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9/EOC
9/ EOC
54
Anatomy
10/25/2010

Additional Anatomy Flashcards

 


 

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Term
smooth muscle
Definition
what muscle type has elongated cells and is found in the walls of the urinary bladder
Term
how does the term epimysuim relate to the role and position of this connective tissue sheath
Definition
epimysium "outside the muscle" and this connective tissue sheath is the outtermost muscle sheath which encloses the entire muscle
Term
which myofilaments have binding sites for calcium?
Definition
the thin myofilaments
Term
what specific molecule binds calcium?
Definition
the thin myofilaments have binding sites for calciumon the tropin molecules forming part of these filaments
Term
in a resting muscle SR would have the highest concentration of calcium ions
Definition
which structure - t-tubule, mitochondria or SR contains the highest concentration of calcium ions in a resting muscle
Term
the mitochondrion
Definition
provides the ATP needed for muscle activity
Term
the axon terminal, the synaptic cleft and the junctional folds of the sarcolemma
Definition
what are the 3 components of neuromuscular junction
Term
the final trigger for contraction is a certain contraction of calcium ions in the cytosol
the initial trigger is depolarization of the sarcolema
Definition
what is the final trigger for contraction. what is the initial trigger
Term
what prevents the filaments from sliding back to their original position each time a myosin cross bridge detaches from actin
Definition
there are always some myosin cross bridges bound to the actin myofilament during the contraction phase. thus,  backwards sliding of the actin filament is prevented
Term
w/ out ATP rigor would occur because the myosin heads couldnt dettach
Definition
what would happen if a muscle fiber suddenly ran out of ATP when sarcomeres had only partially contracted
Term
motor unit
Definition
AN AXON OF A MOTOR NEURON AND ALL THE MUSCLE FIBERS IT INNERVATES
Term
events excitation- contraction coupling are occuring
Definition
what is happening to a muscle during the latent period of a twitch contraction 
Term
immediately after he grabs the bar his bicep muscles are contracting isometrically
Definition
jay is competiting in a chinup competition. what type of muscle contractions are occuring in his biceps
Term
as he moves upward towards the bar they are constricting isonically and concentrically
Definition
jay is competiting in a chinup competition.
as his body begins to move upward towards the bar, what type of muscle contractions are occuring
Term
as he lowers his body the biceps are contracting isonically and eccentrically
Definition
jay is competiting in a chinup competition.
when his body begins to approach the mat what muscle contractions are occuring
Term
oxygen debt
Definition
the extra amount of O2 needed for restorative processes
Term
because it takes sometime for his heart rate and overall metabolism to return to its resting state after exercise
Definition
guy is done jogging and is now breathing heavily. his legs ache and he is weak. why is he breathing heavily
Term
he had likely incured an oxygen deficit.
Definition
guy is done jogging and is now breathing heavily. his legs ache and he is weak. what ATP generated pathway have his working muscles been using that lead to such breathlessness
Term
although joggin is an aerobic exrcise theres always some anaerobic respiration that occurs as well- the amount depends on exercise intensity. as fatigue occurs potassium ions accumulate in the t tubules and latic acid and phosphate ions accumalate in the muscle cells
Definition
guy is done jogging and is now breathing heavily. his legs ache and he is weak. what metabolic product might account for his sore muscles and his feelings of muscle weakness?
Term
list 2 factors that influence contractile force 
Definition
muscle fiber size, the number of muscle fibers stimulated, the frequency of stimulation, and the degree of muscle stretch
Term
2 that influence velocity of contraction
Definition
muscle fiber type, load, and number of motor units contracting
Term
fast glycolitic fibers would provide for short periods of intense strengthen needed to lift and move furniture
Definition
jim called several friends to help him move. would he prefer those w/ more slow oxidative muscle fibers of those w/ more fast glycolytic fibers as his helpers? why?
Term
relative to their effect on muscle size and function, how do aerobic and anaerobic exercises differ
Definition

to increase muscle size and to strengthen anaerobic exercise is the best

 

muscle endurance is enhanced by aerobic exercise

Term
calcium
Definition
is the trigger for contraction for all muscle types
Term
calcium
Definition
binds to troponin in the actin filaments in skeletal muscle cells. in smooth muscle cells, it binds to cytoplasmic protein called calmodulin
Term
how does the stress-relaxation response suit the role of smooth muscles in hallow organs?
Definition
hallow organs that have smooth muscle cells helping to form their walls often must temporarily store the organs contents (urine food residues) an ability insured by the stress relaxation response

