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Abnormal Psychology Final SG
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161
Psychology
05/04/2009

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Term
One problem with analogue studies of depression is that
Definition
we cannot be sure depression-like symptoms in lab animals reflect human depression
Term
According to Seligman's theory, who of the following would be most likely to develop learned helplessness
Definition
  someone who had experienced uncontrollable negative events and then a controllable negative event
Term
After a couple has divorced, you learn that one of them is suffering from depression. Most likely:
Definition
a troubled marriage led to the depression
Term
People who talk rapidly, dress flamboyantly, and get involved in dangerous activities are showing ______ symptoms of mania
Definition
behavioral
Term
A person who becomes depressed because of several recent tragic events would be experiencing ______ depression
Definition
exogenous
Term
Assume you have a friend who is a talented artist, and has occasional short-term hypomania. What is the best thing, in terms of being a creative, productive artist, that your friend could do
Definition
Do nothing; sometimes, hypomania increases artistic creativity and productivity
Term
Bipolar disorders have recently been linked to:
Definition
improper sodium transport.
Term
Cognitive theorists and psychoanalysts have in common an emphasis on
Definition
how early experiences shape one's risk for depression.
Term
Which of the following risk percentage patterns would best support the influence of genetic factors in explaining bipolar disorder? ______ in the general population; ______ among close relatives of people with bipolar disorder; ______ among identical twins of people with bipolar disorder.
Definition
1%, 10%, 40%
Term
Someone receiving treatment for depression periodically completes an Attributional Style Questionnaire, which is designed to measure the therapy's effectiveness. The theoretical orientation of the therapist is most likely:
Definition
cognitive
Term
All of the following are types of major depressive disorders except
Definition
posttraumatic.
Term
If a biochemical imbalance were the cause of a person's depression, the latest research would lead us to expect that person to have:
Definition
an abnormality in the activity of certain neurotransmitters, especially serotonin and norepinephrine.
Term
A state of breathless euphoria, or frenzied energy, in which people have an exaggerated belief in their power describes
Definition
mania
Term
Milder forms of bipolar disorders are known as ______ disorders
Definition
cyclothymic
Term
The type of clinician who would be most likely to say, “Tell me about any early losses you experienced” is a:
Definition
psychoanalyst.
Term
A therapist describes a patient who believes her personal worth is tied to each task she performs. She draws negative conclusions from very little evidence, amplifies minor mistakes into major character flaws, and suffers from repetitive thoughts that remind her of her flaws. You conclude that the therapist holds which theoretical orientation?
Definition
cognitive
Term
Which of the following is the least common form of a mood disorder?
Definition
full manic episodes with no depressive episodes
Term
Which theoretical orientation would support the finding that there is a significant relationship between positive life events and feelings of life satisfaction and happiness?
Definition
behavioral
Term
Children who were separated from their mothers at an early age are more likely than other children to experience weepiness, passivity, and withdrawal. This reaction, seen in children who are separated from their mothers up to the age of 6, has been called
Definition
anaclitic depression
Term
Which of the following would be a physical symptom of depression?
Definition
sleepy poorly
Term
Which of these research findings provides the most direct support for Beck's cognitive theory of depression?
Definition
Depressed women make more errors in logic when interpreting a paragraph than do nondepressed women
Term
Francoise is depressed. Her therapist asks her about her daily experiences, focusing on how often people say nice things to her. Her therapist most likely has a ______ orientation.
Definition
behavioral
Term
Since immediately after the birth of her son, Maria has experienced a period of sadness that interferes with her ability to take care of him. She has never felt this way before, but this has been going on for several weeks. With what type of major depression would she most likely be diagnosed?
Definition
postpartum
Term
Seasonal affective disorder is thought to be due to
Definition
increased levels of melatonin.
Term
Depression is more common in women because they experience more taxing life situations, such as poverty and menial jobs, than men. This is the
Definition
quality-of-life theory.
