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1607 - 1877 American History Final Multiple Choice Questions
See how well you can guess these multiple choice.
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History
05/02/2010

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Term

In his Two Treatises on Government, John Locke

A) outlined the rationale for a patriarchal system of government.

B) argued for a colonial governmental system based on barons and landgraves.

C) stated that a government derives its legitimacy from the consent of the governed.

D) made a strong case for the divine-right theory of monarchical rule.

Definition
In his Two Treatises on Government, John Locke C) stated that a government derives its legitimacy from the consent of the governed. 
Term

In contrast to the Spanish missionaries, the French Jesuits

A) coerced the Indians to accept their teachings.

B) did not live in the Indian villages, but built separate dwellings.

C) were unable to adapt Christian theology to the Indians' worldview.

D) tried to understand the Indians' values and worldview.

Definition
In contrast to the Spanish missionaries, the French Jesuits D) tried to understand the Indians' values and worldview.
Term

Late-seventeenth-century Quakers were

A) a radical religious sect whose ministers cultivated a particularly emotional style of preaching and were so named because preachers made their listeners quake with fear and sorrow for their sins.

B) believers in an “inner light” of grace or understanding given by God to each man and woman.

C) English yeomen who learned to grow and market oats with particular success; they were known for wearing flat, broad-brimmed hats.

D) an offshoot of the Calvinists; they insisted on an even stricter doctrine of predestination and were so named because they tended to quake with fear on their deathbeds.

Definition
Late-seventeenth-century Quakers were B) believers in an “inner light” of grace or understanding given by God to each man and woman.
Term

The British policy of “salutary neglect” of the American colonies in the early eighteenth century meant

A) refusing to defend the colonies and instead expecting colonial taxpayers to assume the entire burden.

B) ignoring Americans' hopes for independence instead of suppressing them violently.

C) failing to enforce virtually all the laws that Parliament passed regarding the colonies.

D) relaxing supervision of the colonies' internal affairs while concentrating on defense and trade policies.

Definition
The British policy of “salutary neglect” of the American colonies in the early eighteenth century meant D) relaxing supervision of the colonies' internal affairs while concentrating on defense and trade policies.
Term

Powhatan, leader of a confederation of about two dozen tribes in Virginia,

A) agreed to cooperate with the English but then attempted to integrate them into his chiefdom.

B) welcomed the English warmly and supplied them with food and land.

C) led a massacre of the English settlers in 1622.

D) offered his daughter Pocahontas in marriage to the governor of the colony.

Definition
Powhatan, leader of a confederation of about two dozen tribes in Virginia, A) agreed to cooperate with the English but then attempted to integrate them into his chiefdom.
Term

In general, the mercantilist policies pursued by the British government during the eighteenth century called for the American colonies to produce

A) hats.

B) agricultural goods and raw materials.

C) textiles.

D) finished iron goods.

Definition
In general, the mercantilist policies pursued by the British government during the eighteenth century called for the American colonies to produce B) agricultural goods and raw materials. 
Term

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the changes in colonial politics in the early eighteenth century?

A) Descendants of the Puritans lost political control in New England.

B) Most white male colonists lost what little political voice they had earlier exercised and became apathetic about public events.

C) Family dynasties in the southern colonies crumbled as small planters asserted their democratic rights.

D) The royal governors remained powerful, but the political authority of local leaders and the assemblies greatly increased.

Definition

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the changes in colonial politics in the early eighteenth century? D) The royal governors remained powerful, but the political authority of local leaders and the assemblies greatly increased.

Term

Benjamin Franklin

A) founded a club of mutual improvement in Philadelphia to discuss moral and political questions.

B) received an unusually thorough education in England, which put him in touch with Enlightenment ideas unknown to most Americans.

C) was a fervent advocate of the Enlightenment but claimed to be equally influenced by the Bible.

D) was the son of a devout Philadelphia Quaker.

Definition
Benjamin Franklin A) founded a club of mutual improvement in Philadelphia to discuss moral and political questions.
Term

The Virginia gentry feared the rise of the Baptists because the Baptists were

A) fomenting hatred between blacks and whites.

B) notorious for indulging in horse racing, gambling, and cockfighting.

C) all of the answers are correct.

D) more democratic than the Anglicans and threatened to undermine the gentry's position and privilege.

