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A&P lab exam 2 Skeleton
The bones of the body
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Anatomy
05/06/2010

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Term
Skeleton
Definition
Axial Skeleton (bones that lie around the body's center of gravity)
appendicular (bones of the limbs, or appendages)
Term
Tuberosity
Definition
Large rounded projection; may be roughened
Term
Crest
Definition
Narrow ridge of bone; usually prominent
Term
Trochanter
Definition
Very large, blunt, irregularly shaped process (The only examples are on the femur)
Term
Line
Definition
Narrow ridge of bone; less prominent than a crest
Term
Tubercle
Definition
Small rounded projection or process
Term
Epicondyle
Definition
Raised area on or above a condyle
Term
Spine
Definition
Sharp, slender, often pointed projection
Term
Process
Definition
Prominence or projection
Term
Head
Definition
Bony expansion carried on a narrow neck
Term
Facet
Definition
Smooth nearly flat articular surface
Term
Condyle
Definition
Rounded articular projection
Term
Ramus
Definition
Armlike bar of bone
Term
Sinus
Definition
Space within a bone, filled with air and lined with mucous membrane
Term
Meatus
Definition
Canal-like passageway
Term
Fossa
Definition
Shallow, basinlike depression in a bone, often serving as an articular surface
Term
Groove
Definition
Furrow
Term
Fissure
Definition
Narrow, slitlike opening
Term
Foramen
Definition
Round or oval opening through a bone
Term
Articular Cartilage
Definition
Covers bone ends at movable joints
Term
Costal Cartilage
Definition
Found connecting the ribs to the sternum
Term
Laryngeal Cartilage
Definition
Connects the larynx
Term
Tracheal and bronchial cartilage
Definition
Reinforces other passageways of the respiratory system.
Term
Nasal Cartilage
Definition
Supports the external nose
Term
Intervertebral Discs
Definition
Separates and cushions bones of the spin
Term
Hyaline Cartilage
Definition
Looks like frosted glass by the unaided eye.
Most skeletal cartilage is made of hyaline. It provides a sturdy yet somewhat flexible structure.
Term
Elastic Cartilage
Definition
Can be envisioned as hyaline cartilage with more elastic fibers. More flexible and tolerant to repeated bending.
Term
Fibrocartilage
Definition
Rows of Chrondrocytes alternating with rows of thick collagen fibers. Great tensile strength and can withstand heavy compression. Found in vertebra and knees.
Term
Skull
Definition
Cranium and Facial Bones
Term
Cranium
Definition
Enclosed and protects fragile brain tissue.
Divided into Cranial vault (Calvaria) and the Cranial Floor (base)
Term
Cranial Vault (Calvaria)
Definition
Forms the superior, lateral, and posterior walls of the skull.
Term
Cranial Floor (Base)
Definition
Forms the skull bottom. 3 Distinct concavities:
1. Anterior 2. Middle 3. Posterior Cranial Fossae
Term
Frontal Bone
Definition
Anterior portion of cranium; forms the forehead, superior part of the orbit, and the floor of anterior cranial fossa.
Term
Supraorbital foramen (notch)
Definition
Opening above each orbit allowing blood vessels and nerves to pass
Term
Glabella
Definition
Smooth area between the eyes
Term
Parietal Bone
Definition
Posterolateral to the frontal bone, forming sides of cranium
Term
Sagittal suture
Definition
Midline articulation point of the two parietal bones.
Term
Coronal suture
Definition
Point of articulation of parietals with frontal bone
Term
Temporal Bone
Definition
Inferior to parietal bone on later skull. The temporals can be divided into four major parts: the squamous region abuts the paritals; the tympanic region surrounds the external ear opening; the Mastoid region is the area posterior to the ear; and the petrus region forms the lateral portion of the skull base.