Term
If people with unipolar depression were found to have higher levels of cortisol, it would support the ______ orientation
Definition
biochemical
Term
Pierre feels terrible. He is sad, tired, and depressed, but he refuses to show it. This is consistent with the:
Definition
artifact theory
Term
Juan is currently experiencing a period of sadness that has resulted in almost total immobility. He sits in a chair all day and almost never moves. His wife has to assist him in getting into bed at night. What type of major depression would he most likely be diagnosed with?
Definition
catatonic
Term
A baby who was separated from its mother at birth, and who subsequently became withdrawn, sad, and tearful, could be experiencing:
Definition
anaclitic depression
Term
Biochemical explanations for bipolar disorder center on all of the following except:
Definition
hormonal functioning
Term
A high school student says to you, “What's the big deal about using pot? How can it hurt me?” The most accurate reply you could make is
Definition
“If you're high, you won't be able to remember what you just learned.
Term
During his first night in the detoxification unit, Quent developed what seemed like a case of the flu. He ached all over and had diarrhea. He was probably withdrawing from
Definition
heroin
Term
Recent studies show that gender-sensitive programs for treating substance abuse
Definition
may be very useful; substance abusers of different genders have different physical and psychological reactions to drugs.
Term
Women tolerate alcohol less well than men because:
Definition
their stomachs break down alcohol less well.
Term
The stimulant used by more people in the world than any other is
Definition
caffiene
Term
The fact that a self-help group like Alcoholics Anonymous, which provides peer support and specific guidelines, helps many in their struggle with alcoholism, supports most directly which form of therapy?
Definition
sociocultural
Term
Ellen stopped taking her regular amount of cocaine after using it for months. She will probably experience
Definition
letdown, depressed feelings, and fatigue
Term
An individual who is dependent on alcohol is experiencing delirium tremens. This reaction is:
Definition
uncommon, starting within three days after an individual stops drinking.
Term
Daniel, an intravenous heroin user, feels intense cravings when he sees hypodermic needles. This might be an example of:
Definition
classical conditioning.
Term
Nan took the drug she was handed and in a few minutes felt calm and drowsy, and then went to sleep. She probably took
Definition
a barbiturate
Term
If you were trying to convince a friend not to be a cocaine user, what would you cite as the greatest risk coming from cocaine use?
Definition
overdose effects
Term
If genetics plays a strong role in the development of cocaine abuse, we would expect to find the lowest concordance rates for cocaine abuse among:
Definition
genetically unrelated pairs of people.
Term
If a physician wanted to relieve anxiety with a lesser risk of drowsiness, overdose, and slowed breathing, the physician would prescribe
Definition
benzodiazepines.
Term
Cocaine and amphetamines produce:
Definition
similar behavioral effects, and similar emotional effects.
Term
A combination of alcohol abuse and a vitamin-B deficiency can lead to
Definition
Korsakoff's Syndrome
Term
The long-term pattern of maladaptive behavior caused by the regular use of some chemical or drug is called:
Definition
substance abuse.
Term
Drinking alcohol during pregnancy can damage the developing embryo and fetus, resulting in
Definition
fetal alcohol syndrome
Term
Assume a researcher finds that overuse of a drug reduces the body's production of neurotransmitters. Thus, if an abuser of this drug stops taking the drug, withdrawal symptoms occur until the brain begins producing normal levels of neurotransmitters again. Such a finding would most directly support which view of the cause of substance-abuse disorders?
Definition
biochemical
Term
A person has ingested enough ethyl alcohol to lose consciousness, but not enough to produce death. The most probable alcohol concentration in that person, expressed as a percent of blood volume is:
Definition
.40
Term
A client being treated for alcohol abuse receives just enough of a drug called curare to produce temporary paralysis just as that client takes a swig of beer. Presumably, sufficient pairings of paralysis and alcohol will reduce the client's desire for alcohol. This procedure is called
Definition
aversion therapy.
Term
All the opioid drugs are known as
Definition
narcotics.
Term
Why is the risk of transmitting AIDS an important factor for heroin users?
