# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

ILS 201 Final
N/A
46
History
05/08/2011

Term
 Epitome of the Almagest
Definition
 The Almagest is a mathematical and astronomical treatise proposing the complex motions of the stars and planetary paths by Ptolemy of Alexandria. Its geocentric model was accepted as correct for more than a thousand years. The Almagest is the most important source of information on ancient Greek astronomy. The Almagest has also been valuable to students of mathematics because it documents the ancient Greek mathematician Hipparchus’s work, which has been lost. Hipparchus wrote about trigonometry, but because his works have been lost mathematicians use Ptolemy's book as their source for Hipparchus' works and ancient Greek trigonometry in general. The Epitome of the Almagest was written by Regiomontanus because he was aware of problems
Term
 Nicholas Copernicus
Definition
 Earth has daily rotation on its axis and a yearly revolution around the sun. Advantages: explanation for retrograde motion (looks like a loop to us because we’re watching movement as we move), order of planets, things fall to center of Earth. De Rev used as predictive theory: use Copernican math theory without using cosmology: “Wittenberg Interpretation” and “instrumentalist” (vs realist)
Term
 De Revolutionibus
Definition
 - seminal work on the heliocentric theory of Copernicus. Offered an alternative model of the universe to Ptolemy’s geocentric system which had been widely accepted. Dedicated to Pope Paul III - math not physics basis for understanding/accepting his new theory.
Term
 Tycho Brahe
Definition
 Observer and compromise theoretician (Hven as fief from Danish king), best collection of data ever assembled, “geoheliocentric” theory - Earth at center, sun and moon revolve about Earth but all other planets revolve around the sun. Serious skepticism about existence of rigid spheres as movers of planets, 1577 comet: clearly about lunar sphere and moving “through” spheres of several planets.
Term
 Geo-Heliocentric Model
Definition
 Brahe - math benefits of the Copernican system with the philosophical and “physical” benefits of the Ptolemaic system. Earth at the center of the universe, Sun and moon revolve around the Earth and the other five planets revolve around Sun.
Term
 Johannes Kepler
Definition
 - Combo of mystical enthusiasm and extraordinary commitment to data and calculations. Mysterium Cosmographicum (1596): triggered by plot of Sat-Jupiter conjunctions while teaching in Graz, Austria, Five platonic solids are spacers of six Copernican planets, copies to Brahe and Galileo (Brahe gives Kepler access to his data). Astronomia Nova: end of circles/spheres in astronomy, avoid fictitious hypotheses; search for “celestial physics” - sun as quasi-magnetic force; Law of Ellipses (crucial break with circles/spheres, planets follow elliptical path about Sun, which is at one focus (also Moon about Earth), found by trying to get a good latitude theory) and Law of Areas (Line from a given planet to sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times.
Term
 Cosmographical Mystery -
Definition
 - Kepler - explains his cosmological theory, based on the Copernican system in which the 5 pythagorean regular polyhedra dictate the structure of the universe and reflect God’s plan through geometry.
Term
 William Harvey
Definition
 English physician, first person to describe perfectly the systematic circulation and properties of blood being pumped to the body by the heart.
Term
 “Circular” Inertia vs. Law of Inertia -
Definition
 CI: Galileo: A body moving on a level surface will continue in the same direction at constant speed unless disturbed.LI: Newton’s First Law: Every body remains in a state of constant velocity unless acted upon by an external unbalanced force. This means that in the absence of a non-zero net force, the center of mass of a body either remains at rest, or moves at a constant velocity. - based off of Galile
Term
 Projectile Motion
Definition
 Galileo - trajectory of a projectile is parabolic and a combination of two independent motions that don’t interfere with one another: a forward uniform motion on the horizontal and a downward uniformly accelerated motion on the vertical.
Term
 Sidereus nuncius/Starry Message -
Definition
 Galileo - First scientific treatise based on observations made through a telescope. Observations of Moon, stars, and moons of Jupiter. Moon is like Earth (valleys, mountains), Earthshine: Earth like moon (reflects sunlight toward moon), Medicean Stars = 4 moons of Jupiter (small planets can accompany large ones), Countless new start in all the constellations.