Term
Squamous Suture
Definition
Point of articulation of the temporal bone with the parietal bone. (squamous)
Term
Zygomatic Process
Definition
A bridgelike projection joining the zygomatic bone (cheekbone) anteriorly. Together these two bones form the zygomatic arch. (squamous)
Term
Mandibular fossa
Definition
Rounded depression on the inferior surface of the zygomatic process (anterior to the ear); forms the socket for the mandibular condyle, the point where the mandible (lower jaw) joins the cranium. (squamous)
Term
External acoustic meatus
Definition
Canal leading to eardrum and middle ear (squamous)
Term
Styloid Process
(stylo= stake, pointed object)
Definition
Needlelike projection inferior to external acoustic meatus; attachment point for muscles and ligaments of the neck. This process is often broken off demonstration skulls. (squamous)
Term
Mastoid Process
Definition
Rough projection inferior and posterior to external acoustic meatus; attachment site for muscles. (Mastoid)
Term
Mastoiditis
Definition
The mastoid process, full of air cavities and so close to the middle ear - a trouble spot for infections - often becomes infected too, a condition referred to as mastoiditis.
Term
Meningitis
Definition
Because the mastoid area is seperated from the brain by only a think layer of bone, an ear infection that has spread to the mastoid process can inflame the brain coverings, or the meninges.
Term
Stylomastoid foramen
Definition
Tiny opening between the mastoid and styloid processes through which cranial nerve VII leaves the cranium. (Mastoid)
Term
Jugular foramen
Definition
Opening medial to the styloid process through which the internal jugular vein and crainial nerves IX, X, and XI pass. (Petrous)
Term
Carotid canal
Definition
Opening medial to the styloid process though which the internal carotid artery passes into the cranial cavity. (Petrous)
Term
Internal Acoustic meatus
Definition
Opening on posterior aspect (petrous region) of temporal bone allowing passage of cranial nerves VII and VIII. (Petrous)
Term
Foramen Lacerum
Definition
A jagged opening between the petrous temperoral bone and the sphenoid providing passage for a number of small nerves and for the internal carotid artery to enter the middle cranial fossa (After it passe through the part of the temporal lobe). (Petrous)
Term
Occipital Bone
Definition
Most posterior bone of the cranium - forms floor and back wall. Joins sphenoid bone anteriorly via its narrow bascioccipital region.
Term
Lambdoid suture
Definition
Site of articulation of occipital cone and parietal bones.
Term
Foramen magnum
Definition
Large opening in the base of occipital which allows the spinal cord to join with the brain.
Term
Occipital condyles
Definition
rounded projections lateral to the foramen magnum that articulate with the first cervical vertebra (atlas).
Term
Hypoglossal canal
Definition
Opening medial and superior to the occipital condyle through which the hypoglossal nerve (cranial nerve XII) passes.
Term
External Occipital crest and protuberance
Definition
Midline prominences posterior to the foramen magnum.
Term
Sphenoid Bone
Definition
Bat-shaped bone forming the anterior plateau of the middle cranial fossa across the width of the skull.
Term
Greater Wings
Definition
Portions of the sphenoid seen exteriorly anterior to the temporal and forming a part of the eye orbits.
Term
Superior orbital fissures
Definition
Jagged openings in orbits providing passage for cranial nerves III, IV, V, and VI to enter the orbit where they serve the eye.
Term
Sella Turcica
(Turk's Saddle)
Definition
A saddle-shaped region in the sphenoid midline which nearly encloses the pituitary gland.
Term
Lesser wings
Definition
bat-shaped portions of the sphenoid anterior to the sella turcica. Posteromedially these terminate in the pointed anterior clinoid process, which provide an anchoring sire for the dura mater (outermost membrane covering of the brain.
Term
Optic canals
Definition
Openings in the bases of the lesser wings through which the optic nerves enter the orbits to serve the eyes; these foramina are connected by the chiasmatic groove.
Term
Foramen rotundum
Definition
Opening lateral to the sella turcia providing passage for the a branch of the fifth cranial never. (This foramen is not visibe on an inferior view of the skull).
Term
Foramen ovale
Definition
Opening posterior to the sella trucica that allows passage of a branch of the fifth cranial nerve.
Term
Ethmoid Bone
Definition
Irregularly shaped bone anterior to the sphenoid. Forms the roof of the nasal cavity, upper nasal septum, and part of the medial orbit walls.
Term
Crista galli
(cock's comb)
Definition
Vertical projection providing a point of attachment for the dura mater, helping to secure the brain within the skull.
