
Term
cognitive model today...
Definition
approximatly 28% (check with lect notes...) use
-focus on client interpretations, attitudes, assumptions, and other cognitive processes
Term
cognitive model...
Definition
process of human thought
(many think of thought as primary cause of normal and abnormal behavior)
-effective in treating depression, panic disorder, social phobia, and sexual dysfuntions
Term
negatives of cognitive model
Definition
disturbed cognitive processes' role in abnormal funtioning has yet to be determined (cognitions could be a result from problem rather than a cause)
-cognition is only one part of human functioning
-doesn't help everyone
Term
new wave of cognitive therapies
Definition
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) - helps clients to accept many problemativ thoughts rather than judge them, act on them, or try fruitlessly to change them
Term
Humanistic-Existential Model
Definition
focus on broader dimensions or human existence
-both views date back to 1940s
Term
humanists
Definition
humans are born with natural tendency to be friendly, cooperative, and constructive
-people are driven to self-actualize
Term
self-actualization
Definition
humanistic process by which people fulfill their potential for goodness and growth
-can do so if honestly recognize and accpet weaknesses and strengths and establish satisfying personal values
-self-actualization leads to concern of welfare of others and behavior that's loving, courageous, spontaneous, and independent
-humanists suggest that self-actualized people also show concern for the welfare of humanity
Term
existentialists
Definition
humans must have accurate awareness of themselves and live meaningful lives in order to be psychologically well-adjusted (but don't believe people are naturally inclined to live positively)
-from birth we have total freedom to face up to our existence and give meaning to our lives or shrink from that responsibility
Term
Carl Rogers (1902-1987)
Definition
considered pioneer of humanistic perspective
-developed client-centered therapy
-proposed theory of personality that paid little attention to irrational instincts and conflicts
-paved way for psychologists to practice psychotherapy (rather than psychiatrists)
Term
view of personality
(humanistic)
Definition
humans are constantly defining and so giving meaning to their existence through their actions
-big in 60s and 70s but has since lost its appeal
Term
Roger's Humanistic Theory and Therapy
Definition
-road to dysfuntion begins in infancy
-all have basic need to receive positive regard from imporant people in our lives, those who receive unconditioned positive regard early in life are likely to develop unconditional self-regard (recognize their worth as person and recognize they're not perfect), but if don't get that they're not worthy of regard they acquire conditions of worth (standards that tell them they're lovable/acceptable only when they conform to guidelines
Term
client-centered therapy
Definition
humanistic therapy developed by Carl Rogers in which clinicians try to help clients by conveying acceptable, accurate empathy, and genuineness
-therapist must have three important qualities: unconditional positive regard(full and warm acceptance for client), accurate empathy (skillfull listening and restatements), and genuiness (sincere communication)
Term
humanistic therapy today...
Definition
about 1% (check) clinical psychologists, 2% social workers, 4% counseling psychologists - employ client-centered approach
Term
Gestalt Theory and Therapy
Definition
Term
gestalt therapy
Definition
humanistic therapy developed by Fritz Perls in which clinicians actively move clients toward self-recognition and self-acceptance by using techniques such as role playing and self discovery exercises
-often try to achieve goal by challenging and frustratin clients
-set of rules that ensure clients look at self more closely
--about 1% of clinical psychologists and other clinicians
-often instruct clients to fully express feelings to full intensity (by banging on pillows, crying out, kicking or pounding things)
-drum therapy- (banging on drums) help release traumatic memories, change beliefs, and feel more liberated
Term
skillful frustration
Definition
therapists refuse to meet clients' expectations or demands, meant to help people see how often they try to manipulate others into meeting their needs
Term
role playing
Definition
therapist instructs client to act out various rols
Term
spiritual views and interventions
Definition
for most of the 20th century religion viewed as negative or neutral factor in mental health, but recently many books and articles linking spiritual views and clinical treatments were published- can be beneficial psychologically for people
-those who view God as warm, caring, helpful, and dependable are found to be less lonely, pessimistic, depressed, or anxious than people with no religious beliefs, also seem to cope better with life stressors and to attempt suicide less and less drug use
Term
existential theories and therapy
Definition
psychological dysfunctioning is causes by self-deception in which people hide from life's responsibilities and fail to recognize that it's up to them to give meaning to their lives
-dominant emotions: anxiety, frustration, boredom, alienation, depression
Term
existential therapy
Definition
therapy that encourages clients to accept responsibility for their lives to live with greater meaning and values
-therapists try to help clients recognize their freedom so they choose different course and live with greater meaning; place great emphasis on relationship betwee therapist and client and try to create atmosphere of hardwors and shared learning and growth
Term
assessing humanistic and existential model
Definition
-appeals to many, optimistic tone, health emphasis
-taps into aspect of psychological life missing from other models
-factors essential to effective functioning: self-acceptance, personal values, personal meaning, and personal choice (lacking in people with psychological disturbances)
-focus on abstract issues of human fulfillment gives rise to major problem from scientific point of view- difficult to research (but that's beginning to change...)
Term
in Thailand
(spirituality...)
Definition
in Thailan people recovering from personal problems to go local temple seeking comfort through prayer and meditation