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Jeopardy 22
Commerce, Science, and Enlightenment
78
History
10th Grade
04/11/2007

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Term
European region that became the new focus of trade
Definition
the Atlantic coast
Term
Steady rise in prices linked to a sharp increase in the amount of money available
Definition
inflation
Term
Standard that allowed the use of money all throughout Europe
Definition
fixed value
Term
Social group that the bankers and capitalists belonged to
Definition
the middle class
Term
Money paid in return for a loan
Definition
interest
Term
Italian ports that declined in importance as global trade spread
Definition
Venice and Genoa
Term
Northern European ports that increased in importance as global trade grew
Definition
London and Amsterdam
Term
Term for the economic developments of this first age of global trade
Definition
the Commercial Revolution
Term
Person who owned an interest in a company
Definition
a stockholder (or shareholder)
Term
Profit paid out for each share of stock
Definition
dividends
Term
Wealth earned, saved, and invested to produce profits
Definition
capital
Term
Taxes on imports
Definition
tariffs
Term
Term for the new global exchange of people, plants, animals, ideas etc.
Definition
the Columbian Exchange
Term
Territories important to mercantilism
Definition
colonies
Term
Trade goods that colonies were to export to their parent country
Definition
precious metals and/or raw materials
Term
Trade goods colonies were to import from the parent country
Definition
manufactured goods
Term
Banking service that developed as a safeguard for merchants
Definition
banks of deposit (or bills of exchange)
Term
Nationality that replaced the Italians as the bankers of Europe
Definition
the Dutch
Term
Economic policy based on the concept that a country's power depends mainly on its wealth
Definition
mercantilism
Term
Company in which people pooled large amounts of money to carry out a business venture
Definition
a joint stock company
Term
Outstanding scientist, and artist, of the Renaissance
Definition
Leonardo da Vinci
Term
Instrument invented by Galileo to confirm his ideas
Definition
the telescope
Term
Newton's theory explaining the force that holds the universe together
Definition
the law of gravity (or universal gravitation)
Term
Systematic way of investigating a problem in science
Definition
the scientific method
Term
U.S. scientist famed for his electrical experiment involving lightning and a kite
Definition
Benjamin Franklin
Term
Polish astronomer of the 1500s who revived the sun-centered model of the universe
Definition
Nicholas Copernicus
Term
Italian astronomer who showed that the sun-centered theory was correct
Definition
Galileo Galilei
Term
Internal body system first described accurately by British physician William Harvey
Definition
circulation of the blood
Term
New life-forms discovered by van Leeuwenhoek, a Dutch scientist
Definition
bacteria (microscopic life)
Term
Airlike substances discovered by Joseph Black
Definition
gases
Term
Basic element of air discovered by both Lavoisier and Priestly
Definition
oxygen
Term
Dutch eyeglass-maker's new instrument that revealed the existence of "invisible" things
Definition
the microscope
Term
Fahrenheit and Celsius both developed a scale for reading this new temperature-measurer.
Definition
the mercury thermometer
Term
Method developed by British physician Edward Jenner to prevent smallpox
Definition
vaccination
Term
Great English scientist who studied the laws of motion
Definition
Isaac Newton
Term
English "father of modern chemistry"
Definition
Robert Boyle
Term
System of identifying and naming living things developed by Linnaeus
Definition
classification
Term
Pioneer in the study of anatomy
Definition
Vesalius
Term
Theory that the sun was the center of the universe
Definition
the heliocentric theory
Term
French physician who developed improved treatment to prevent infection
Definition
Ambroise Pare
Term
What thinkers sought to be enlightened about
Definition
problems of the time
Term
Another term for the Enlightenment
Definition
the Age of Reason
Term
Law that governed human nature, to Enlightenment thinkers
Definition
natural law
Term
International language of the Enlightenment
Definition
French
Term
Scotsman who studied the source of nations' wealth
Definition
Adam Smith
Term
Enlightenment thinkers favored these over human justice.
Definition
the natural laws of justice
Term
The belief that logical thinking would discover the truth
Definition
rationalism
Term
Major focus of medieval thought that the Enlightenment turned away from
Definition
religion
Term
The source of human corruption, according to Rousseau
Definition
civilization
Term
Monumental summary of French Enlightenment ideas, compiled by Diderot
Definition
the Encyclop├ędie (The Encyclopedia)
Term
Source of natural wealth, according to the Physiocrats
Definition
the land
Term
"Hands-off" economic system promoted by Adam Smith
Definition
laissez-faire
Term
Educational subjects favored by Enlightenment thinkers
Definition
science, modern languages, and modern history
Term
English poet who was a strong advocate of the Enlightenment
Definition
Alexander Pope
Term
Term for French thinkers of the Enlightenment
Definition
the philosophes
Term
Condition of the newborn mind, according to Locke
Definition
a tabula rasa (blank slate)
Term
Fashionable French gatherings for intellectual conversation
Definition
salons
Term
French thinker who stressed logic and reason to achieve scientific knowledge
Definition
Rene Descartes
Term
British thinker who stressed experiements and observation to achieve scientific knowledge
Definition
Francis Bacon
Term
Agreement between the people and their chosen leader
Definition
a social contract
Term
Rights no one could justifiably take from the people
Definition
natural rights
Term
Locke's "natural rights"
Definition
the rights of life, liberty, and property
Term
Freedoms advocated by Voltaire
Definition
free speech, press, and religion
Term
Revolutions of the 1700s influenced by Enlightenment ideas
Definition
the French and American Revolutions
Term
Key U.S. documents heavily influenced by Enlightenment ideas
Definition
the U.S. Constitution and Declaration of Independence
Term
French writer whose ideas inspired the French revolutionaries
Definition
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Term
English political thinker who justified the overthrow of Britain's king
Definition
John Locke
Term
English philosopher who first proposed a "social contract"
Definition
Thomas Hobbes
Term
Primary concern of Enlightenment political thinkers
Definition
how people should be governed
Term
Condition in which people lived before organizing society
Definition
anarchy, or a state of nature
Term
The most nearly perfect existing government, according to Montesquieu
Definition
the English government
Term
Division among government branches admired by Montesquieu
Definition
the separation of powers
Term
Limitations created by division of governmental powers
Definition
checks and balances
Term
Development of this type of monarchy was influenced by Montesquieu.
Definition
limited monarchy
Term
Supreme power in politics, according to Rousseau
Definition
the people's will (or the general will)
Term
Free choice of the people in government
Definition
popular sovereignty
Term
Term for rulers who supported the Enlightenment
Definition
enlightened despots
Term
French document of 1789 strongly influenced by Enlightenment ideas
Definition
the Declaration of the Rights of Man
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