Definition

The Virginia gentry feared the rise of the Baptists because the Baptists were D) more democratic than the Anglicans and threatened to undermine the gentry's position and privilege.

Term

The Enlightenment, which reached America between the 1720s and 1760s,

A) emphasized the power of human reason to shape the world.

B) appealed mainly to farmers, poor urban workers, and slaves.

C) stressed humans' dependence on God.

D) found few adherents within the merchant class.

Definition
The Enlightenment, which reached America between the 1720s and 1760s, A) emphasized the power of human reason to shape the world.
Term

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the religious controversy over the Great Awakening during the 1740s and 1750s?

A) The Old Lights in Massachusetts and Connecticut called for a resurgence of emotion-based religious practices.

B) The Old Lights passed laws prohibiting traveling preachers from speaking to a congregation without the minister's permission.

C) The New Lights condemned “crying out” as a medieval practice akin to superstition.

D) George Whitefield became the leader of the Philadelphia Old Light reformers.

Definition
Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the religious controversy over the Great Awakening during the 1740s and 1750s? B) The Old Lights passed laws prohibiting traveling preachers from speaking to a congregation without the minister's permission. 
Term

In the 1750s, the Wyoming Valley of Pennsylvania was claimed by

A) New York and Virginia.

B) Britain and Spain.

C) Connecticut and Pennsylvania.

D) Spain and France.

Definition
In the 1750s, the Wyoming Valley of Pennsylvania was claimed by C) Connecticut and Pennsylvania. 
Term

Under the terms of the Treaty of Paris (1763), Britain

A) gained control of Cuba and the Philippines.

B) annexed French Canada, French lands east of the Mississippi River, and Spanish Florida.

C) gave up its Louisiana Territory to Spain.

D) annexed all French territory in North America and the Caribbean.

Definition
Under the terms of the Treaty of Paris (1763), Britain B) annexed French Canada, French lands east of the Mississippi River, and Spanish Florida. 
Term

The Glorious Revolution in England and America

A) contributed significantly to the creation of a new empire based on commerce, with a curb on royal monopolies, encouragement of enterprising merchants, and development of the American colonies as a source of wealth.

B) created democratic governments in Massachusetts, New York, and Maryland, but not in England.

C) represented a major step toward democracy in both England and the North American colonies.

D) had little impact on either England or North America apart from deposing the Stuarts and barring Roman Catholics from the English throne.

Definition
The Glorious Revolution in England and America A) contributed significantly to the creation of a new empire based on commerce, with a curb on royal monopolies, encouragement of enterprising merchants, and development of the American colonies as a source of wealth. 
Term

Which of the following statements most accurately describes Africans in Virginia after the 1660s?

A) Africans found themselves more entrenched in slavery as a permanent condition.

B) Africans were able to purchase the labor contracts of white indentured servants.

C) Africans made up 75 percent of the workforce.

D) Africans were required to join the local militias whenever a war with Indians erupted.

Definition
Which of the following statements most accurately describes Africans in Virginia after the 1660s? A) Africans found themselves more entrenched in slavery as a permanent condition. 
Term

In eighteenth-century New York, settlement of the Hudson River Valley showed which of the following patterns?

A) Migrants from overcrowded New England bid up the price of land so high that immigrant Germans and Scots-Irish could not afford to settle there.

B) The Dutch manorial system largely remained intact, with a few wealthy and powerful Dutch and English landlords dominating poor tenant families.

C) German and Scots-Irish immigrants poured in, attracted by generous terms offered by Dutch families, who did not want the land to be settled exclusively by migrating New Englanders.

D) Continuing troubles with the French and Indians to the north kept the valley sparsely populated until the eve of the American Revolution.

Definition
In eighteenth-century New York, settlement of the Hudson River Valley showed which of the following patterns? B) The Dutch manorial system largely remained intact, with a few wealthy and powerful Dutch and English landlords dominating poor tenant families. 
Term

Which of the following statements most accurately describes inheritance in colonial New England?

A) Daughters—not sons—received a “marriage portion” when they married.

B) Almost invariably, the eldest son received the entire property except for the “marriage portion”––most often, one-tenth of the property that was given to the eldest daughter when she married.

C) Typically, sons received their inheritance at age twenty-one.

D) Fathers had a cultural duty to provide inheritances for their children.

Definition

Which of the following statements most accurately describes inheritance in colonial New England? D) Fathers had a cultural duty to provide inheritances for their children.

