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Abnormal erythrocytes and inclusions
anisocytosis, poikilocytosis, stain variations, inclusions
55
Biology
06/06/2009

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Term
What is anisocytosis?
Definition
variation in size.
Term
what are microcytes?
Definition
rbc's with an mcv of less than 80 fL and a diameter of less than 7 u
Term
What causes microcytes?
Definition
impaired hemoglobin synthesis from ineffective iron utilization, absorption or release; or decreased or defective globin synthesis.
Term
Microcytes are associated with what diseases?
Definition
iron deficiency anemia, thalassemia and anemia of chronic disease.
Term
What are macrocytes?
Definition
rbc's with an mcv of greater than 100 fL and a diameter greater than 9 u.
Term
What does poikilocytosis mean?
Definition
variation in shape
Term
What is another name for the sea urchin type or burr cell?
Definition
echinocyte
Term
A rbc with 10 to 30 spicules or projections evenly distributed over the entire surface is called..?
Definition
echinocyte
Term
What abnormal cell shape is thought to be the result of an increase in the area of the outer leaflet of the lipid bilayer as compared to the inner layer?
Definition
echinocyte
Term
On a stained smear, an echinocyte could be artifactual. What would be the causes of this?
Definition
the alkaline glass effect, or ATP depletion in stored blood.
Term
Which abnormal red cell shape is associated with plasma chemical abnormalities such as dehydration, uremia, liver disease in newborns.
Definition
echinocyte
Term
An abnormal red cell that lacks the area of central pallor and has a decreased surface to volume ratio.
Definition
Spherocyte
Term
What conditions could cause spherocytes?
Definition
Hereditary spherocytosis, hemolytic anemias
Term
Hereditary spherocytosis is associated with a membrane protein defect. What protein is usually defective?
Definition
spectrin.
Term
What causes non-hereditary spherocytes?
Definition
membrane injury
Term
What kind of macrocytes are formed following acute hemorrhage or hemolysis?
Definition
round macrocytes.
Term
What abnormal red cell morphology is associated with recovery from acute blood loss, hemolytic anemias, parenchymal liver disease
Definition
round macrocytes
Term
What is a more common name for a drepanocyte?
Definition
sickle cell
Term
Disordered erythrocyte maturation results in what abnormal cell morphology?
Definition
macroovalocytes
Term
An oval to elongated cell with variable diameter is called...
Definition
elliptocyte
Term
The drepanocyte or sickle cell is associated with what abnormal hemoglobin?
Definition
Hgb S
Term
What are two forms of Drepanocytes?
Definition
holly leaf form and sickle cell
Term
What shape is a dacryocyte?
Definition
tear drop or pear shaped
Term
What abnormal red cell could result from forceful extrusion or removal of the nucleus in extramedullary hematopoiesis?
Definition
dacryocye
Term
Removal of rigid inclusion bodies such as hemosiderin, Howell Jolly bodies or Heinz bodies by reticuloendothelial cells can result in this cell type.
Definition
Dacryocyte/tear drop
Term
What shape is a codocyte when it's in the body?
Definition
Bell-shaped.
Term
What does a codocyte look like on the blood smear?
Definition
target shape.
Term
Increased cholesterol and phospholipid in red cell membrane causes increased surface area resulting in what abnormal cell?
Definition
codocyte/target cell
Term
What diseases are associated with codocytes?
Definition
obstructive liver disease, hemoglobinopathies (S and C), thalassemia, iron deficiency, postsplenectomy.
Term
What is the name for a scell that is shaped like a cup, that looks like a mouth on the blood smear?
Definition
stomatocyte
Term
Increase in the inner lipid bilayer in relation to the outer lipid bilayer results in what abnormal cell shape?
Definition
stomatocyte
Term
A cell of normal or slightly reduced size with 3 to 12 blunt spicules of uneven length distributed along the periphery of the cell membrane?
Definition
Acanthocyte
Term
How can you tell between an acanthocyte and echinocyte?
Definition
Acanthocyte has 3 to 12 spicules; echinocyte has 10 to 30 spicules
Term
This abnormal cell is caused by an increase in cholesterol, increased surface area and decreased lecithin in the cell membrane.
Definition
acanthocyte
Term
Cells that have an essentially normal cell volume, but demonstrate one or more projections or horns.
Definition
fragmented cells
Term
What abnormal red cell morphology is associated with mechanical trauma and impact hemolysis, DIC and pulmonary emboli?
Definition
fragmented cells
Term
What is a shistocyte?
Definition
cell fragments which are irregular in shape and size.
Term
what causes hypochromia?
Definition
abnormalities in hemoglobin synthesis
Term
if a red cell has a central pallor of greater than 3 u, what is this called?
Definition
hypochromia
Term
What illnesses can cause hypochromia?
Definition
iron deficiency anemia, thalassemia, sideroblastic anemia and lead poisoning
Term
If you see polychromasia, what are you actually seeing?
Definition
reticulocytes.
Term
What cells look gray-blue on a wright-stained smear and are also usually larger than normal?
Definition
polychromatophilic rbc's/reticulocytes
Term
If you saw hemoglobin C crystals in the blood smear, what would you do next?
Definition
hemoglobin electrophoresis
Term
Are Howell Jolly bodies visible on the wright stained smear?
Definition
yes.
Term
Is it possible for a nucleated RBC to have Howell Jolly bodies?
Definition
Yes.
Term
What are Howell Jolly bodies composed of?
Definition
DNA
Term
Is it normal to see a couple of Howell Jolly bodies here and there?
Definition
No. It's always abnormal to see them.
Term
What is basophilic stippling made out of?
Definition
precipitated RNA.
Term
What inclusions would you see in lead poisoning?
Definition
basophilic stippling
Term
what are Pappenheimer bodies made out of?
Definition
iron.
Term
What is a siderocyte?
Definition
A cell with pappenheimer bodies
Term
Are heinz bodies visible on the wright stained smear?
Definition
no
Term
What stain would you use if you wanted to check for heinz bodies?
Definition
supra-vital stain like crystal violet or brilliant cresyl blue
Term
what are heinz bodies made out of?
Definition
denatured or precipitated hemoglobin
Term
what inclusion is thought to be remnants of the mitotic spindle?
Definition
Cabot's rings