Shared Flashcard Set

Details

16th Century Counterpoint 3 and 4 Voice
3rd and 4th Species Counterpoint rules
91
Music
05/11/2012

Additional Music Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
In 3 voice counterpoint vertical chords were treated as a super position of constant intervals above what voice?
Definition
The lowest voice
Term
What are the possible positions of sonoroties in 3 voice writing?
Definition
5/3-Root Pos, 6/3 First inversion ( 2nd Inversion is not possible because it creates a diss 4th with the bass)
Term
What note is usually doubled in a 3 part chord?  what doublings are also possible or rare?
Definition
The bass voice is usually doubled, doublings at the unison are possibe, but doublings in the upper voice and at the octave are rare.
Term
Chords used at the opening or conclusion of 3 voice compositions are limited what are the possibilities?
Definition
Most typical: octave w double top, octave with doubled bass, 8/5, 8/3, 5/3, 10/5.
Term
What do most 3 pt peices close with?
Definition
either a double octave or a unison
Term
what position do diminished triads appear in ?
Definition
They appear ONLY in 6/3 (1st inversion) - SO the dissonant interval occurs btw the upper voice.
Term
Augmented triads in what position are VERY rare?
Definition
6/3 position
Term
C#, F#, and G# is what and what is NEVER done to it...
Definition
It is Ficta and it is NEVER doubled. EVER.
Term
THE one and only case of doubling ficta is what...
Definition
Bb- ONLY TIME EVER.
Term
what should you strive to do with the voices and what intervocalic span is acceptable between voices?
Definition
Strive to keep the spacing between the voices very close, esp in the upper voices, also the total intervocalic span should never exceed a PERFECT 12th
Term
What is permitted in short stretches?
Definition
voice crossing
Term
What are the rules for perfect intervals in 3 voice texture?
Definition

-NO PARALLEL unisons, 5ths or octaves ( hint- sometimes voice crossing can FIX parallels)

 

-Unisons are permitted as doubled notes on any beat BUT they must be approached AND left by contrary motion or oblique motions.

Term
What is Fauxbourdon Technique?
Definition
it is extended passages of consecutive stepwise first inversion chords. (6/3) - not common for the 16th century but SOMETIMES used.
Term
In Direct 5ths what must the voices do simultaneiously? What about direct octaves?
Definition

One of the voices must move step-wise while the other leaps

 

Direct octaves are somewhat rare but same rules as teh direct 5ths apply

Term
What should you avoid doing with the voices in relation to movement?
Definition

having all voices moving or leaping in the same direction.

 

Term
What note values must you have in 3 voice passing notes and suspensions?
Definition
ONLY Half note values are permitted
Term
what must a half note passing note move against?
Definition

a consonant whole note

 

Term
single passing notes are common - what direction do they go in?
Definition
They can ascend or descend
Term

Double passing notes in what are permitted?

 

Definition
Double passing notes are permitted in 3rd and 6ths and also contrary motion
Term
What kind of suspension is most common in 3 voice?
Definition
The most common sus in 3 voices is 4-3 suspensions.
Term

The bass voice may ____ upon the resolution of the suspension  but the doublings of the resolution on the next beat is ____

 

Definition
Leap, Rare
Term
7-6 suspensions are possible in what positions?
Definition
7/3 8/7 and 7/5 ( however in 7/5 the 3rd voice must move upon the resolution or the sus in order to avoid a diss. in the upper part
Term
2-3 suspensions have four possible positions what are they?
Definition

4/2, 5/2, 6/2, and 9/2

 

4/2 and 5/2 resolve to either a root or 1/st inversion triad

Term
the 9-8 and 2-1 sus are the same thing... are are very infrequently encountered... what are the more common 9-? suspensions?
Definition
9/3 and 3/2
Term
Double Suspensions are found in what occasion - what pair of suspensions are NOT found together...
Definition

7-6 and 4-3, and 9-8 and 4-3.... 

 

9-8 and 7-6 together are NOT found

Term
The 7-6 sus resolving to an octave in the soprano and tenor for the basic structural duet for what?
Definition
CADENCE FORMULAS!
Term
what suspension is otherwise known as the authentic cadence?
Definition

the 4-3 cadence

 

 

5 -

4 3

 

 

 

Term
Where is the plagel cadence encountered?
Definition


The plagel cadence is normally encountered at the end of a composition

 

In this plagel cadence the last chord is always a complete triad...