Definition
because heroin users often share dirty needles infected with the AIDS virus
Term
A full-time college student has just become a college dropout. The chances that alcohol was a factor in the dropout is about:
Definition
1 in 4
Term
Lola's physician prescribed diet pills. Which of the following drugs are they most likely to have contained?
Definition
amphetamines
Term
According to your textbook, which of the following is a sex-role myth?
Definition
Fantasizing about someone else during sex means the relationship is not good
Term
A man who is biologically male but considers himself a woman and would like to live as a woman is a:
Definition
transsexual
Term
William, who is having his first affair, is a 20-year-old man who has gone to see a sex therapist about a sexual dysfunction problem. What is William most likely suffering from?
Definition
premature ejaculation
Term
A person who becomes sexually aroused in the presence of stimuli most people in that person's society would not think appropriate is experiencing
Definition
paraphilia
Term
Studies have shown that the rate of male erectile disorder is about
Definition
10%, or about the same as the rate of female sexual arousal disorder.
Term
Dr. Washington argues that voyeurism occurs as a result of the attempt to reduce fear of having the penis cut off, and is therefore found in males, not in females. Which theoretical perspective is Dr. Washington using?
Definition
psychodynamic
Term
Erectile disorder may be treated with all of the following except:
Definition
nitroglycerin.
Term
Who is most likely to receive phalloplasty?
Definition
someone experiencing gender identity disorder
Term
One of the most problematic aspects of treating sexual dysfunction is:
Definition
the prevalence of myths and sexual ignorance
Term
Which of the following theoretical orientations is most helpful in understanding the origin of gender identity disorder?
Definition
biological
Term
A paraphilia
Definition
is a response to a socially inappropriate object
Term
The campus “bra bandit” steals women's underwear from the campus laundry, then masturbates into the underwear. The most appropriate diagnosis would be:
Definition
fetishism
Term
What is thought to be the cause of vaginismus (the involuntary contraction of vaginal muscles)?
Definition
conditioning of a fear response
Term
From what does premature ejaculation usually result?
Definition
sexual inexperience
Term
An otherwise healthy individual reports almost no interest in sexual activity, and has had very few sexual experiences in the past several years. That person most likely is experiencing:
Definition
hypoactive sexual desire
Term
A woman reports having vivid sexual fantasies, yet is unable to experience either clitoral or labial swelling, or vaginal lubrication. The most likely diagnosis for this woman would be:
Definition
sexual arousal disorder.
Term
A penile prosthesis may be used in the treatment of:
Definition
erectile disorder
Term
If an individual had experienced normal sexual functioning for years and gradually developed a problem with becoming aroused under any conditions, the DSM-IV-TR diagnosis would be
Definition
acquired and generalized.
Term
While inflicting pain, perhaps unintentionally, on an animal or person, a teenager may become sexually aroused and later turn out to be a sadist. The theory that best describes this example of the development of sadism is:
Definition
behavioral
Term
If a man has been taught to masturbate almost to orgasm, and then to insert his penis for intercourse, the man is most probably being treated for:
Definition
orgasmic disorder
Term
The idea that both partners share the accountability for sexual dysfunction is known as:
Definition
mutual responsibility.
Term
Exhibitionists engage in that behavior because they:
Definition
desire a shock reaction from their victim.
Term
Couples in sex therapy who are working on eliminating the spectator role, are generally advised
Definition
to refrain from having intercourse and focus on other body pleasure instead.
Term
Studies of patterns of teenage sexual behavior today compared to such behavior a generation ago show today's teens having:
Definition
intercourse younger, and using condoms more
Term
The percentage of women treated for vaginismus who eventually report experiencing pain-free intercourse is:
Definition
about 75%
Term
What is another name for genital pain during sexual activity?
Definition
dyspareunia
Term
In psychoanalytic theory, the therapeutic goal in treating sexual dysfunction is:
Definition
causing broad personality changes.
Term
If an individual had experienced normal sexual functioning for years and then had a problem with becoming aroused only when with her husband as a partner, the DSM-IV-TR diagnosis would be:

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Definition
acquired and situational.
