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Abnormal Psych mid term SG
n/a
191
Psychology
03/10/2009

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Term
An otherwise “normal” person during hypnotic suggestion is made to bark, sit, and fetch like a dog. The occurrence of these “abnormal” behaviors lends support to which explanation for abnormality?
Definition
psychogenic
Term
Which aspect of the definition of abnormality includes the inability to care for oneself and work productively?
Definition
dysfunction
Term
“Many people are not aware of the sources of their abnormality, because abnormality often arises from unconscious psychological processes; such people need insight about those processes.” Who would agree most strongly with this statement?
Definition
Freud
Term
Psychoanalysis is a form of:
Definition
outpatient therapy.
Term
“'Moral treatment' is the best way to deal with abnormality; even the best of us at some time may break under stress.” Who of the following would agree most strongly with this statement?
Definition
Philippe Pinel
Term
Immigration and differences in birth rates among minority groups in the United States have caused psychological treatment to become more:
Definition
multicultural
Term
Last week Elaine took an IQ test and scored extremely high. According to the definition of abnormality, her behavior is an example of:
Definition
deviance.
Term
Despite popular misconceptions, most people with psychological problems are not:
Definition
dangerous.
Term
The first physician to specialize in mental illness was
Definition
Johann Weyer.
Term
Eugenic sterilization reflects the ______ perspective on abnormality
Definition
somatogenic
Term
“The Devil made me do it!” would be a believable reason for abnormal behaviors for:
[image]
Definition
clergy of the Middle Ages.
Term
Mesmer became famous—or infamous—for his work with patients suffering from bodily problems with no physical basis. His patients' disorders are termed
Definition
hysterical.
Term
Research shows that danger to self or others is found in
Definition
some cases of abnormal functioning.
Term
Hippocrates attempted to treat mental disorders by
Definition
correcting underlying physical pathology.
Term
Drugs designed to decrease extremely confused and distorted thinking are termed
Definition
antipsychotics
Term
One who studies the history of the field of abnormal psychology most likely would compare our current understanding of abnormal behavior with a book that:
Definition
is in the process of being written
Term
If your primary symptom were excessive worry, the best psychotropic drug for you would be an
Definition
antianxiety medication
Term
Which of the following pairs of words best describes the current emphasis in mental health?
Definition
prevention and positive psychology
Term
The man who brought about the reforms of moral therapy to northern England was:
Definition
William Tuke
Term
Margie's ability to think clearly and remember events has been deteriorating over the last several years. She now has difficulty even reading anything longer than a sentence because she cannot keep track of what she is reading. She is almost completely unable to function intellectually. According to Greek and Roman views, this is an example of:
Definition
dementia.
Term
Several researchers have shown that in a typical year in the United States about what percentage of adults show disturbances severe enough to need clinical treatment?
Definition
more than 15%
Term
 
One who systematically gathers information in order to describe, predict, and explain abnormality is a clinical:
[image]
Definition
scientist.
Term
Part of the downfall of moral therapy was that:
Definition
it did not work for everyone.
Term
Jena is very unhappy. The condition is chronic and severe. If her psychiatrist prescribed medication it would likely be:
Definition
an antidepressant drug
Term
If you are a typical person undergoing therapy in the United States, your therapy will last for:
Definition
fewer than five sessions
Term
The practice of trephination was probably used to
Definition
allow the release of evil spirits.
Term
The most accurate summary of the field of abnormal psychology at the present time is that clinical psychologists generally
Definition
do not accept one definition of abnormality, and practice more than one form of treatment.
Term
Acquiring insight about unconscious psychological processes is a feature of:
Definition
psychoanalysis
Term
Which of the following is estimated to occur most frequently in the adult population of the United States?
Definition
anxiety
Term
Greek and Roman physicians described a person with mania as having symptoms of
Definition
euphoria and frenzied activity.
Term
A physician who offers psychotherapy is called a:
Definition
psychiatrist.
Term
The approach to therapy for mental illness in which a person pays a psychotherapist for services is called
Definition
private psychotherapy.
Term
The fact that hundreds of thousands of people with severe psychological disturbances end up living on the streets or in jails points out one deficiency of:
Definition
deinstitutionalization
Term
In this research question, “Do children from single-parent families show more depression than those from two-parent families,” there is(are) ______ known variable(s).