Term

According to Puritan theology, God had

A) chosen only a few men and women to be saved.

B) saved all humans through the crucifixion of Jesus Christ.

C) given each human the capacity for free will in moral decisions.

D) given only a few “elect” humans the capacity for free will.

Definition
According to Puritan theology, God had A) chosen only a few men and women to be saved. 
Term

In the Scots-Irish rebellion in western Pennsylvania in 1763,

A) Governor John Penn secretly encouraged the rebels to wage war on the Susquehannocks in order to open more land for settlers from eastern Pennsylvania.

B) rebel vigilantes massacred twenty Native Americans.

C) Benjamin Franklin sided with the rebels and defended them in court.

D) 250 armed rebels invaded Pittsburgh and burned some buildings.

Definition
In the Scots-Irish rebellion in western Pennsylvania in 1763, B) rebel vigilantes massacred twenty Native Americans. 
Term

The social order in Europe around 1450 is most accurately described as being

A) hierarchical and authoritarian.

B) egalitarian but patriarchal.

C) bureaucratic and regimented.

D) based on clans.

Definition
The social order in Europe around 1450 is most accurately described as being A) hierarchical and authoritarian. 
Term

The Puritans justified their invasion of the Native Americans' land by

A) claiming that the Native Americans must first be converted to Christianity before they had any right to the land.

B) interpreting epidemics that devastated Native American populations as a favorable sign from God.

C) insisting that the local Native Americans had never properly paid for the land in the first place.

D) pointing out that the Native Americans did not raise crops but remained simple hunter-gatherers who did not need the land for farming.

Definition
The Puritans justified their invasion of the Native Americans' land by B) interpreting epidemics that devastated Native American populations as a favorable sign from God. 
Term

Pietism, which arrived in America at about the same time as the Enlightenment,

A) made little headway among the poor.

B) appealed mainly to better-educated men and women of merchant or planter families and to urban artisans.

C) emphasized the power of human reason to shape the world.

D) was an evangelical movement that stressed humans' dependence on God.

Definition

Pietism, which arrived in America at about the same time as the Enlightenment, D) was an evangelical movement that stressed humans' dependence on God.

Term

Bacon's Rebellion contributed to the rise of slavery in the Chesapeake region

A) because so many white indentured servants had died in the fighting that there was a huge need for laborers to replace them.

B) by convincing the landholding elite that the presence of a large class of white indentured servants was dangerous and that the colony's labor needs should be met by black slaves.

C) because black servants had sided with the Indians, convincing whites that they were disloyal and needed to be controlled by enslavement.

D) because so many blacks had rallied on Bacon's side that the white elite realized that they could be made to work only if they were enslaved.

Definition
Bacon's Rebellion contributed to the rise of slavery in the Chesapeake region B) by convincing the landholding elite that the presence of a large class of white indentured servants was dangerous and that the colony's labor needs should be met by black slaves. 
Term

John Calvin and Calvinist theologians stressed

A) the doctrine of predestination.

B) the doctrine of human free will.

C) God's promise of ultimate salvation for all.

D) the basic innocence of humans at their births.

Definition
John Calvin and Calvinist theologians stressed A) the doctrine of predestination. 
Term

The major result of Burgoyne's defeat at Saratoga in October 1777 was that

A) George III realized the war was lost, but his ministers persuaded him to keep fighting.

B) it all but ensured the success of American diplomatic efforts to persuade the French into a military alliance with the Americans.

C) many Loyalists in the middle colonies switched to the Patriot side.

D) French forces, already poised in warships off the coast, immediately landed to join the Continental army.

Definition
The major result of Burgoyne's defeat at Saratoga in October 1777 was that A) George III realized the war was lost, but his ministers persuaded him to keep fighting. 
Term

Under the Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798,

A) it was illegal to publish insults or malicious attacks against Congress or the president.

B) the Adams administration jailed hundreds of pro-Republican newspaper editors.

C) it became easier for foreigners to become naturalized American citizens.

D) the Adams administration deported more than twenty pro-Republican newspaper editors.

Definition
Under the Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798, A) it was illegal to publish insults or malicious attacks against Congress or the president. 
Term

American women contributed to the nonimportation movement of 1768 by

A) producing homespun fabric to make the colonies less dependent on British textiles.

B) growing herbs to replace the imported British teas.

C) forming a secret protest organization known as the Daughters of Liberty.

