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2) CH 21 abdomen
health assessment FSCJ RN 2011
47
Nursing
10/28/2011

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Term
linea alba
Definition
midline "seam" that connects muscles of the ventral abdominal walls
Term
rectus abdominis
Definition
strip extending the length of the midline, and its edge is often palpable. The muscles protect and hold the organs in place, and they flex the vertebral column.
AKA your "Abs"
Term
viscera
Definition
all the internal organs
Term
solid viscera
Definition
hose that maintain a characteristic shape (liver, pancreas, spleen, adrenal glands, kidneys, ovaries, and uterus)
Term
hollow viscera
Definition
(stomach, gallbladder, small intestine, colon, and bladder)
Term
costovertebral angle
Definition
The twelfth rib forms an angle with the vertebral column,
Term
left kidney lies her
Definition
at the eleventh and twelfth ribs./costovertebral angle.
Term
RIGHT UPPER QUADRANT organs
Definition
Liver

Gallbladder

Duodenum

Head of pancreas

Right kidney and adrenal

Hepatic flexure of colon

Part of ascending and transverse colon
Term
LEFT UPPER QUADRANT (LUQ)organs
Definition
Stomach

Spleen

Left lobe of liver

Body of pancreas

Left kidney and adrenal

Splenic flexure of colon

Part of transverse and descending colon
Term
right lower quadrant organs
Definition
Cecum

Appendix

Right ovary and tube

Right ureter

Right spermatic cord
Term
LEFT LOWER QUADRANT (LLQ)organs
Definition
Part of descending colon

Sigmoid colon

Left ovary and tube

Left ureter

Left spermatic cord
Term
MIDLINE organs
Definition
Aorta

Uterus (if enlarged)

Bladder (if distended)
Term
name 4 quadrants
Definition
RUQ, LUQ, RLQ, LLQ
Term
name 3 center quadrants
Definition
epigastric, umbilical, hypogastric/suprapubic
Term
Scaphoid abdomen
Definition
when laying supine, the abdomen will appear to curve in between ribs and hips (like a starving person)
Term
protuberant abdomen
Definition
when laying supine, the abdomen will appear to still be distended higher than what a normal range should be. (like a pregnant woman)
Term
Ascites inspection
Definition
Inspection. Single curve. Everted umbilicus. Bulging flanks when supine. Taut, glistening skin; recent weight gain; increase in abdominal girth.
Term
ascites
Definition
Ascites is excess fluid in the space between the tissues lining the abdomen and abdominal organs (the peritoneal cavity).
A person with ascites usually has severe liver disease.
Term
hernia
Definition
A hernia is usually a sac formed by the lining of the abdominal cavity (peritoneum). The sac comes through a hole or weak area in the fascia, the strong layer of the abdominal wall that surrounds the muscle.
Term
hepatomegaly
Definition
liver enlargement
Term
striae
Definition
stretch marks!
hey occur when elastic fibers in the reticular layer of the skin are broken after rapid or prolonged stretching, as in pregnancy or excessive weight gain.
Term
Hyperactive bowel sounds
Definition
are loud, high-pitched, rushing, tinkling sounds that signal increased motility.
Term
Hypoactive or absent sounds
Definition
follow abdominal surgery or with inflammation of the peritoneum
Term
How to auscultate sounds.. which order of quadrants.
Definition
RLC, RUC, LUC, LLC
Term
bruits
Definition
s the term for the unusual sound that blood makes when it rushes past an obstruction (called turbulent flow) in an artery when the sound is auscultated with the bell portion of a stethoscope.
Term
Using firmer pressure with your stethoscope, check over the aorta, renal arteries, iliac, and femoral arteries, especially in people with hypertension to listen for
Definition
bruits
Term
bruit abdominal sound locations
Definition
aorta, left renal artery, illiac artery, femoral artery
Term
4 things to look for while palpating the abdomen
Definition
Muscle guarding.

Rigidity.

Large masses.

Tenderness.
Term
order of inspection for abdomen
Definition
inspect, auscultation, percuss, palpate
Term
why is the abdomen inspection order different than regular inspections?
Definition
because palpation can increase peristalsis
Term
abdomen dullness while percussing occurs
Definition
over a distended bladder, adipose tissue, fluid, or a mass.
Term
abdominal Hyperresonance while percussing is present when
Definition
Hyperresonance is present with gaseous distention.
Term
Begin in the area of lung resonance, and percuss down the left side interspaces until the sound changes to a dull quality to find the liver.. this is generally at which space
Definition
5th intercostal space
Term
borborygmi
Definition
audible hyperactive intestinal peristalis
Term
cachexia
Definition
malnutrition/waisting
Term
epistaxis
Definition
nose bleeds
Term
fecalith
Definition
impacted mass of feces in colon
Term
fissure
Definition
groove on the surface of an organ
Term
fistula
Definition
abnormal passage or connection between 2 organs
Term
gastroenteritis
Definition
inflammation of stomach and intestines
Term
hemoptosis
Definition
coughing up blood tinged sputum
Term
hematachezia
Definition
visible bleeding in bowel movement
Term
changes in the abdomen for the elderly
Definition
increased deposits of fat on abdomen and hips and less on extremeties.

abdominal muscles are thinner than younger patients.

abdominal organs easier to palpate because of thinner abs.

kidney is about 1-2cm below costal margin when inhaling and kidneys are easier to palpate.
Term

The main reason auscultation precedes percussion and palpation of the abdomen is:
Definition
d. to prevent distortion of bowel sounds that might occur after percussion and palpation.
Term
Which structure is located in the left lower quadrant of the abdomen?
Definition
b. Sigmoid colon
Term
When inspecting the anterior chest you should assess for:
Definition

The shape and configuration of the chest wall.
Term

An abdomen that is bulging and stretched in appearance is described as:
Definition
protuberant.