Term
A client receives directed masturbation training and self-exploration instruction as part of the client's sex therapy. Most likely, the client is a:
Definition
woman being treated for orgasmic disorder
Term
Having a positive relationship with one's mother is associated with _____ in women
Definition
orgasm
Term
Which hormone can cause decreased sexual desire when present in low, but not high levels?
Definition
testosterone
Term
Obsessive-compulsive symptoms may contribute to hypoactive sexual desire because someone with this disorder:
Definition
finds contact with body fluids and odors unpleasant.
Term
Definition
Term
One who believes herself to be the Virgin Mary, come to give birth to a new savior, would be experiencing
Definition
delusions of grandeur.
Term
What percentage of the world population is estimated to have schizophrenia?
Definition
1%
Term
Which of the following statements about genetic factors in schizophrenia is accurate?
Definition
Close relatives of schizophrenics are more likely to be schizophrenic than distant relatives of schizophrenics.
Term
Which of the following is not a necessary characteristic of schizophrenia, according to Bleuler?
Definition
general intellectual decline
Term
Patients are more likely to recover from schizophrenia if they
Definition
demonstrated good premorbid functioning.
Term
What is the rate of concordance for schizophrenia in identical twins?
Definition
40-50%
Term
Since 1950, interest in psychological explanations for schizophrenia (as opposed to genetic and biological explanations) has:
Definition
decreased, then increased
Term
Francis behaves in a bizarre and ridiculous way. She has hallucinations and impossible leaps of logic and is generally unable to function outside an institution. Her schizophrenia is most likely related to
Definition
dopamine
Term
If a person receives the chemical L-dopa, a precursor of dopamine, it reduces the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. It also sometimes increases symptoms of schizophrenia. What might one conclude from this?
Definition
Excessive dopamine produces schizophrenic symptoms
Term
You hear a professor use the term “schizophrenogenic family” in a discussion of causes of schizophrenia. You can be pretty sure that the professor is describing a:
Definition
psychodynamic factor largely unsupported by research.
Term
A new medication for schizophrenia appears to work because it blocks dopamine from binding to a receptor. The new medication functions as
Definition
a dopamine antagonist.
Term
Rosa is sure that her family is planning to kidnap her and take her inheritance. She has found her husband talking on the phone in whispers and has seen her children looking at her strangely. She is most likely suffering from
Definition
delusions of persecution
Term
People with deficiencies in smooth pursuit eye movement would be less able to:
Definition
track an object with their eyes
Term
Which of the following is not related to a fuller recovery from schizophrenia?
Definition
schizophrenia developing in early life
Term
A schizophrenic who is experiencing alogia is displaying
Definition
poverty of speech.
Term
Armond does not feel much emotion and does not really want to do anything. He has also completely withdrawn from his friends and family. The presence of these behaviors illustrates ______ symptoms of schizophrenia.
Definition
negative
Term
Research with those experiencing auditory hallucinations has demonstrated all of the following except
Definition
movement of the oval window of the cochlea.
Term
The “rational path to madness” is most consistent with a ______ orientation.
Definition
cognitive
Term
The cognitive view of schizophrenia is based on the assumption that schizophrenics experience strange and unreal sensations:
Definition
then tell their friends and family, who deny the reality of the sensations.
Term
A schizophrenic who said, “It's cold today. My cold is better but I got it from the nurse. She is a big blonde who lives in Manhattan. I live in Manhattan with Jimmy Carter,” is experiencing:
Definition
loose associations.
Term
A decrease in the fluency and productivity of speech, seen in schizophrenia, is termed:
Definition
alogia.
Term
If the dopamine hypothesis provides an accurate explanation of the cause of schizophrenia, one would expect that a drug that was effective against Parkinson's disease symptoms might:
Definition
put the patient at risk for psychotic symptoms.