Term
 Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems
Definition
 Galileo, Snide attacks, used to be called Tides, Simplicio (obtuse Aristotelian); Salviati (voice of Galileo), Sagredo (the smart layman) discuss in four days: examine perfection/imperfection of heavens/earth, rotation of earth: why might it be possible and imperceptible?, revolution of earth around sun: does it not do a better job of accounting for new observations?, Galileo presents his theory of tides as only non-absurd one decisive (two-fold motion).
Term
 Pope Urban VIII
Definition
 - pro-French, likes skeptic Galileo, oversaw his condemnation, made him change title of Tides because it wasn’t an argument then, just individuals make own deductions from reading.
Term
 Francis Bacon
Definition
 - Tries to correct Aristotle with New Organon: natural philosophy is “corrupted by logic” with overemphasis on deduction. “House of Solomon” = powerful inspiration for Royal Society of London. Bees (collect nectar + make honey) vs Ants (Naive empiricists) vs Spiders (rationalists). Forerunner of modern science only in limited sense: advocate for inductive and experimental approach. Rejects Copernicus, Gilbert (cosmos based on magnetism), undervalues mathematics: too much of a role in natural philosophy, exploitation of nature: experiment as torture of nature.
Term
 New Organon
Definition
 - Bacon - reference to Aristotle’s Organon (treatise on logic and syllogism) in Novum Organum, Bacon details a new system of logic he believes to be superior to the old ways of syllogism...aka Baconian Method.
Term
 Bacon’s four “Idols”
Definition
 - Impediments to understanding1. Tribe2. Cave3. MarketplaceTheater
Term
 Mechanical philosophy -
Definition
 Relies on matter and motion as its key features - small particles may be indivisible (atomists), infinitely divisible (Descartes), or everything in between. Distrusts explanations that appeal to purposes and forms (rejects Aristotle’s final and formal causes). Wide impact: influences medicine, physiology, chemistry, as well as “physics.”
Term
 René Descartes -
Definition
 Beginning of modern philosophy - proposes a coherent philosophical alternative to Aristotle. Discourse of Method: Dioptrique (derives the law of refraction-sin relationship), Geometrie (founds analytical geometry (algebraic equations have geometrical meaning), and Meteores (analysis of primary and secondary rainbow). Two kinds of things in the world: mind/soul/thinking substance and matter/body/extended substance. Believed in Material and Efficient causes of Aristotle’s because everything explained in matter and motion...MECHANICAL PHILOSOPHY. Matter and motion - matter defined as an extension (geometry as key to physics: therefore universe a plenum (vacuum impossible-no thing), therefore matter infinitely divisible (like geometrical space), therefore universe infinitely extended (like geometrical space), 3 kinds of particles: first element (light - finest material), second (aether-slightly grosser), and third (form bodies - even things like air). SIGNIFICANCE: Temporary victory over skepticism, beginning of modern philosophy, replacement of Aristotle (alternative physics, astronomy, biology, optics, psychology, new mathematics), geometry as key to nature; new and very successful branch of math (algebra applied to geometry).
Term
 Induction vs. Deduction -
Definition
 Bacon hates induction, huge fan of deduction because observance of the natural world is more important than just making hypotheses.
Term
 Isaac Newton -
Definition
 Co-invents calculus, discovers compound nature of white light and consequences, unifies terrestrial and celestial physics, inverse square law of universal gravitation applies to all bodies in universe; explains shape of earth, tides, and precession of equinoxes; binomial theorem; makes reflecting telescope, etc.
