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Jacksonian Democracy Test
1st test of Q3
11th Grade

Additional History Flashcards




The Monroe Doctrine
Cause: joint statement against European countries claiming new land in N + S America made US look

The U.S. didn't have the military power to enforce this doctrine, but it was the first time the US stepped out from behind GB's skirt on foreign policy- a nationalistic move.

Basically, "Don't mess with north or south America... or GB will do something to you."

(Quincy Adams' idea)
Adams' Agenda
All unpopular
(1) National University > creates more elites
(2) " " Observatory > impractical, average Joe Farmer doesn't give a hoot
(3) Curb land speculation: negative b/c this was a way for ppl to make a lot of $
(4) Protect Cherokee from Georgia

Important because we see elements of politics that are still with America today. First, not always wanting to stick up for the little guys, like the Cherokee. Second, hatred for the elite and hatred for curbing any financial practices that can make someone rich.
The Corrupt Bargain
Happened during election of 1824. Not many people voted, no candidate (there were 4) had a majority of electoral votes, and the choice went to the House. Clay already was dropped because he wasn't in top 3, but he was still speaker of the house, so he had a lot of influence to dangle in front of people. Clay and Quincy Adams saw eye to eye on the American system, so Clay said he would make sure Quincy Adams won the Presidency if he would appoint Clay sec of state- the stepping stone to the presidency at the time.

effect: many ppl felt cheated by & led to mass democracy- more ppl voted in election of 1828, so it wouldn't go to the house.
Basic Causes
of Mass Democracy
A.) government policy started to have + direct impact- the issues hit closer to home: slavery, the banking system, infrastructure

B.) More ppl can vote- think Western State

C.) Patronage or spoils system
(fell down a bit w/ the non-corrupt Quincy Adams)
But, usually, it just means that a candidate's supporters are put in cushy government jobs if the he wins. Or- A candidate is more likely to give good government services to supporters- think snowplows in S. Buffalo.
Tariff of Abominations
to the Nullification crisis
Example of Jax dem- he thinks he, as the executive, is embodiment of peoples' will b/c they elected him, so he increases power of the Presidency.

raises tariff to 30%- leads to immediate counter tariff from Euro, forcing southern farmers to lower price of commodities, so they would get sold

South Carolina: ignoring the McCullogh v Maryland case [which set a precedent that states did not have the power to overrule national government policy], SC nullifies the tariff & Jax threatens to invade, but fed gov isn't strong enough

Effect: Goodbye era of good feelings- the President just
threatened to invade a state

Clay- once again- comes up with a compromise w/o bloodshed btwn SC & government, making jackson look like an idiot for wanting to invade

T: strong executive & sectional tension arising- south fears what north might do about slavery if they can put this tariff
Jackson & Indians
The Indian removal act of 1830
Georgia & general public don't like Indians taking up land.
5 civilized tribes that adopted western ways > georgia revokes their sovereignty > John Marshall rules in favor of Indians, protecting the little guy ( a very unpopular thing in American politics) > jackson wants to be liked, so he says "John Marshall has made this decision, he can enforce it." > Goes against his oath to uphold the constitution, but because its what the ppl want he gets away with it

Removal act: congress moves the 5 civilized tribes > trail of tears- hundreds of thousands of indians forced to move to Oklahoma

T: Showed strong executive power by going against Marshall in public
Presidents & Important ppl
James Madison- President during war of 1812

James Monroe- President, era of good feelings

Henry Clay- Congressman to Speaker of the House to Sec of State

John Marshall- supreme court justice

Tallmadge- congressman from NY- Tallmadge Amendment about Missouri progressively becoming free state

McCulloch- case McCulloch v Maryland- President of the Baltimore Branch of the 2nd Branch of BUS

Cohens- lottery ticket guy in Cohens v Virginia

Gibbons/ Ogden case- state of NY steamboat monopoly. inter versus intra state trade clause > congressional power UP

Quincy Adams- Monroe's sec of state to President in election 1824 (the one that went to the HOR, corrupt bargain)

Andrew Jackson- elected in 1828

Santa Anna + Steven Austin

The Whigs... united against Jackson, considered a tyrant
The 3 themes
(1) Mass democracy
(2) Strengthening Executive pwr.
(3) Sectional tension- EOGF
Why banks are bad...
- Manipulate loans, so that the little guys get hurt
- Loan out more money than they ever have- take too many risks
- The guys who run the national bank are extraordinarily rich + have too much influence > Oligarchic

Have a say in monetary policy- Monetary policy really affects farmers - Bankers have no vested interest in these farmers & don't think about how their decisions will affect them.
The re-charter
Clay & Jackson
Jacks is up for re-election, but clay wants to "out-fox" jackson & be President himslef
decides to put the national bank up for re-charter 4 years early, knowing Jackson will veto it
He is right about veto, but Clay doesn't understand that you need the ppl to win the election by '32 & not just elite bankers/ investors
Important b/c 1st time Presidential veto is used for political reasons & not on constitutional grounds- shows power of the executive branch

The election of 1832 is a Jackson landslide: 219 to 49
Pet Banks
The Missouri Compromise
People from VA & KY settle Missouri and bring their slave-owning culture. As a result, when Missouri applies to Congress for statehood, they apply as a slave state. Most Congressmen were from the North/ Northeast at the time bc thats where states were concentrated, so they were leaning towards abolition and at least wanted the # of slave/ free state to be even- Missouri would have thrown the balance. Tallmadge, NY Senator, proposed amendment to the bill that would gradually make Missouri a free state, knowing that an abrupt move would make slave-owners as mad as if they had to take their brand new Mercedes SL500 to the dump. Here's how it worked: All slaves under 25 are freed, all slaves over 25 are slaves for life & when that whole generation dies, Missouri is a free state. The great-compromiser steps in with another suggestion. Henry Clay says Maine will be admitted to the Union as free & Missouri will be admitted to the Union as slave.

MAJORLY important: The first time slavery is a point of contention in US history. This issue will continue to kill the era of good feelings as sectional tension (btwn the South & North) intensifies.
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