 

In terms of tonal music it resembles a half cadence

Term
The plagel cadence is more of a mini codetta following the more structual ______ cadence
Definition

4-3

 

a movement twards the 4 subdominamnt is found over a tonic pedal as a closing gesture.

Term
 deceptive cadences occur where?
Definition

Deceptive cadences occur at the conclusion of interior phrases of a piece.

 

Sometimes the bass of an authentic cadence will not resolve into the octave but more into another tone creating a depceptive formula.

Term
What are interrupted cadences used as?
Definition

They are used as interior punctuation

 

2 of the voices resolve into 8ves or unisons- while the 3rd part is free to initiate the next point of imitation

 

* The suspended voice is required to resolve-

 

Term
Dovetailing does what? and what can it be used as- what kind of cadence?
Definition
Dovetailing preserves the seamless quality of the polyphony - used as an interior cadence
Term
when does the lead voice of imitation enter in a dovetail cadence?
Definition

In a dovetail cadence the lead voice of the point of imi enters BEFORE the cadential formula is complete. 

 

the overlap is normally not more than 4 half notes in furation - and is very effective maintaining the rhythmic flow of the music

Term
Is the 6/5 sonoroity technically considered a dissonant chord?
Definition
no, the 6/5 sonority is not a diss chord. bc both upper voices are intervocalically consonant w the lowest part.  BUT bc the diss of a 2nd btw the upper pts the 5th above the bass is treated like a sus.
Term
what beat does a 6/5 sonority always fall on?
Definition

The 6/5 sonority always falls on a strong beat

 

 

(when the sus 5th resolves on the next beat the lowest voice usually moves upward by step)

 

6/5 is not normally employed as a part of a cadential formula ( but it does sometimes happen)

Term
What does free-handling mean?
Definition
emphasising the consonant relation of the chordal intervals to the lowest part
Term
What is a consonant 4th used for?
Definition

a consonant 4th is a device used to prolong the dominant in the bass of an authentic cadence

 

Term
What beat does a consonant 4th happen on?
Definition

The weak beat above the lowest voice and serves as a preperation for the following 4-3 suspension usually a consonant interval. 

 

Example 5-5

             4-3

Interval btw B+A voice

Term
Essential harmony leaps may occur in other parts againts what?
Definition

Black notes/Passing tones.

 

Leaps must be consonant in BOTH voices however...

Term
What does 3 voice imitation always involve?
Definition

5th relation btw the voices  - either a p5 or a p4 up or down

 

**this principle not only applies to the beg of imitation but any imi within the phrase..... 

Term
What does Asymmetrical realtion in imitation mean?
Definition
It means the the note values of entrance are not the same...
Term
What does symmetrical mean?
Definition
The entrance of all the imitations are the same distance apart
Term
Is there a certain voice that must enter first in 3 pt ctpt?
Definition
No any voice may enter first
Term
re-entries of the voice remain in the initial pitch class... but you have to keep what?
Definition
You have to keep the 5th relation btw the voices.
Term
Can you make tonal adjustmenats and slight rhythmic alterations in reentries?
Definition
Yes you can as long as the 5th relation stays the same.
Term
What technique do you use organum in ...
Definition
Paraphrase technique
Term
What is organum?
Definition

the practice of basing polyphonic pieces on pre-existant musical material

 

This is the most common practice procedure-- out of 100 Palestrina examples 5 are free counterpoint....

Term
what is paraphrase technique?
Definition

Elaborate quotation of a given chant in one of the voices.

 

In later stages the plainsong is given to the other voices in the pt of imi.

Term
Is the entire chant phrase used when used in paraphase tech?
Definition

the complete chant is used in its entirety in atleast ONE of the voices if not all. 

 

Term
Ellipsis means what in relation to plainsong?
Definition
Ellipsis is the omission of one or more notes in a plainsong.
Term
What is the simpliest method to compose a 3 voice canon?
Definition
Start w the highest voice and then imitate in the lower voice at the same interval realation (5th or 4th below) @ the same temporal distance - creating symmetrical point of imitation
Term
In symmetrical 3 voice canons  in fuga ( exact imi) style - the exact imi is usually what in the consequent voices???
Definition

dropped.