Definition
2
Term
As opposed to clinical practitioners, who search for individualistic understanding of human behavior, clinical researchers search for general truths about abnormality. The approach of clinical researchers is:
Definition
nomothetic.
Term
Which of the following is true of the correlation coefficient?
Definition
It rangers from –1.00 to +1.00 and indicates the strength and the direction of the relationship between two variable.
Term
A researcher randomly divides young women suffering from anorexia into two groups. Participants in Group A receive psychotherapy and drug treatments; participants in Group B receive attention (but no therapy) and a “sugar pill.” The researcher then compares participants in the two groups on relief of anorexia symptoms. One important criticism of this research is that it is a:
Definition
placebo study
Term
A sugar pill used as the control condition in a drug study is a:
Definition
placebo
Term
If one were studying the hypothesis that people with high levels of stress are more likely to get cancer and wanted to include a matched control group, that group:
Definition
would have low levels of stress
Term
Case studies are useful for
Definition
studying unusual problems
Term
Using generally accepted standards, what is the chance that a statistically significant result is due to chance?
Definition
5%
Term
Experimenters are generally willing to:
Definition
subject animals to more discomfort than humans.
Term
To accomplish random assignment, one could assign participants to groups by
Definition
flipping a coin
Term
Which of the following results most likely came from an epidemiological study?
Definition
The rate of suicide is higher in Ireland than in the United States
Term
If a particular study of alcoholism failed to control for cultural patterns in drinking in the participants, the study would have low:
Definition
internal validity.
Term
Research shows that the result of lobotomies was
Definition
irreversible brain damage and withdrawal
Term
The function of the double-blind design is to guard against
Definition
participant and experimenter expectancies
Term
Seligman's study in which he created learned helplessness in the lab is an example of a(n) ______ study
Definition
analogue
Term
The variable manipulated in an experiment is called:
Definition
the independent variable.
Term
A researcher wishes to study the effect of a new drug on symptoms of depression. Research participants are randomly assigned to two groups. Participants in Group A receive the drug whenever they report depressive symptoms to the experimenter; participants in Group B receive nothing when they report depressive symptoms to the experimenter. After a month of this procedure, participants in Group A report significantly fewer symptoms of depression. A serious flaw of this study is that it:
Definition
is not a double-blind design.
Term
In single-subject experimental designs, the participant is observed and measured before the manipulation of an independent variable. This initial observation period is called the
Definition
baseline period.
Term
A researcher is interested in the effects of a new drug for treating anxiety. He decides to study it in rats by conditioning the fear of a high-pitched noise and then testing rats' reactions with and without the drug. This is an example of:
Definition
an analogue experiment
Term
Which of the following is the best way for clinicians to come to an understanding of abnormal behavior?
Definition
to rely on findings that have been supported by multiple research methods
Term
The group of participants that is not exposed to the independent variable under investigation (in an experiment) is called the:
Definition
control group
Term
In an experiment on the effects of two new drugs on mood, neither the patients, researchers, nor those who are evaluating mood know which drug the patients are getting. The study is ______ blind.
Definition
triple
Term
A researcher wishes to study the effect of a new drug on symptoms of depression. Research participants are randomly assigned to two groups. Participants in Group A receive the drug whenever they report depressive symptoms to the experimenter; participants in Group B receive nothing when they report depressive symptoms to the experimenter. After a month of this procedure, participants in Group A report significantly fewer symptoms of depression. In this study, Group A is the:
Definition
experimental group.
Term
Which of the following is true about case studies and single-subject designs?
Definition
Single-subject designs have more internal validity
Term
Definition
Term
The first step in using the treatment called “systematic desensitization” is to:
Definition
teach the skill of relaxation over the course of several sessions
Term
Providing treatment as soon as it is needed, so that problems that are moderate or worse do not become long-term, is called
Definition
tertiary prevention.
Term
The model of abnormality that examines the effects of society and culture is the
Definition
sociocultural model.
Term
When a gestalt therapist refuses to meet her patient's demands, the therapist is using
Definition
skillful frustration
Term
Therapists who often deliberately frustrate and challenge their clients, and who often use role playing and a “here and now” orientation, are:
Definition
gestalt.
