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Vet 210 BRCC
Bacterial Anatomy, Physiology, & Morphology
60
Veterinary Medicine
Undergraduate 2
02/02/2010

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Term
Capsule
Definition
Outmost covering of many, but NOT ALL, bacteria, jelly-like, composed of carbohydrates and protein; protects against phagocytosis, promotes attachment to objects and each other; produces infectivity, prevents nutrient loss and dehydration, provides antigenicity (causes production of antibodies)
Term
Cell Wall
Definition
has two layers (base, outside); gives rigidity and helps maintain shape and size
Term
Cell Membrane/Cytoplasmic Membrane
Definition
innermost layer, separates cytoplasm from cell wall, semipermeable, NO function in maintaining shape
Term
Cytoplasm
Definition
fluid in the cell, contains two areas (cytoplasmic area and nuclear area)
Term
Cytoplasmic area
Definition
contains ribosomes and storage granules
Term
Nucleoid/Nuclear area
Definition
no nuclear membrane, rich in DNA genetic information that determines production of protein
Term
Mesosomes
Definition
invaginations of the cell membrane, increases surface area of cell membrane for secretion and cell division
Term
Flagellum/Flagella
Definition
long, whip-like appendage, made of protein, not all bacteria have; used for locomotion/motility
Term
Phototaxis
Definition
move toward or away from life
Term
Chemotaxis
Definition
move in response to chemicals
Term
Four types of flagella
Definition
monotrichous, lophotrichous, amphitrichous, peritrichous
Term
[image]
Definition

A. monotrichous

B. lophotrichous

C. amphitrichous

D. peritrichous

Term
Pili
Definition
long, whip-like, hollow tubes; protrude through bacterial cell, mostly in gram (-), transfer DNA from one bacterium to another, adhesiveness is main function, do NOT function in motility
Term
Plasmid
Definition
circular, double-stranded, self-replicating unit of DNA; contains genes to transfer drug resistance - "R factor"
Term
Endospore
Definition
a thick-walled, refractile body, able to withstand adverse environmental conditions for long periods, produced within the vegetative cells of certain bacteria, (ex. Bacillus & Clostridium)
Term
micrometer/micron (┬Ám)
Definition
one-millionth of a meter
Term
Coccus
Definition
spherical (cocci)
Term
Bacillus
Definition
cylinder or rod (bacilli)
Term
Spiral
Definition
usually occur singly - loose, tight, comma shaped
Term
Pleomorphic
Definition
shape ranges from cocci to rods
Term
Single
Definition
one alone
Term
Diplococcus
Definition
pair of cocci
Term
Chain
Definition
more than 2 in a line
Term
Cluster
Definition
grape-like bunch
Term
Tetrad
Definition
4 in a square
Term
Palisade
Definition
Chinese letter pattern arrangement
Term
Four Shape Groups
Definition
Coccus, bacillus, spiral, pleomorphic
Term
Six Arrangement Groups
Definition
Single, pair/diplococcus, chain, cluster, tetrad, palisade
Term
Six Essential nutrients
Definition
Carbohydrates (glucose), protein, lipids, water, inorganic salts (P, S, Mg), trace minerals (Fe, Ca)
Term
Four factors affecting bacterial growth
Definition
Temperature, gas requirements, pH, osmotic pressure
Term
psychrophiles
Definition
cold-loving
Term
mesophiles
Definition
most pathogenic bacteria (like body temp)
Term
thermophiles
Definition
heat-loving, may survive pasteurization
Term
Aerobic
Definition
require free oxygen
Term
Anaerobic
Definition
grow only in absence of oxygen
Term
Facultative
Definition
grown in either absence or presence of bacteria
Term
microaerophilic
Definition
grow best in concentrations of oxygen that are lower than that of air
Term
Binary fission
Definition
method of bacterial reproduction where the cell increases in size, elongates, splits down the middle, and separates into two new cells; nuclear and cellular material are divided between the two; can happen in 15-30 min.
Term
Four phases of bacterial reproduction
Definition
lag phase, logarithmic phase, stationary phase, death/decline phase
Term
Lag phase
Definition
immediately after inoculation they need time to adjust to the medium, temp, environment, etc
Term
Logarithmic phase
Definition
pop begins doubling at regular intervals, cell division greatly exceeds death rate, bacteria show most typical characteristics
Term
Stationary phase
Definition
as nutrients are exhausted the growth rate equals the death rate, they are most resistant during this phase
Term
Decline/Death phase
Definition
the death rate exceeds the reproductive rate due to the depletion of nutrients and toxic products of metabolism
Term
Pure culture
Definition
agar plate or broth tube contains only one type of bacteria
Term
Mixed culture
Definition
agar plate or broth tube contains more than one type of bacteria
Term
Six Colony Forms/Shapes
Definition
Punctiform, circular, filamentous, irregular, rhizoid, spindle
Term
Five Colony Elevations
Definition
Flat, raised, convex, pulvinate, umbonate
Term
Six Colony Margins
Definition
Entire, undulate, lobate, erose, filamentous, curled
Term
Punctiform
Definition
tiny dot
Term
rhizoid
Definition
root-like, branched
Term
pulvinate
Definition
very convex
Term
umbonate
Definition
raised in the center - like a belly-button
Term
erose
Definition
irregularly irregularly indented
Term
pellicle
Definition
surface membrane on the top of the broth w/ some bacterial cultures
Term
Aerotolerance
Definition
tested with a stab inoculation of an agar tube, you can see where the bacteria grow along the stab
Term
Obligate (strict) Aerobes
Definition
growth on surface only
Term
Obligate anaerobes
Definition
growth only in lower tube, at the bottom of the stab, away from surface
Term
Facultative Anaerobes
Definition
growth on surface and the full length of the stab
Term
Microaerophiles
Definition
growth just below the surface
Term
Five Gross Characteristic of Bacterial Colonies
Definition
shape, margin, elevation, color, texture
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