Term

Definition
appears without exception; has become consolidated by repeated successful testing; often expressed in concise verbal or mathematical statement 


Term

Definition
scientifically accepted general principle supported by substantial body of evidence; provides explanation of observed facts/events and basis for future investigation 


Term

Definition
a specific statement or question to be evaluated 


Term
Does one study ever prove anything? 

Definition


Term
True or False: Scientifically, we cannot prove anything. 

Definition


Term
Definition: Null hypothesis 

Definition
there is no linkage b/n the things we are researching 


Term
Definition: Independent variables 

Definition


Term
Definition: Dependent variables 

Definition


Term

Definition
existence of difference (association, disease, etc) 


Term
What are the 4 possible outcomes of a study? 

Definition
1) The study detected a difference when it existed (correct conclusion) 2) Type I error: rejected null hypothesis when it was true (did not detect a difference that was there) 3)Type II error: failed to reject null hypothesis when it was false (detected a difference when there wasn't one) 4) didn't detect a difference when there wasn't one 


Term
The probability finding is due to chance and is compared to preestablished _______ to determine significance. 

Definition


Term

Definition
probability of a type II error 


Term

Definition
Power, the probability of rejecting null hypothesis when it is false 


Term
How can a wrong conclusion be made in a welldesigned study? 

Definition
by using a small group of subjects to represent the population of interest 


Term
What is the significance of the bellcurve? 

Definition
for many characteristics in the world, there will be an average value and variation in the population (standard deviation) 


Term
How should one go about selecting a sample to avoid bias? When is this altered? 

Definition
best way is random selection altered is you must block a specific factor to not skew the results (age, gender, breed, location, etc) 


Term
How do we extimate the probability of finding a difference this larger, or larger, if the null is true? 

Definition


Term
How do we determine if findings are significant? 

Definition
compare calculated Pvalue to predetermined alpha threshold (0.05) 


Term
Explain what happens to the power if the following occurs: a)higher alpha b)stronger association c)larger sample size d)larger variation among population 

Definition
a)increases power b)increases power c)increases power d)decreases power 


Term
Are all statistically significant findings clinically relevant? 

Definition
no, small differences may e found that would not change your clinical judgement 


Term
Are all clinically relevant findings statistically significant? 

Definition
no (low power of study), there are important differences that WOULD alter your clinical judgment that could be missed 