Term
Multicultural theorists would explain the higher levels of mental illness among poor people as most likely due to
Definition
social factors leading to stress
Term
Barney's mother is taking cookies out of the oven. Which of the following would suggest most strongly that the id is firmly in control of Barney's behavior?
Definition
Barney grabs some of the cookies and runs.
Term
Which of the following would be most likely to use skillful frustration as a part of therapy?
Definition
Fritz Perls
Term
Evidence in support of the psychodynamic model has come primarily from:
Definition
case studies
Term
If a person had an anxiety disorder, one would suspect a problem with which of these neurotransmitters?
Definition
gamma-aminobutyric acid
Term
If you recognize your worth as a person, Carl Rogers would say that you have developed:
Definition
unconditional self-regard
Term
According to Freud, another term for the symbolic meaning of dreams is
Definition
latent content.
Term
The model of abnormality that pays particular attention to a client's family structure, societal norms, and a client's roles in society is:
Definition
sociocultural
Term
“You can do anything you want. You can lead a perfectly useless life. It is all up to you.” A therapist who would say these frustrating statements as a primary part of the therapy process would follow the ______ tradition
Definition
existential
Term
According to psychoanalytic theory, which of the following is true regarding dreams?
Definition
They reflect our unconscious desires and needs.
Term
Abnormal chemical activity in the body's endocrine system relates to the release of
Definition
hormones
Term
According to family systems theory, families that show “disengagement” are characterized by
Definition
rigid boundaries between family members.
Term
If a mother seems excessively involved in her child's life such that they do not seem to be independent people, their relationship is said to be
Definition
enmeshed
Term
The model of abnormality that focuses on unconscious internal processes and conflicts in behavior is the:
Definition
psychodynamic model.
Term
What we would call “conscience” is most like what Freud would call the
Definition
superego
Term
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is used most often in the treatment of:
Definition
depression
Term
A general term used for theories such as Freud's, Adler's, and Jung's is
Definition
psychodynamic
Term
What is libido?
Definition
the sexual energy of the id
Term
An important factor to consider in using drugs for the treatment of abnormality would be that
Definition
some people do not benefit from drug treatments
Term
Henry goes into a fit of depression and self-abuse when anyone criticizes or expresses disapproval. Much of what he does is for the purpose of getting people to like him. Cognitive theorists would say that Henry's depression results in large part from:
Definition
illogical thinking.
Term
According to Freud's psychodynamic theory, ineffective interaction of the id, ego, and superego can lead to entrapment at a developmental level. This is called:
Definition
fixation
Term
Which of the following phrases would one be most likely to hear in a self-help group?
Definition
try this it worked for me
Term
The model most likely to use terms such as “resistance” and “transference” is the ______ model.
Definition
psychodynamic
Term
Evidence that supports the effectiveness of psychodynamic therapies has come from
Definition
individual case studies
Term
If you imagine biting into a big, juicy, sour lemon, you are likely to salivate. The lemon is an example of
Definition
an unconditioned stimulus
Term
Infants tend to do things that feel good. This is in accord with what Freud called:
[image]
Definition
the pleasure principle
Term
If a clinician focused on where you placed your drawing on the page, the size of the drawing, and the parts you omitted, you most likely took which of the following tests?
Definition
draw a person test
Term
A clinician has developed a test that requires test takers to tell stories about a series of pictures of city skylines. Most likely, this new test is a:
Definition
projective tests
Term
If it were necessary to get the clearest and most accurate picture of the physical anatomy of the brain in order to aid in the diagnosis of a psychological disorder, the method of choice would be
Definition
MRI
Term
Racine has recently broken up with her boyfriend and at the same time lost her job. Which axis of DSM-IV-TR would these factors be included under
Definition
Axis IV
Term
Which of the following tests is likely to have the lowest reliability
Definition
draw a person test
Term
An adult frequently displays symptoms of depression at home, but seldom does so at work. In this case, clinical observations of this person at home would lack:
Definition
external validity
Term
Youssef is the kind of person who breaks laws and rules with no feeling of guilt and is emotionally shallow. He would probably score high on the MMPI-2 scale called:
Definition
psychopathic deviate.