Term
Cribriform plates
Definition
Bony plates lateral to the crista galli through which olfactory fibers pass to the brain from the nasal mucosa. Together the cribriform plates and the midline crista galli form the horizontal plate of the ethmoid bone
Term
Perpendicular Plate
Definition
Inferior projection of the ethmoid that forms the superior part of the nasa septum.
Term
Lateral masses
Definition
Irregularly shaped thin-walled bony regions flanking the perpendicular plate laterally. Their lateral surfaces (orbital plates) shape part of the medial orbit wall.
Term
Superior and middle nasal conchae (turbinates)
Definition
Thin, delicately coiled plates of bones extending medially from the lateral masses of the ethmoid into the nasal cavity. The conchae make air flow through the nasal cavity more efficient and greatly increases the surface area of the mucosa that covers them, thus increasing the mucosa's ability to warm and humidify incoming air.
Term
Facial Bones
Definition
Of the 14 bones composing the face, 12 are paired. Only the mandible and vomer are single bones. An additional bone, the hyoid bone, although not a facial bone, is considered here because of its location.
Term
Mandible
Definition
The lower jawbone, which articulates with the temporal bones in the only freely movable joints of the skull.
Term
Mandibular body
Definition
Horizontal portion; forms the chin.
Term
Mandible ramus
Definition
Vertical extension of the body on either side.
Term
Mandibular condyle
Definition
Articulation point of the mandible with the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone.
Term
Coronoid Process
Definition
Jutting anterior portion of the ramus; site of muscle attachment.
Term
Mandibular angle
Definition
Posterior point at which ramus meets the body.
Term
Mental foramen
Definition
Prominent opening on the body (Later to the midline) that transmits the mental blood vessels and nerve to the lower jaw.
Term
Mandibular foramen
Definition
Open lower jaw of the skull to identify this prominent foramen on the medial aspect of the mandibular ramus. This foramen permits passage of the nerve involved with tooth sensation (mandibular branch of cranial nerve V) and is the site where the dentist injects Novocain to prevent pain while working on the lower teeth.
Term
Alveolar margin
Definition
Superior margin of mandible; contains sockets in which the teeth lie.
Term
Mandibular Symphysis
Definition
Anterior median depression indicating point of mandibular fusion.
Term
Maxillae
Definition
Two bones fused in a median suture; form the upper jawbone and part of the orbits. All facial bones, except the mandible, join the maxillae. Thus they are the main, or keystone, bones of the face.
Term
Alveolar Margin
Definition
Inferior margin containing sockets (alveoli) in which teeth lie.
Term
Palatine Processes
Definition
Form the anterior hard palate.
Term
Infraorbital foramen
Definition
Opening under the orbit carrying the infraorbital nerves and blood vessels to the nasal region.
Term
Incisive fossa
Definition
Large bilateral opening located posterior to the central incisor tooth of the maxilla and piercing the hard palate; transmits the nasopalatine arteries and blood vessels.
Term
Lacrimal Bone
Definition
Fingernail-sized bones forming a part of the medial orbit walls between the maxilla and the ethmoid. Each lacrimal bone is pierced by an opening, the lacrimal fossa, which serves as a passageway for tears (lacrima = "tear").
Term
Palatine Bone
Definition
Paired bones posterior to the palatine processes; form posterior hard palate and part of the orbit.
Term
Zygomatic Bone
Definition
Lateral to the maxilla; forms the portion of the face commonly called the cheekbone, and forms part of the lateral orbit. Its three processes are named for the bones with which they articulate.
Term
Nasal Bone
Definition
Small rectangular bones forming the bridge of the nose.
Term
Vomer
Definition
Blade-shaped bone (vomer= plow) in median plane of nasal cavity that forms the posterior and inferior nasal septum.
Term
Inferior Nasal Conchae (Turbinates)
Definition
Thin curved bones protruding medially from the lateral walls of the nasal cavity; serve the same purpose as the turbinate portions of the ethmoid bone.
Term
Hyoid Bone
Definition
Not really considered or sounted as a skull bone, the hyoid cone is located in the throat above the larynx where it serves as a point of attachment for many tongue and neck muscles. It does not articulate with any other bone and is thus unique. It is horseshoe-shaped with a body and two pairs od horns, cornua.