Term
A person acts extremely jealous all the time, and complains bitterly whenever other people appear to be getting more attention. This had been going on for a couple of months, and the person shows no other substantial symptoms. The best diagnosis—assuming, of course, the extreme jealousy has no basis in fact—is
Definition
delusional disorder
Term
The inability to move the limbs in catatonic schizophrenia illustrates ______ symptoms of schizophrenia
Definition
psychomotor
Term
Recently the dopamine hypothesis for schizophrenia has been challenged because it has been discovered that:
Definition
effective new drugs suggest abnormal neurotransmitter activity of serotonin as well as dopamine
Term
Noreen has been diagnosed as schizophrenic. She is totally unresponsive to her environment. She does not move for hours on end and never responds to contacts from others. This is an example of:
Definition
catatonic stupor
Term
One who believes that government agents have planted “bugs” in his car and are watching him from the trees in his backyard is experiencing:
Definition
delusions of persecution
Term
If schizophrenia results from prenatal exposure to viruses which cause brain abnormalities, then one would expect what kind of correlation between schizophrenic birth rates and stillbirth rates?
Definition
strong positive
Term
The frequent failure to resist the impulse to steal is called:
Definition
kleptomania.
Term
The category of “odd” personality disorders includes the traits of:
Definition
extreme suspiciousness, social withdrawal, and cognitive and perceptual peculiarities.
Term
All of the following are problems in the use of the DSM-IV-TR to diagnose personality disorders except:
Definition
the criteria are so restrictive that several categories rarely, if ever, are used.
Term
A person who is least likely to be affected by criticism or praise from other people is one suffering from the ______ personality disorder.
Definition
schizoid
Term
A client being treated for avoidant personality disorder must increase the number of social contacts per day—defined as people greeted with at least the phrase, “Hello. How are you doing?”—in order to later engage in some desired activity. Most likely, the therapist has which theoretical background?
Definition
behavioral
Term
The most important similarity among the personality disorders listed in the text is that
Definition
they are inflexible, maladaptive, and related to impaired functioning or distress
Term
Be loyal to your family” was what the child heard all the time, along with “You shouldn't—and can't—do it on your own, so don't even try.” A behaviorist would say this kind of upbringing would be most likely to produce which of the personality disorders in the child, when he or she reached adulthood?
Definition
dependent
Term
You might suspect an “era of narcissism” is approaching for a country when
Definition

there is increasing emphasis on self-expression and competitiveness.

[image]  
Term
A friend spends hours each day in chat rooms, and seems to rely increasingly on the approval and advice of “cyberfriends.” In fact, your friend finds it harder and harder to leave the chat rooms; they control your friend's every decision. This behavior pattern is most similar to that of people with which of the following personality disorders?
Definition
dependent
Term
A person constantly strives to be the center of attention, yet the ideas the person so eloquently expresses are usually shallow and changeable. If this person were diagnosed with a personality disorder, it most likely would be:
Definition
histrionic.
Term
Clinicians are most likely to use which explanations for the development of avoidant personality disorder?
Definition
cognitive and psychodynamic
Term
Which of the following have sociocultural theorists suggested as a cause for the emergence of borderline personality disorder?
Definition
rapid social change
Term
A high school student asks a guidance counselor, parents, and friends for suggestions before deciding on a college to attend, and on an academic major. This student's behavior is
Definition
normal for those in high school.
Term
Which of the following statements is most accurate, in terms of present research findings?
Definition
“Odd” personality disorders and schizophrenia are related to one another.
Term
“Someone's head resting on my knee,/Warm and tender as he can be,/Who takes good care of me,/Oh wouldn't it be lovely?/Lovely, lovely, lovely, lovely…” are the approximate lyrics of a song from the musical My Fair Lady. These lyrics most closely reflect symptoms of which personality disorder?
Definition
dependent
Term
Which of the answers would complete the following sentence to support the idea that alcohol use and antisocial personality disorder are related because of their “risk taking” aspects. Drug users with personality disorders often say they use drugs for:
Definition
recreational reasons.
Term

Based on a structured interview, Diagnostician A classifies an individual's personality disorder in the “odd” cluster. Based on another structured interview of the same type, Diagnostician B classifies an individual's personality disorder in the “dramatic” cluster. If what is described here is typical of what happens when that variety of structured interview is used, one would say the structured interview has:
Definition
low reliability and low validity.