D) using only American-produced indigo for dying cloth.

Definition
American women contributed to the nonimportation movement of 1768 by A) producing homespun fabric to make the colonies less dependent on British textiles.
Term

The major purpose of the Tea Act of May 1773 was to

A) break the American boycott of tea imports from England.

B) raise more revenue from the sale of tea in order to cover military costs in North America.

C) bail out the financially strapped British East India Company.

D) punish the Americans for importing tea from Holland.

Definition
The major purpose of the Tea Act of May 1773 was to C) bail out the financially strapped British East India Company. 
Term

The Patriots succeeded in the American Revolution mainly because

A) British officers committed an incredible series of blunders.

B) guerrilla fighters in the Patriot militias wore down British troops, even though the Continental army rarely won a battle.

C) about two-thirds of the population supported the war to some degree, and the army fought on its own territory.

D) the number of Loyalists and Indians who supported the British was never very large.

Definition
The Patriots succeeded in the American Revolution mainly because C) about two-thirds of the population supported the war to some degree, and the army fought on its own territory. 
Term

During and after the Revolution, why did the emancipation of slaves proceed very slowly in the northern states?

A) The northern states gave priority to slaveholders' property rights so that emancipation often was spaced out over several slave generations.

B) Very few northerners saw any contradiction between freedom for themselves and slavery for African Americans.

C) Slaves were threatening violence in the northern states, causing many whites to retreat from their earlier willingness to support rapid emancipation.

D) Economically, slavery was becoming more viable and profitable in the North in the 1770s and early 1780s.

Definition
During and after the Revolution, why did the emancipation of slaves proceed very slowly in the northern states? A) The northern states gave priority to slaveholders' property rights so that emancipation often was spaced out over several slave generations. 
Term

The so-called Commonwealth system that began appearing in the United States in the 1790s included

A) state legislatures' efforts to stimulate commerce and economic development.

B) measures to encourage what critics called “undemocratic” limited liability and eminent domain concepts by private businesses.

C) a refusal to issue corporate charters.

D) the abolition of monopolies.

Definition
The so-called Commonwealth system that began appearing in the United States in the 1790s included A) state legislatures' efforts to stimulate commerce and economic development. 
Term

The revolt by farmers in western Massachusetts in 1786–1787

A) resulted from the Massachusetts legislature's attempt to curb democratic rights.

B) reflected a desire on the part of settlers west of the Connecticut River to set up a separate state.

C) was directed against the creditors and high taxes in eastern Massachusetts.

D) was instigated by former radical Patriots.

Definition
The revolt by farmers in western Massachusetts in 1786–1787 C) was directed against the creditors and high taxes in eastern Massachusetts. 
Term

The decision in the case Marbury v. Madison (1803) is of great importance in American history because

A) it marked the onset of a period of frequent declarations by the Supreme Court that laws enacted by the Republican-dominated Congress were unconstitutional.

B) it marked the first occasion on which the Supreme Court declared that it had the power to rule national laws unconstitutional.

C) President Jefferson and the Republican-dominated Congress used the public backlash against this decision in order to purge the federal judiciary of Federalists and to attempt to impeach Chief Justice Marshall.

D) in refusing to uphold Marbury's right to his commission, Chief Justice Marshall established an implicit political alliance with President Jefferson.

Definition
The decision in the case Marbury v. Madison (1803) is of great importance in American history because B) it marked the first occasion on which the Supreme Court declared that it had the power to rule national laws unconstitutional. 
Term

The Northwest Ordinance of 1787

A) prohibited slavery in the Northwest Territory.

B) funded an exploratory party to locate the Northwest Passage.

C) provided for the eventual creation of eight to ten new states in the Northwest Territory.

D) required compulsory elementary education in each new township in the Northwest Territory.

Definition
The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 A) prohibited slavery in the Northwest Territory. 
Term

The Northwest Ordinance of 1787

A) prohibited slavery in the Northwest Territory.

B) funded an exploratory party to locate the Northwest Passage.

C) provided for the eventual creation of eight to ten new states in the Northwest Territory.

D) required compulsory elementary education in each new township in the Northwest Territory.

Definition
The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 A) prohibited slavery in the Northwest Territory. 
Term

Under the Articles of Confederation,

A) each state retained its sovereignty and independence.

B) important laws required the unanimous consent of the states.

