Shared Flashcard Set


Nutrition: Protein
Computer Networking
Undergraduate 2

Additional Computer Networking Flashcards




Amino Acids
proteins are polymers of amino acids linked by peptide bonds. There are 20 different amino acids found in proteins and they have similar structure with central carbon, acid group, amino group and side chain. The side chains differ and each amino acid has different functionalities.
Characteristics of Amino Acids
1.Protein folding – linear chain fold up in 3D. This 3D shape allows the protein to have a unique function if denatured however the function is lost
2.Some proteins have a globular shape like enzymes and hemoglobin
3.Some proteins are fibrous like collagen and keratin they are long strands and the structural material in the cell
Essential Amino Acids
1.Fluid and electrolyte balance – the cell can make more proteins to draw in water as it increases osmotic pressure in the cell more water is drawn in
2.Acid base balance acting like buffers they buffer the blood and the cell
3.Antibodies against diseases
4.Hormones which regulate body processes
5.Transportation across the cell membrane
6.Growth and maintenance of skin muscles bones
7.Energy and glucose providing fuel
8.Mechanical work like Actin and Myosin in the muscles.
9.Nitrogen Balance – the amount of Nitrogen consumed/ amount excreted – in a healthy person it is =. With a growing person they need more in and with a starving person or fasting person they excrete more, forcing body to use protein as energy.
Digestion of Protein
1.stomach and HCL hydrolyzes proteins and Pepsin cleaves proteins into smaller particles
2.small intestines – chymotrypsin and trypsin (pancreas) and enteropeptidase (SI) cleave proteins and peptides into individual amino acids,
3.they are absorbed through the intestinal epithelium into the capillaries into the bloodstream
Protein-Energy Malnutrition
when energy is deficient the person degrades their own proteins leading to deficiency. This is the most widespread deficiency in the world especially in third world countries.
2.Impoverished areas
3.Eating disorders
4.Those with chronic diseases (cancer, AIDS)
5.Serious traumas and stressors like burns
6.Children are most effected because they are growing
chronic severe energy deprivation with inadequate energy, vitamins, minerals, proteins, and most common in toddlers, where people look emancipated. Other symptoms include:
1.Muscle and heart atrophy
2.Impaired brain development and learning
3.Decreased synthesis of key thyroid hormones
4.Decreased body temp because no fat
5.Stunted growth
6.Infections because antibodies are not made
7.Loss of vitamins and diarrhea
8.IMEADIATE treatment – FLUID into body
often follows marasmus and may be a latter stage common in 1-3 yr olds. Severe acute malnutrion with distended bellies. Attempted adaptation to starvations with symptoms:
1.Edema in limbs
2.Swollen belly due to enlarged liver – liver makes lypoprotiens to carry through the body without proteins get huge liver swelling.
3.Hair loses color
4.Ulcers and sores don’t heal
What we need
.8g for every 1k or 2.2lbs. Infants and children and pregnant women need more. Only 10-35% of calories should come from protein
Health Problems from too much protein
1.High protein foods are high in fat
2.Worsen existing kidney disease
3.Colon cancer because of fat
4.Increase CA excretion and bone weakening as result
5.Amino acid supplements are sometimes taken by athletes to build muscle but not needed like proline and serine can be toxic if have too much
Complete protein food
1.Complete – food containing all essential 9 amino acids like meats and veggies and legumes like corn not complete but soy is complete
High quality protein
complete and easily digested like egg whites
Complementary Protein
combo 2 different protein rich food and then complete like legumes and rice
Limiting Amino Acids
essential amino acids found in shortest supply relative to the amounts needed for protein synthesis, BEST SOURCES
1.Dairy 8g
2.Meats 7g
3.Grains 3g
4.Veggies 2g
5.If you lack a amino acid it will not make protein and body cant substitute.
Supporting users have an ad free experience!