Term
A patient complains of a phobia. Two lines of questioning by the clinician concern the specific object of the phobia and what the person does when he or she confronts that object. This clinician's orientation is probably:
Definition
behavioral
Term
If a clinician wanted to know more detailed information about a person's functioning in a specific area, the clinician would use:
Definition
a response invintory
Term
The clinical interviewer most interested in stimuli that trigger abnormal responses would have what orientation?
Definition
behavioral
Term
The single most effective treatment for schizophrenia is:
Definition
drug theropy
Term
The greater reliability of the DSM-IV-TR is most likely because of:
Definition
its field trials of new criteria and categories.
Term
What kind of validity is most important to clinicians in evaluating the utility of a classification system?
Definition
predictive validity
Term
If you received the diagnoses of both social phobia and agoraphobia, your diagnoses would be
Definition
comorbid
Term
The initial problem in studying the effectiveness of psychotherapy is:
Definition
defining what it means for a treatment to be successful.
Term
If a clinician begins by asking, “Would you tell me about yourself?” the clinician is most likely conducting
Definition
an unstructured interview
Term
Binet and Simon are know for their work in creating a:
Definition
intelligence test.
Term
A clinician gathers data about what things might be reinforcing to someone's abnormal behavior. This variety of assessment is called:
Definition
behavioral
Term
Clients check off either “Applies” or “Does Not Apply” to a series of 200 items dealing with what they do and what they think in a variety of situations. The kind of test they are taking most likely is a:
Definition
personality inventory
Term
A response inventory that asks individuals to provide detailed information about their typical thoughts and assumptions is a(n)
Definition
cognitive inventory.
Term
Axis III includes:
Definition
any relevant general medical condition.
Term
Compared to projective tests, personality inventories:
Definition
have higher validity.
Term
Under the instructions of a psychologist, Tina's mother records the number of times Tina hits her brother at home, and what happens immediately prior to the hitting. In this situation, Tina's mother is
Definition
a participant observer.
Term
In order to study the general effectiveness of treatment, Smith and Glass and their colleagues performed:
Definition
a meta-analysis of many studies.
Term
Because people who are manic have very elevated moods, a new test for mania includes questions about how happy the person feels and how often he or she laughs. This test has
Definition
face validity.
Term
The assumption behind the use of projective tests as assessment tools is that:
Definition
the responses come from the client's unconscious.
Term
When a person has organic brain impairment, that person would most likely have difficulty completing the/a
Definition
Bender-Gestalt.
Term
The proportion of panic-attack sufferers who are helped at least somewhat by antidepressant drugs is about
Definition
80%
Term
The treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder with exposure and response-prevention therapies has produced:
Definition
considerable improvement in more than half of those treate
Term
“Everyone has intrusive and unwanted thoughts. Most people ignore them. But some people blame themselves and expect terrible consequences, so they act in ways they hope will neutralize the thoughts.” The type of theorist most likely to agree with this quote would be a:
Definition
cognitive theorist.
Term
One of the drawbacks of exposure and response prevention as a therapy is that it:
Definition
is less effective with clients with obsessions but no compulsions.
Term
Steve is afraid of eating in public, expecting to be judged negatively and to feel humiliated. As a result, he always makes up excuses when asked out to eat. He would most likely be diagnosed with:
Definition
social phobia
Term
Psychodynamic and humanistic therapies have in common:
Definition
their lack of strong support from controlled studies.
Term
Panic disorder develops most often in
Definition
young women
Term
Karla's phobia about small insects is:
[image]
Definition
specific phobia.
Term
GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter believed to be involved in reducing the excitability of neurons in the limbic system, has been implicated in the etiology of:
Definition
generalized anxiety disorder.
Term
A lasting and groundless fear of a specific object, activity, or situation is called:
Definition
phobia
Term
A college student who is so anxious that he can't function unless his clothes are arranged by color and type in his closet is experiencing:
Definition
an obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Term
A phobic person is taken to a snake-handling convention in order to actually confront snakes as part of desensitization training. This is an example of the ______ technique.
Definition
in vivo
Term
Someone who can tell you exactly how many ceiling tiles there are in each classroom and how many people's names were in the credits of the movie he watched last night is exhibiting a:
Definition
counting compulsion.
Term
Panic disorder appears to be related to abnormal activity of which neurotransmitter?
