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AA Anatomy Fluids, electrolytes and acid/base balance
Chapter 27 Curless
25
Anatomy
05/02/2010

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Term
What is fluid balance?
Definition
when the amount of water you gain each day is equal to the amount you lose to the environment.
Term
What does maintaining fluid balance involve?
Definition
regulating the content and distribution of body water in the ECF and ICF.
Term
What are electrolytes?
Definition
ions released through the dissociation of inorganic compounds
Term
What are the three processes that are important for ICF and ECF?
Definition
fluid balance, electrolyte balance and acid-base balance
Term
Why are your kidneys important for pH?
Definition
They secrete hydrogen ions and generate buffers that enter the bloodstream
Term
What does pH regulate?
Definition
Whether or not enzymes can do their jobs
Term
What's happening when your pH is too high?
Definition
There's an inadequate number of H cations, making the blood alkaline.
Term
What's happening when your pH is too low?
Definition
excess of H catinos, making the blood too acidic.
Term
What is ECF? Examples?
Definition
extra-cellular fluids that are outside invididual cells. Plasma in the blood, urine, brain and spinal fluid
Term
What is ICF?
Definition
inter-cellular fluid that's inside individual cells and enters via osmosis
Term
What are the common cations in the body?
Definition
sodium, patassium, calcium, magnesium, H (pH)
Term
What are the common anions in the body?
Definition
chloride, organic anions (negatively charged peptides and proteins)
Term
Why would you have a higher chance of surviving a fall into cold water than into warm water?
Definition
Because cold water shuts down the body's use of oxygen temporarily
Term
What does Hypotonic mean?
Definition
much less concentration outside and a high concentration inside
Term
What does isotonic mean?
Definition
an equal concentration exists inside and outside the cell.
Term
What is the difference between isotonic and isomotic?
Definition
osmolarity takes into account the total concentration of penetrating solutes and non-penetrating solutes, whereas tonicity takes into account the total concentration of only non-penetrating solutes.
Term
What rapidly dehydrates you?
Definition
Extreme activity in hot weather, diarrhea, extreme hunger
Term
Where is ADH made? Where does it go? What does it do?
Definition
made in the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary gland. Released into the blood periodically to promote water retention/conservation.
Term
What does aldosterone affect?
Definition
thirst - determines the rate of Na absorption and K loss along the distal convoluted tubule.
Term
Which hormones affect the water balance in your body?
Definition
AD, aldosterone, ANP
Term
Where is ANP made and what does it do?
Definition
in the cardiac muscle cells in response to the abnormal stretching f the heart walls from elevated blood pressure or increased blood volume. Reduces thirst and block release of ADH and aldosterone.
Term
Why does ANP cause your blood pressure to go down?
Definition
there's more fluid loss at the kidneys because of the missing ADH and aldosterone
Term
What is calcium necessary for?
Definition
muscle contractions and neuron signals
Term
Which hormones are related to the skeleton?
Definition
PTH, calcitriol and calcitonin
Term
What are phosphates important for?
Definition
important electrolytes that are in RNA and DNA and in the buffer system