Term
A friend of yours says, “A 15-year-old high schooler accused of shooting several classmates received a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder.” Your most accurate reply would be
Definition
“No; the kid is too young for that diagnosis
Term
The personality disorder that is most often associated with criminal behavior is the:
Definition
antisocial personality disorder
Term
Elena can't seem to establish social ties because she is afraid of being embarrassed or appearing foolish. She is easily hurt by criticism and is not willing to go into unfamiliar situations. She may be experiencing:
Definition
avoidant personality disorder.
Term
Psychodynamic theorists explain obsessive-compulsive personality disorder as a fixation at the ______ stage.
Definition
anal
Term
Transported to the hospital after a suicide attempt, a man is later admitted to the hospital's psychiatric wing. Most likely, if the man is diagnosed with a personality disorder, it will be:
Definition
borderline
Term
Older individuals with Alzheimer's disease differ from older individuals without Alzheimer's disease in that they:
Definition
have an extraordinary number of neurofibrillary tangles.
Term
The fact that Alzheimer's disease resembles Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease suggests that Alzheimer's may be caused by:
Definition
a virus.
Term
Quincy suddenly developed a short-term memory problem and only two months later had problems speaking. Six months after that he lost speech and hearing, and the left side of his face became paralyzed. Each change in functioning was abrupt. He probably is suffering from:
Definition
multi-infarct dementia.
Term

Rosa has difficulty remembering even where she is going. Maintaining friendships is difficult, and she loses her temper because she cannot remember things. Her health has been deteriorating and she is clumsier than she was three years ago. She appears to be suffering from:
Definition
dementia
Term
In order to control occasional pain and inflammation, a person uses an over-the-counter drug containing ibuprofen. Interestingly, recent research shows that person also may be reducing the risk of contracting which disease?
Definition
Alzheimer's disease
Term
Regarding treatment of depression in the elderly, studies show that:
Definition
drug treatments may need to be altered because drugs are broken down differently in the body
Term
A person who has difficulty remembering how to use a key is having trouble with:
Definition
procedural memory
Term
Which of the following diseases involves degeneration of the frontal and temporal lobes
Definition
Pick's disease
Term
If someone asked you about the effectiveness of treatment for Alzheimer's you would have to say
Definition
Even the best treatments have only limited success.
Term

The most accurate of the following statements is that drug therapy at least can help slow down the progression of Alzheimer's disease:
Definition
in patients treated early in the course of a milder form of the disease
Term
Alzheimer's is named for the first person to ______ the disease
Definition
identify
Term
Among the proposed causes of Alzheimer's are all of the following except:
Definition
  concussion or other brain injury.
Term
The misuse of prescription drugs by the elderly is a form of ______ disorder.
Definition
substance abuse
Term
What is the relationship between age and anxiety in the elderly?
Definition
As age increases, the rate of anxiety disorders increases
Term
The most feared psychological problem among the elderly is:
Definition
Alzheimer's.
Term
Tomas has a normal IQ, but demonstrates complete impairment of new learning. He also confabulates when asked to provide information about recent events. Tomas most likely is suffering from
Definition
Korsakoff's syndrome
Term
The class of drugs most often used to treat anxiety disorders in the elderly is:
Definition
benzodiazepines
Term
The drug tacrine acts through:
Definition
blocking the breakdown of acetylcholine.
Term
Triple jeopardy, as an issue affecting the mental health of the elderly, refers to
Definition
being old, a minority member, and a woman.
Term
An individual suffering from a neurological disorder shows no evidence of infection or poisoning, but experiences tremors, rigidity, and unsteadiness. The most probable diagnosis is
Definition
Parkinson's disease
Term
When an autoimmune response occurs, the body attacks
Definition
its own tissue
Term
As people age, the incidence of alcohol abuse and other forms of substance abuse:
Definition
decreases
Term
An individual who demonstrates a severe anterograde amnesia may still demonstrate evidence of:
Definition
verbal skills.
Term
Dementia is also associated with
Definition
AIDS