Definition
norepinephrine
Term
Every once in a while, Ona feels nervous to the point of terror. It seems to come on suddenly and randomly. Her experience is an example of:
Definition
panic disorder
Term
Using traditional research studies, which of the following has been shown to be a highly effective long-term treatment for generalized anxiety?
Definition
antidepressant medication
Term
If a professor had the notion that there were germs lurking everywhere, on papers students handed in, on books checked out of the library, on the chalk left by the previous teacher, the professor would be experiencing:
Definition
obsessive ideas.
Term
Fear differs from anxiety in that
Definition
fear is to a specific threat and anxiety is more general.
Term
If a client were instructed to tape-record obsessive thoughts and listen to them for two hours each day, the client would be experiencing what therapy technique?
Definition
habituation training
Term
Antidepressants that are effective in treating obsessive-compulsive disorder serve to:
Definition
increase serotonin activity in the brain.
Term
Object relations therapists:
Definition
use psychodynamic techniques to help patients work through childhood trauma.
Term
Which of the following is true about drug and cognitive treatments for panic disorder?
Definition
both are effective
Term
For an antidepressant to be effective against obsessive-compulsive disorder, it must
Definition
increase serotonin activity.
Term
Someone who believes that among our ancestors, those who feared animals, darkness, and heights were more likely to survive long enough to reproduce, represents the ______ explanation of the development of phobias.
Definition
evolutionary
Term
Sally is never sure of the right thing to do. She married Tod and has been wondering for years if that was the right thing to do. She is exhibiting:
Definition
obsessive doubts
Term
A neurologist who was working with a person with obsessive-compulsive disorder would be suspicious of abnormality in what region of the brain?
Definition
caudate nuclei
Term
Regarding disasters and stress, which of the following is not true?
Definition
The symptoms of disaster-induced stress disorders are different from those of combat-induced disorders
Term
The flight-or-fight system is controlled in part by the:
Definition
sympathetic nervous system.
Term
The lymphocytes that identify foreign invaders and trigger the production of other kinds of immune cells are called:
Definition
helper T-cells.
Term
Posttraumatic stress disorders:
[image]
Definition

last longer than a month.

often occur with depression and sleep difficulties.
Term
Which of the following best reflects the correct order of Selye's stages of response to stress?
Definition
sympathetic arousal, parasympathetic response, exhaustion
Term
Investigators have shown that traumatic events are related to abnormal activity of the neurotransmitter:
Definition
norepinephrine.
Term
A person who has difficulty expressing unpleasant emotions such as anger or hostility is displaying a ______ and is at greater risk for heart disease/asthma.
Definition
repressive coping style
Term
Salina was terrified during the San Francisco earthquake of 1989 (who wouldn't be?). For a couple of weeks after, she did not sleep well or feel comfortable inside a building. However, gradually the fears diminished, and they disappeared within a month. Her reaction to the earthquake was:
Definition
an acute stress disorder.
Term
 
Helping survivors talk about their feelings and fears regarding a disaster is designed to:
[image]
Definition
  help people express anxiety, anger, and frustration.
Term
Imagine that you just had a “close call” while driving, but now you feel your body returning to normal. Which part of your nervous system is controlling this return to normalcy?
Definition
parasympathetic nervous system
Term
Those most likely to experience substantial stress symptoms after the terrorist attacks in the U.S. on September 11, 2001:
Definition
lived near New York
Term
If someone were to correlate scores on the Social Readjustment Rating Scale with the numbers of physical (health) complaints, one would most likely find:
[image]
Definition
a significant positive correlation.
Term
The Social Readjustment Rating Scale does all of the following except:
Definition
reflects responses from many different ethnic groups.
Term
Research suggests that which of the following is best related to a person's risk for developing a stress disorder?
Definition
generally being described as lacking in resiliency
Term
Looking for rainbows while walking the dog in the rain is an example of a:
Definition
stress response
Term
Which phase of the general adaptation syndrome is assumed to involve activation of the sympathetic nervous system?
Definition
alarm
Term
If you are similar to most other people, which of the following are you most likely to do to relieve stress?
Definition
watch TV
Term
Maureen is learning to warm her hands. She looks at a dial that reflects the output from a heat-sensitive device on her fingers. She simply tried to make the dial go up. This is a form of:
 
Definition
biofeedback training.
