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A&P 1 Ch 6-10
Bone tissues/shapes/articulations/axialskel/appendicskel
50
Anatomy
03/03/2010

Additional Anatomy Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term

Process

Definition

-Elevations & Projections

 

-Any projection or bump

Term
Ramus
Definition

-Elevations and projections

 

-An extension o f a bone making an angle with the rest of the structure

Term
Trochanter
Definition

-Processes formed where tendons or ligaments attach

 

-A large, rough projection

Term
Tuberosity
Definition

-Process formed where tendons or ligaments attach

 

-a smaller, rough projection

Term
Tubercle
Definition

-Process formed where tendons are ligaments attach

 

-A small, rounded projection

Term
Crest
Definition

-Processes formed where tendons or ligaments attach

 

-A prominent ridge

Term
Line
Definition

-Processes formed where tendons or ligaments attach

 

-a low ridge

Term
Spine
Definition

-Processes formed where tendons or ligaments attach

 

-A pointed or narrow process

Term
Head
Definition

-Processes formed for articulation with adjacent bones

 

-The expanded articular end of epiphysis, separated from the shaft by a neck

Term
Neck
Definition

-Processes formed for articulation with adjacent bones

 

-A narrow connection between epiphysis and the diaphyis

Term
Condyle
Definition

-Processes formed for articulation with adjacent bones

 

-A smooth, rounded articular process

Term
Trochlea
Definition

-Processes formed for articulation with adjacent bones

 

-A smooth, grooved articular process shaped like a pulley

Term
Facet
Definition

-Processes formed for articulation with adjacent bones

 

-A small, flat articular surface

Term
Fossa
Definition

-Depressions

 

-A shallow depression

Term
Sulcus
Definition

-Depression

 

-A narrow groove

Term
Foramen
Definition

-Openings

 

-A rounded passageway for blood vessels or nerves

Term
Canal or Meatus
Definition

-Openings

 

-A passageway through the substance of a bone

Term
Fissure
Definition

-Openings

 

-An elongated cleft

Term
Sinus or Antrum
Definition

-Openings

 

-A chamber within a bone, normally filled with air

Term
Diaphysis
Definition

The shaft of a long bone

 

A heavy wall of compact bone, or dense bone

 

A central space called medullary (marrow) cavity

Term
Epiphysis
Definition

Wide part at each end

 

Articulation with other bones

 

Mostly spongy (cancellous) bone

 

Covered with compact bone (cortex)

Term
Metaphysis
Definition
Where the diaphysis and epiphysis meet
Term
Osteocyte
Definition

-Mature bone cell that maintains the bone matrix

- participate in the repair of damaged bone. 

Term
Osteoblast
Definition

Immature bone cell that secretes organic components of matrix. 

 

produce new bone matrix

Term
Osteoprogenitor cell
Definition

Stem cell whose divisions produce osteoblasts

 

(osteoblasts: immature bone cell that secretes organic compounds of matrix)

Term
Osteoclast
Definition
Multinucleate cell that secretes acides and enzymes to dissolve bone matrix
Term
Canaliculi
Definition

Form pathways for blood vessels

 

Exchange nutrients and wastes

 

Extends between the lacunae and nearby blood vessels

Term
Periosteum 
Definition

Covers outer surfaces of bones

 

Consists of outer fibrous and inner cellular layers

 

 

Term
Lacunae
Definition
Pockets that are typically organized around blood vessels that branch through the bony matrix
Term

Osteon

Haversian System

Definition
the basic unit of a mature compact bone
Term

Central Canal

 

Haversian Canal

Definition
Canal that contains one or more blood vessels that carry blood to and from the osteon. Generally run parallel to the surface of the bone
Term
Endochondral Ossification
Definition

The bone replaces existing cartilage.

 

Ex: embryo to child

Term

Intramembranous ossification

Dermal ossification

Definition

Bone develops directly from mesenchyme or fibrous connective tissue.

This process results in dermal bones. 

 

Ex: Flat bones of the skull, the mandible, and the clavicle.

Term
Calcification
Definition
The deposition of calcium salts; Can occur in tissues other than bone, resulting in a calcified tissue (ex: calcified cartilage) that does not resemble bone.
Term
Ossification
Definition
Replacing other tissues with bone / formation of bone
Term
Appositional Growth of Bones
Definition
production of new cartilage at the outer surface of a bone. 
Term
Endosteum
Definition
an incomplete cellular layer and lines the medullary cavity. This layer is active during bone growth, repair, and remodeling. It covers the trabeculae of spongy bone and lines the inner surfaces of the central canals.  The endosteum consists of a simple flattened layer of osteoprogenitor cells that covers the bone matrix, generally without any intervening connective tissue fibers. 
Term
Compact Bones
Definition
Dense bone that contains parallel osteons
Term
Spongy Bone
Definition

-Does not have osteons

-the matrix forms an open network of trabeculae

-trabeculae have no blod vessels

-the space between trabeulae is filled iwth red  bone marrow

-contains blood vessels

-forms red blood cells

-supplies nutrients to osteocyts

-Yellow Marrow

-in some bones, holds yellow marrow

-is yellow bc it stores fat

Term
Fontanels
Definition
The largest area between cranial bones
Term
Long Bones
Definition
Relatively long and slender. Long bones are located int he arm and forearm, thigh, leg, palms, soles, fingers, and toes. 
Term
Flat bones
Definition
have thin roughly parallel surfaces. FB form the roof of the skull, the sternum, the ribs, and the scapulae. They provide protection for underlying soft tissues and offer an extensive surface area for the attachment of skeletal muscles
Term
Sutural bones
Definition
are small, flat, irregularly shaped bones between the flat bones of the skull. There are individual variations in the number,shape, and position of the sutural bones. Their borders are like pieces of a jigsaw puzzle, and they range in size from a grain of sand to a quarter.
Term
Irregular Bones
Definition
have complex shapes with short, flat, notched, or ridged surfaces. the spinal vertebrae, the bones of the pelvis, and several skull bones are irregular bones.
Term
Short Bones
Definition
small and boxy. Ex: carpal bones and tarsal bones
Term
Sesamoid Bones
Definition
Small, flat, and shaped somewhat like a sesame seed. They develop inside tendons and are most commonly located near joints at the knees, hands, and feet. Ex: Patella
Term
Synarthrosis
Definition

Stubborn/Stiff

Doesn't move. Can be fibrous or cartilaginous.

Term
Amphiarthrosis
Definition
Can be fibrous or cartilaginous. Slightly moveable, opposite of ample room, just enough room. 
Term
Diarthrosis
Definition
Freely movable joint/synovial joint. Does Move. 
Term
Meniscus
Definition
a pad of fibrous cartilage situated between opposing bones within a synovial joint. Menisci, or articular discs, may subdivide a synovial cavity, channel the flow of synovial fluid, or allow for variations in th shapes of the articular surfaces.