Term
how is the multinucleate condition achieved during development of skeletal muscle fibers
Definition
during development of skeletal muscle fibers the myoblast cells join together forming multinucleate myotubles
Term
stringier
Definition
the connective tissue in muscles increase with age causing muscles to get
Term
how can we defer some of the effects of age on skeletal muscle
Definition
regular exercise and strength training help to defer the loss in strength and muscle wasting that tends to occur w/ age and improve neuromuscular function
Term
tetanus
Definition
a state of substained contraction of a muscle that is a normal aspect of skeletal muscle functioning
Term
endomysium
Definition
the connective tissue covering that encloses the sarcolemma of an individual muscle fiber
Term
fascicle
Definition
a bundle of muscle fibers enclosed by a connective tissue sheath
Term
thin
Definition

thick and thin myofilaments have different compositions.

indicate whether the filament is thick or thin

 

 

contains actin

Term
thick
Definition

thick and thin myofilaments have different compositions.

indicate whether the filament is thick or thin

 

contains ATPase

Term
thin
Definition
thick and thin myofilaments have different compositions. indicate whether the filament is thick or thin attaches to the Z disc
Term
thick
Definition

thick and thin myofilaments have different compositions. indicate whether the filament is thick or thin

 

contains myosin

Term
thin
Definition
thick and thin myofilaments have different compositions. indicate whether the filament is thick or thin contans troponin
Term
thick
Definition

thick and thin myofilaments have different compositions. indicate whether the filament is thick or thin

 

doesnt lie in the I band

Term
transmit the action potential deep into the muscle cells
Definition
the function of the T tubules in muscles contraction is to
Term
neuromuscular junctions
Definition
the sites where motor nerve impulse is tranmitted from the nerve endings to the skeletal muscles cell membranes are the
Term
twitch
Definition
contraction elicited by a single brief stimulus is called a
Term
fused tetanus
Definition
a smooth substained contraction resulting form very rapid stimulation of the muscle , in which no evidence of relaxation is seen
Term
characteristics of isometric contraction include
Definition
increased muscle tension throughout the contraction phase, absence of shortening, use in resistence training
Term
a coupled reaction of creatine phosphate w/ ADP
Definition
during muscle contraction,ATP is provided by a coupled reaction by creatine phosphate with ADP, aerobic respiration of glucose and anaerobic glycolysis.

which provides ATP fastest


Term
a coupled reaction w/ of creatine phosphate w/ ADP , anaerobic glycolysis
Definition
during muscle contraction,ATP is provided by a coupled reaction by creatine phosphate with ADP, aerobic respiration of glucose and anaerobic glycolysis.

which doesnt require oxygen to be available
Term
aerobic respiration of glucose
Definition
during muscle contraction,ATP is provided by a coupled reaction by creatine phosphate with ADP, aerobic respiration of glucose and anaerobic glycolysis. which provides the highest yield of ATP per glucose molecule
Term
Definition

during muscle contraction,ATP is provided by a coupled reaction by creatine phosphate with ADP, aerobic respiration of glucose and anaerobic glycolysis. which results in the formation of latic acid

 

anaerobic glycolysis

Term
aerobic respiration of glucose
Definition
during muscle contraction,ATP is provided by a coupled reaction by creatine phosphate with ADP, aerobic respiration of glucose and anaerobic glycolysis. which have carbon dioxide and water products
Term
aerobic respiration of glucose
Definition

during muscle contraction,ATP is provided by  a coupled reaction by creatine phosphate with ADP, aerobic respiration of glucose and anaerobic glycolysis.

which is most important in endurence sports

Term
acetylcholine
Definition
the neurotransmitter released by somatic somatic motor neurons
Term
sodium
Definition
the ions that enter the skeletal muscle cell during action potential generation are
Term
holds a reserve supply of oxygen in the muscle
Definition
myoglobin has a specific function in the muscle tissue. it
Term
aerobic exercise results in
Definition

increased cardiovascular efficiency

more mitochondria in the muscle cells

increased neuromuscular system coordination

 

Term
single unit
Definition
the smooth muscle type found in the walls of digestive and urinary system organs and that exhibits gap junctions and pacemaker cells is