Shared Flashcard Set

Details

Skeletal System Flashcards
N/A
31
Anatomy
11th Grade
11/02/2011

Additional Anatomy Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
What are the jobs/ functions of the skeletal system?
Definition
Support, Protection, and red blood cell production
Term
What are the parts of the long bone?
Definition
distal and proximal epiphysis and the diaphysis
Term
Leukemia
Definition
Fever and night sweats, Headaches, Bruising or bleeding easily, Bone or joint pain, A swollen or painful belly from an enlarged spleen, Swollen lymph nodes in the armpit, neck, or groin, Getting a lot of infections, Feeling very tired or weak, Losing weight and not feeling hungry. Experts do not yet know what causes leukemia. Radiation, stem cell transplant, chemo
Term
Gout
Definition
high uric acid, NSAIDs (Examples: indomethacin, naproxen, Aleve® and Advil®), Colchicine, Steroids (Example: prednisone, pain and discomfort in the joints
Term
Osteo Arthritis
Definition
The causes of osteoarthritis are varied. pain in the knees hips spine fingers and other joints. weight loss exercise and diet
Term
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Definition
The cause of rheumatoid arthritis is unknown. body tissues are inflamed. There is no known cure for rheumatoid arthritis
Term
Rickets
Definition
The primary cause of rickets is a vitamin D deficiency. Blood tests: Serum calcium may show low levels of calcium, serum phosphorus may be low, and serum alkaline phosphatase may be high. Arterial blood gases may reveal metabolic acidosis X-rays of affected bones may show loss of calcium from bones or changes in the shape or structure of the bones. Bone biopsy is rarely performed but will confirm rickets. The treatment and prevention of rickets is known as antirachitic.
Term
Scoliosis
Definition
Uneven musculature on one side of the spine, A rib prominence and/or a prominent shoulder blade, caused by rotation of the ribcage in thoracic scoliosis, Uneven hips/leg lengths, Slow nerve action (in some cases)
Term
Herniated Disk
Definition
Disc herniations can result from general wear and tear, The majority of herniated discs will heal themselves in about six weeks and do not require surgery, ymptoms of a herniated disc can vary depending on the location of the herniation and the types of soft tissue that become involved
Term
What is arthroscopic surgery?
Definition
Arthroscopy is a surgical procedure orthopaedic surgeons use to visualize, diagnose, and treat problems inside a joint.
Term
Explain all steps to total knee replacement.
Definition
knee incision, prepare the femur, implant the femoral component, prepare the tibia, implant the tibial component, implant platella, final implants
Term
What are the 5 major parts of the skeletal system?
Definition
long flat sesamoid short irregular bones
Term
What are the two divisions of the skeletal system?
Definition
axial and appendicular
Term
What are the two basic bone tissues?
Definition
spongy and compact bones
Term
How are long bones classified, give examples of a few.
Definition
The long bones are those that are longer than they are wide, femur and humerus
Term
How are short bones classified, give examples of a few.
Definition
wider than they are longer, patella
Term
How are flat bones classified, give examples of a few.
Definition
bones are expanded into broad, flat plates,[1] as in the cranium (skull), the ilium (pelvis),
Term
How are irregular bones classified, give examples of a few.
Definition
do not fit in any other class of bone, carpals and tarsals
Term
Compare and Contrast diaphysis and epiphysis.
Definition
diaphysis is the portion of a long bone formed from a primary center of ossification.
epiphysis the expanded articular end of a long bone developed from a secondary ossification center which during the period of growth is either entirely cartilaginous or is separated from the shaft by a cartilaginours disk
Term
What is the job of the periosteum?
Definition
provide nourishment and protect bones
Term
Someone asserts that bones are not alive. Are they? Explain.
Definition
yes, they are constanly growing regrowing
Term
Where is hyaline cartilage found?
Definition
Hyaline cartilage exists on the ventral ends of ribs; in the larynx, trachea, and bronchi; and on the articular surface of bones.
Term
What is the medullay cavity for?
Definition
storing bone marrow
Term
What is the job of the bone marrow, the different types, and bones they are found in?
Definition
Bone marrow (Latin: medulla ossium) is the flexible tissue found in the interior of bones. In humans, bone marrow in large bones produces new blood cells. On average, bone marrow constitutes 4% of the total body mass of humans; in adults weighing 65 kg (143 lbs), bone marrow accounts for approximately 2.6 kg (5.7 lbs). The hematopoietic compartment of bone marrow produces approximately 500 billion blood cells per day, which use the bone marrow vasculature as a conduit to the body's systemic circulation.[1]
Term
Explain how bone develops from the fetal shape
Definition
At birth, there are over 270 bones in an infant human's body,[1] but many of these fuse together as the child grows, leaving a total of 206 separate bones in an adult. The largest bone in the human body is the femur and the smallest bones are auditory ossicles.[2]
Term
Explain how bone is repaired after a break
Definition
Generally bone fracture treatment consists of a doctor pushing dislocated bones back into place via relocation with or without anaesthetic, stabilizing their position, and then waiting for the bone's natural healing process to occur.
Term
Name and describe the different types of bone breaks
Definition
Greenstick fracture: an incomplete fracture in which the bone is bent. This type occurs most often in children. Transverse fracture: a fracture at a right angle to the bone's axis. Oblique fracture: a fracture in which the break has a curved or sloped pattern. Comminuted fracture: a fracture in which the bone fragments into several pieces. An impacted fracture is one whose ends are driven into each other. This is commonly seen in arm fractures in children and is sometimes known as a buckle fracture. Other types of fracture are pathologic fracture, caused by a disease that weakens the bones, and stress fracture, a hairline crack. Other types of fracture are pathologic fracture, caused by a disease that weakens the bones, and stress fracture.
Term
Name and demonstrate the different synovial joint movements
Definition
gliding, hinge, pivot, condyloid, saddle, ball and socket, compound
Term
Why do you have sinuses?
Definition
to drain fluid
Term
What structures are associated with the joint and what are their jobs?
Definition
ligaments and tendon, holding them together and fexibility
Term
What are the three types of bone cells and their functions?
Definition
Osteoblasts - These are commonly called bone-forming cells. They secrete osteoid, which forms the bone matrix. They also begin mineralization, and are unable to divide.
Osteocytes - A mature osteoblast which no longer secretes matrix, yet is surrounded by it. Maintains metabolism, and participates in nutrient/waste exchange via blood. Unable to divide.
Osteoclasts - These function in resorption and degradation of existing bone, the opposite of osteoblasts. Monocytes (a type of white blood cell) fuse together to create these huge cells, which are concentrated in the endosteum.
Osteoprogenitors - Immature cells which differentiate to make osteoblasts. May divide.
bone-lining- quiescent osteoblasts covering the bone
Supporting users have an ad free experience!