C) each state's representation in Congress was determined by its population.

D) each state could conduct its own relations with foreign governments.

Definition
Under the Articles of Confederation, A) each state retained its sovereignty and independence. 
Term

The Townshend Act of 1767 imposed duties on

A) molasses and wheat that were exported to the countries of continental Europe.

B) all British-manufactured goods and tea imported into the colonies.

C) paper, paint, glass, and tea imported into the colonies.

D) indigo, wool, lumber, and naval supplies exported to Britain from the colonies.

Definition
The Townshend Act of 1767 imposed duties on C) paper, paint, glass, and tea imported into the colonies. 
Term

The Second Great Awakening deeply influenced American cultural and social action because it

A) challenged the Calvinist doctrine of predestination and helped to make American intellectual culture more optimistic.

B) denied the idea of free will.

C) increased respect for hierarchical authority in American churches.

D) increased the intellectual power of Protestant preaching.

Definition
The Second Great Awakening deeply influenced American cultural and social action because it A) challenged the Calvinist doctrine of predestination and helped to make American intellectual culture more optimistic. 
Term

The Constitution, as completed on September 17, 1787, gave the national government

A) powers equal to those reserved to the states.

B) a weak chief executive with carefully limited powers.

C) fewer powers than those reserved to the states.

D) broad powers over taxation, military defense, and external commerce.

Definition

The Constitution, as completed on September 17, 1787, gave the national government D) broad powers over taxation, military defense, and external commerce.

 

Term

In the case of Fletcher v. Peck (1810), Chief Justice Marshall and the Supreme Court ruled that

A) the land claims of the Cherokee nation invalidated those of the Georgia-based Yazoo Land Company.

B) squatters' settlements on the Yazoo Land Company's land in Georgia were legal because of the commonwealth principle.

C) the Constitution had diminished the sovereignty of the states.

D) the grant to the Yazoo Land Company constituted an unbreakable contract.

Definition

In the case of Fletcher v. Peck (1810), Chief Justice Marshall and the Supreme Court ruled that D) the grant to the Yazoo Land Company constituted an unbreakable contract.

Term

John Adams recommended a bicameral (two-house) legislature because he believed that

A) one house could not handle the volume of legislative business.

B) state power should be divided along social lines.

C) two houses would keep the chief executive under control.

D) the upper house, consisting of substantial property owners, would check the power of popular majorities in the lower house.

Definition

John Adams recommended a bicameral (two-house) legislature because he believed that D) the upper house, consisting of substantial property owners, would check the power of popular majorities in the lower house.

 

Term

The Land Ordinance of 1785

A) set out a rectangular-grid system of surveying land.

B) stipulated that a territory could become a state only when its population equaled the average population of the existing states.

C) specified that western lands would be preferentially sold to propertyless persons.

D) established the Southwest Territory in the trans-Appalachian lands south of the Ohio River.

Definition
The Land Ordinance of 1785 A) set out a rectangular-grid system of surveying land. 
Term

Pennsylvania's democratic constitution of 1776

A) was widely admired by Patriots in other states, but wartime conditions made it impossible for them to adopt all of its features.

B) was viewed skeptically by Patriots in other states until John Adams wrote a book demonstrating how reasonable and workable it was.

C) was ignored by leading Patriots in other states whose attention was focused on local concerns.

D) alarmed leading Patriots in other states, most of whom did not believe in democracy.

Definition

Pennsylvania's democratic constitution of 1776 D) alarmed leading Patriots in other states, most of whom did not believe in democracy.

 

Term

The First Continental Congress

A) was summoned by Patriot leaders to protest the Coercive Acts in 1774.

B) united representatives from all the British colonies of North America for the first time.

C) failed to enact a declaration of independence drafted by John Adams but accepted Joseph Galloway's more moderate Plan of Union.

D) failed to pass a declaration of rights and grievances because it was judged too mild.

Definition
The First Continental Congress A) was summoned by Patriot leaders to protest the Coercive Acts in 1774. 
Term

The phrase “the power to tax involves the power to destroy” is most closely associated with an important Supreme Court decision in the case of

A) Marbury v. Madison.

B) McCulloch v. Maryland.

C) Cohens v. Virginia.

D) Fletcher v. Peck.

Definition
The phrase “the power to tax involves the power to destroy” is most closely associated with an important Supreme Court decision in the case of B) McCulloch v. Maryland.