 

so the subject is usually answered by descending 4ths - example - Sop c, Alto G and Bass D

Term
why should you be on the look out for 6/3 chords containing 4ths?
Definition
They can create tritone problems
Term
what is a problem with setting up cadences in canons?
Definition
You have to set up the cadence ahead of time in the top voice so by the time it get to the cadence teh figure is in the bass voice.  - use a 2-1 figure in the sop so you can use it in the bass at the cadence.
Term
useing a repeat sign is an example of a what kinda canon?
Definition

A Perpetual canon
Term
In 4 voice ctpt there is no overiding tendancy to ______  a particular triadic member ( root 3rd or 5th)
Definition
double
Term
Chords featureing doubled 5ths or 3rds are found just as commonly as ____________ in a polyphonic texture
Definition
doubled roots
Term
Doubling _______ is NEVER allowed - what is the ONE exception
Definition
Ficta- Bb is the only acception
Term
Parallel Perfect Intervals  are _________
Definition
Forbidden!~
Term
Avoid parallel and ______ 5ths
Definition

contrary

 

Example: A-E

             E-A

Term
What type of cadence tends to me more common as the voice parts increase
Definition
4-3 cadence
Term
what is an imperfetta cadence?
Definition
half cadence
Term
what is the only intervals allowed in final cadences?
Definition
Major 3rds-
Term
The use of nota cambiata on an inner figure is....
Definition
common
Term
What kind of passing tone is rare?
Definition
a cadential passing tone
Term
When 7-6 leading tones are used the final chord will be a __________.
Definition

complete triad

 

Exception- 6th resolving to an 8ve and  final root positions cadence in a phrygian mode

Term
What are the most common suspensions in 4 pt writing?
Definition
Term
As a general rule when the number of parts increase ....
Definition
The harmonic rhythm tends to slow town.
Term
Minum passing tones are -
Definition
eliminating
Term
Once all the voices have entered in the initial pt of imitation strict 4 part imi ...........
Definition

does not have to be maintaining for long periods of time.

 

 

One of the opening voices may have even dropped out by the time othe last part enters

Term
What is 4 part familiar style?
Definition
Pieces that have been set in a basic syllabic manner resulting in a predominatly chordal or homorhythmic style. 
Term
In familiar style the upper 3 voices are normally in what kinda structure?
Definition
Close structure - less than an octave btw sop and tenor
Term
the consonant chords in familiar style show a striong tendancy twards what position?
Definition
Root 5/3 position
Term
What note is usually doubled in familiar style ?
Definition
the bass note
Term
The use of ______ for coloristic or harmonic purpose is used
Definition
ficta
Term
The most frequent ______ movement btw chords is by p5 and m2 movement asc or desc
Definition
root
Term
What is bifocal tonality ?
Definition
alterations btw major and minor keys
Term
What is cantus firmus technique
Definition
basing polyphonic pieces on pre-existing material
Term
What is the basic organization feature of 4 part writing?
Definition
5ths relationship to each corresponding mode
Term

How do you create paried imitation?

 

Definition

the 1 and 2 voice come in at a 4th/5th relationship then cadence prior to the entrance of the remaining parts - the 2nd pair imitate like the first voices.

 

tenor drops out and reenters to start dovetailing to cadence

Term
what is a double canon?
Definition
Double canon is a pairing tech in a 4 voice canonic writing where paired imitation becomes 4 in 2
Term
What is a double subject ?
Definition
The initial 2 voices are not related thematically but form minature segments of free counterpoint,.
Term
where does the pairing in both a paired subject and a double subject take place or between?
Definition
it takes place btw the sop and alto and the Tenor and bass
Term
What is cantus firmus technique?
Definition

the technique of placeing a chant melody in the tenor and composing counterpoint above it

 

( 6th relationship w sop and then filling in alto and finally bass)

Term
In a typical Cantus Firmus technique what is the melody based on?
Definition

pre-existing melody - either in whole or in part....

 

2 frequent examples and one of the most used are L'homme Arme and the tones of the guidonian Hexachord

Term
Dorian starts on what note?
Definition
D
Term
Phygian starts on what note?
Definition
E
Term
Lydian mode starts on what note?
Definition
F
Term
what note does mixolydian start on?
Definition
G
Term
what note does the Aeolian mode start on?
Definition
A
Term
Ionian mode starts on what note
Definition
C