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Undergraduate 4

Additional History Flashcards




Taisho Democracy
  • Taisho=great righteousness (new empire)
  • period in 1920's
  • increase in influence of political parties
  • oligarchs are getting too old and dying so it is a struggle who will take over
    • civil burecrats- professional civil servants
    • Military burecrats -top ministries of the military (important: you need to be active duty to be in one of these positions)
    • professional political party members- ppl in the lower house
Taisho Crisis
  • Struggle to have the right to increase the budget of sections of the gov't should it be the military or the parties
  • military wanted to increase the budget and party men said no (cuz they have the power of the budget)
  • so military said they will not fill the ministry of the army or navy positions which caused a crisis
  • lower house threatens to get a non active officer of the military to fill the positions
  • military backs down
  • political party victory
Hara Kei
  • 1918 prime minister steps down and which of the 3 groups will have the strength to fill the position
  • political parties win with the selection of this guy
  • leader of the Seiyukai party
  • interesting cuz he:
    • is not a military man
    • not a peer
    • not an oligarch
    • 1st man to be in a pol. party in the lower house
  • 1918-21 the cabinet comes from lower house
  • ticks off the military
  • gave favors to ppl in his party
  • dropped property qualifications by 2/3s  more men can now vote!
Kato Komei
  • period of 1921-1924 there were several prime ministers
  • 1924-1932 the prime minister
  • minseito party leader
  • 8 yr period of true taisho democracy
  • party man competes with the elites
  • his rule
    • control the other groups
      • sucessful with military and civil servants
    • cuts the budget with military from 42% of budget to 28%
    • cuts 20,000 civil burecrat jobs
  • known for 2 laws
    • Universal manhood sufferage
      • all men can vote over age of 25, no property restrictions
    • Peace preservation act
      • 1. officially prohibits groups that advocate change in japan's political system
      • 2. prohibits groups that want to get rid of property (communists)
Washington Conference
  • 1921-22 held in DC USA called the confernce
  • key was to have a new kind of international argeements without violence
  • purpose to deal with issues from WWI
  • 9 countries involved
    • USA, britian, france, Italy, Japan, China, Belgium, Netherlands, and Portugal
    • Russia and germany not invited!!
  • 3 treaties
    • 9 power treaty
      • all countries involved, vague
      • if problems with china discussion with every country not war or violence, the spheres of influence is ok but shouldn't take anything from china
    • 4 power treaty
      • Britain, France, USA, and Japan
      • not good to have treaties bw/only 2 countries replaced all old treaties to include all
      • each of the 4 will respect the others position in the pacific
      • discussion no violence
    • 5 power treaty
      • naval armys treaty
      • limits of battle ships
      • for every 5 battleships britain can have, the USA can have 5, Japan can have 3 and france & Italy can have 1.75
      • idea to slow down naval fire power
      • jap. not happy
      • reason usa and brit can have more cuz they have two ocean navys and jap only has one!
Shidehara Kijuro
  • WWI 1914-18 japan has joined the western imperialist powers
    • they have colonies in korea and taiwan, also extensive rights in china
  • The treaty of Versailles confermed this status cuz they could continue to keep Shandong area
  • He went to the Treaty of Versailles conference
  • foreign minister of the 1920's and even when he wasn't he had great deal of influence
Shidehara Diplomacy
  • 4 main ideas of Shidehara Kijuro
    • 1. Most important, critical for japan to participate in the west deals
      • west was the market, source of raw materials and technology
    • 2. China issue is world-wide not just asia!
      • China is a mess and everyone is fearful for the outcome
      • japan needs to dicuss with west b4 acting in china
    • 3. Since everyone is interested in china they need to pick a group to support!
      • he selects the Guomindang
    • 4. The world needs to know that Japan has a special interest in Manchuria
      • they will NOT have to dicuss with the world what they do in this area
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