Term

 
A person with posttraumatic stress disorder who refuses to talk about it is:
Definition
experiencing avoidance
Term
A flash flood hits a small Appalachian community. Those providing critical incident stress debriefing intervention would:
Definition
provide short-term counseling services.
Term
We would expect posttraumatic stress disorder to be most common among military personnel who were prisoners of war for a:
Definition
long time, and who were not welcomed home.
Term
A woman complains of an assortment of physiological ailments. You think that she is intentionally producing the physical symptoms in order to gain attention. You think that the ailment fills some psychological need. You would diagnose:
Definition
factitious disorder
Term
Which of the following would you not find on the Social Readjustment Rating Scale?
Definition
Term
Research suggests that which of the following people would be most immune to developing a stress disorder following trauma?
Definition
someone who believes that events are generally under his or her control
Term
Which of the following accurately describes the sympathetic nervous system pathway of the stress response?
Definition
The hypothalamus excites the sympathetic nervous system which excites body organs to release hormones that serve as neurotransmitters, producing even more arousal
Term
Some people are stimulated by exciting, potentially dangerous activities that terrify others. These varying reactions represent differences in:
Definition
state anxiety.
Term
he part of the body that releases hormones into the bloodstream is the ______ system
Definition
endocrine
Term
A person with posttraumatic stress disorder who has symptoms of derealization and depersonalization is:
Definition
experiencing reduced responsiveness.
Term
The organ most related to controlling emotional memories and “turning off” the body's arousal is the
Definition
hippocampus
Term
After Marie's plane crashed, her mother came to stay with her. Her friends visited often, and went to lunch and dinner with her occasionally. This situation, which probably contributed to Marie's coping ability after the accident, relates to ______ as a factor in her response to the stress.
Definition
social support
Term
Of the following, the individual with the highest risk of developing heart disease is:
Definition
Type A, hostile
Term
A person who copes well with a happy event in life is showing a positive
Definition
stress response
Term
Regarding disasters and stress, which of the following is not true?
Definition
The symptoms of disaster-induced stress disorders are different from those of combat-induced disorders.
Term
The flight-or-fight system is controlled in part by the:
Definition
sympathetic nervous system.
Term
The lymphocytes that identify foreign invaders and trigger the production of other kinds of immune cells are called:
Definition
helper T-cells.
Term
Posttraumatic stress disorders
Definition
last longer than a month.
Term
Posttraumatic stress disorders:
Definition
often occur with depression and sleep difficulties
Term
Which of the following best reflects the correct order of Selye's stages of response to stress?
Definition
sympathetic arousal, parasympathetic response, exhaustion
Term
Investigators have shown that traumatic events are related to abnormal activity of the neurotransmitter:
Definition
norepinephrine.
Term
A person who has difficulty expressing unpleasant emotions such as anger or hostility is displaying a ______ and is at greater risk for heart disease/asthma.
Definition
repressive coping style
Term
Salina was terrified during the San Francisco earthquake of 1989 (who wouldn't be?). For a couple of weeks after, she did not sleep well or feel comfortable inside a building. However, gradually the fears diminished, and they disappeared within a month. Her reaction to the earthquake was:
Definition
an acute stress disorder
Term
Helping survivors talk about their feelings and fears regarding a disaster is designed to:
Definition
help people express anxiety, anger, and frustration.
Term
Imagine that you just had a “close call” while driving, but now you feel your body returning to normal. Which part of your nervous system is controlling this return to normalcy?
Definition
parasympathetic nervous system
Term
Those most likely to experience substantial stress symptoms after the terrorist attacks in the U.S. on September 11, 2001:
Definition
lived near new york
Term
If someone were to correlate scores on the Social Readjustment Rating Scale with the numbers of physical (health) complaints, one would most likely find
Definition
a significant positive correlation
Term
The Social Readjustment Rating Scale does all of the following except:
[image]
Definition
reflects responses from many different ethnic groups.
Term
Research suggests that which of the following is best related to a person's risk for developing a stress disorder?
Definition
generally being described as lacking in resiliency
Term
Looking for rainbows while walking the dog in the rain is an example of a
Definition
stress response
Term
Which phase of the general adaptation syndrome is assumed to involve activation of the sympathetic nervous system?
Definition
alarm