Term
Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) 

Definition
A symmetric cipher that was approved by the NIST in late 2000 as a replacement for DES. 


Term

Definition
Procedures based on a mathematical formula; used to encrypt data. 


Term
asymmetric cryptographic algorithm 

Definition
Encryption that uses two mathematically related keys. 


Term

Definition
A cipher that manipulates an entire block of plaintext at one time. 


Term

Definition
A block cipher that operates on 64bit blocks and can have a key length from 32 to 448 bits. 


Term

Definition
Data that has been encrypted. 


Term

Definition


Term

Definition
The science of transforming information into a secure form while it is being transmitted or stored so that unauthorized persons cannot access it. 


Term
Data Encryption Standard (DES) 

Definition
A symmetric block cipher that uses a 56bit key and encrypts data in 64bit blocks. 


Term

Definition
The process of changing ciphertext into plaintext. 


Term

Definition
An electronic verification of the sender. 


Term
elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) 

Definition
An algorithm that uses elliptic curves instead of prime numbers to compute keys. 


Term

Definition
The process of changing plaintext into ciphertext. 


Term

Definition
Free and opensource software that is commonly used to encrypt and decrypt email messages. 


Term
Hardware Security Module (HSM) 

Definition
A secure cryptographic processor. 


Term

Definition
The unique digital fingerprint created by a hashing algorithm. 


Term

Definition
Authentication Code (HMAC) A variation of a hash that encrypts the hash with a shared secret key before transmitting it. 


Term

Definition
The process for creating a unique digital fingerprint signature for a set of data. 


Term

Definition
A mathematical value entered into the algorithm to produce ciphertext. 


Term

Definition
A common hash algorithm of several different versions. 


Term

Definition
A revision of MD4 that is designed to address its weaknesses. 


Term

Definition
The process of proving that a user performed an action. 


Term
NTLM (New Technology LAN Manager) hash 

Definition
A password hash for Microsoft Windows systems that is no longer recommended for use. 


Term
NTLMv2 (New Technology LAN Manager Version 2) hash 

Definition
An updated version of NTLM that uses HMAC with MD5. 


Term

Definition
Using a unique truly random key to create ciphertext. 


Term

Definition
Data input into an encryption algorithm. 


Term
Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) 

Definition
A commercial product that is commonly used to encrypt email messages. 


Term

Definition
An asymmetric encryption key that does have to be protected. 


Term

Definition
Cryptographic algorithms that use a single key to encrypt and decrypt a message. 


Term

Definition
An asymmetric encryption key that does not have to be protected. 


Term

Definition
Encryption that uses two mathematically related keys. 


Term

Definition
An asymmetric cryptography that attempts to use the unusual and unique behavior of microscopic objects to enable users to securely develop and share keys. 


Term
RACE Integrity Primitives Evaluation Message Digest (RIPEMD) 

Definition
A hash algorithm that uses two different and independent parallel chains of computation and then combines the result at the end of the process. 


Term

Definition
An RC stream cipher that will accept keys up to 128 bits in length. 


Term

Definition
A family of cipher algorithms designed by Ron Rivest. 


Term

Definition
An asymmetric algorithm published in 1977 and patented by MIT in 1983. 


Term
Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA) 

Definition
A secure hash algorithm that creates hash values of longer lengths than Message Digest (MD) algorithms. 


Term

Definition
Hiding the existence of data within a text, audio, image, or video file. 


Term

Definition
An algorithm that takes one character and replaces it with one character. 


Term
symmetric cryptographic algorithm 

Definition
Encryption that uses a single key to encrypt and decrypt a message. 


Term
Triple Data Encryption Standard (3DES) 

Definition
A symmetric cipher that was designed to replace DES. 


Term
Trusted Platform Module (TPM) 

Definition
A chip on the motherboard of the computer that provides cryptographic services. 


Term

Definition
A later derivation of the Blowfish algorithm that is considered to be strong. 


Term

Definition
Cryptography that can be applied to entire disks. 