Term
 Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy -
Definition
 Newton (1687) - pointed variation of Descartes’ Principles of Philosophy. BOOK 1: [Definitions (“quantity of matter” = mass), Newton’s 3 Laws (inertia, F=ma, action/reaction), inertial motion obeys Kepler’s law of areas, centripetal force = consistent (force directed toward the sun)], BOOK 2: Hydrodynamics (hates Descartes, fluids in motion, planets follow Kepler’s 3rd law), BOOK 3: The System of the World (Law of Universal Gravitation)
Term
 Opticks
Definition
 - Book written by Isaac Newton about optics and the refraction of light. Largely a record of experiments and the deductions made from them, covering a wide range of topics now known as physical optics. REFLECTION of light by mirrors of different shapes and the exploration of how light is “bent” as it passes from one medium (air) into another (water/glass).
Term
 - F = Gm1m2/r^2 where F is the force between two bodies of mass m1 and m2, r is the distance between them and G is a constant (constant of universal gravitation), universal gravitation: general formula applying to all bodies in the universe. Derived from C.Huygen’s mv^2/r consistency with Kepler’s third/harmonic law (distance cubed over period squared = constant).
Definition
 Inverse-Square Law of Universal Gravitation
Term
 “General Scholium”
Definition
 - Essay written by Newton (added to Principia) - Hypotheses non fingo - “I do not frame hypotheses expression. Newton counters the natural philosophy of Rene Descartes and Leibniz, but also addresses scientific methodology, theological, and metaphysical issues. Not in first addition, added later on.
Term
 Trivium
Definition
 - In medieval universities, the trivium comprised the three subjects that were taught first: grammar, logic, and rhetoric. Beginning of liberal arts, precursor to quadrivium.
Term
Definition
 comprised the four subjects, or arts, taught in medieval universities after the trivium. Together, the trivium and the quadrivium comprised the seven liberal arts. The quadrivium consisted of arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy. In turn, the quadrivium was considered preparatory work for the serious study of philosophy and theology.
Term
 Abbasid Caliphate -
Definition
 The Islamic Golden Age was inaugurated by the middle of the 8th century by the ascension of the Abbasid Caliphate and the transfer of the capital from Damascus to Baghdad. The Abbassids were influenced by the Qur'anic injunctions, which desired knowledge. During this period the Muslim world became the unrivaled intellectual center for science, philosophy, medicine and education as the Abbasids championed the cause of knowledge and established the House of Wisdom in Baghdad; where both Muslim and non-Muslim scholars sought to translate and gather all the world's knowledge into Arabic. Many classic works of antiquity that would otherwise have been lost were translated into Arabic and Persian and later in turn translated into Turkish, Hebrew and Latin. During this period the Muslim world was a cauldron of cultures which collected, synthesized and significantly advanced the knowledge gained from the ancient Roman, Chinese, Indian, Persian, Egyptian, North African, Greek and Byzantine civilizations
Term
 Averroes/Ibn Rushd -
Definition
 His school of philosophy is known as Averroism. He has been described by some as the founding father of secular thought in Western Europe and "one of the spiritual fathers of Europe,"
Term
 Monastic Medicine -
Definition
 Monastic medicine monasteries played a big part in the provision of medieval medicine. Virtually every monastery had an infirmary for the monks or nuns, and this led to provision being made for the care of secular patients.
Term
 The Articella -
Definition
 a collection of medical treatises bounded together in one volume that was used mainly as textbook and reference manual between the 13th and the 16th centuries. In medieval times, several versions of this anthology circulated in manuscript form among medical students. Between 1476 and 1534, printed editions of the Articella were also published in several European cities. The collection grew around a synthetic exposition of classical Greek medicine written in Baghdad by physician and polyglot Hunayn bin Ishaq, better known in the West as Ioannitius. His synthesis was in turn based on Galen's Ars Medica (Techne iatrike) and thus became known in Europe as Isagoge Ioannitii ad Tegni Galieni ("Hunayn's Introduction to the Art of Galen). In the mid-13th century, the emergence of formal medical education in several European universities fueled a demand for comprehensive textbooks. Instructors from the influential Schola Medica Salernitana popularized the practice of binding other treatises together with their manuscript copies of the Isagogue. These included Hippocrates’ Prognostics as well as his Aphorisms, Theophilus’ De Urinis, Philaterus’ De Pulsibus and many other classic works.
Term
 Cathedral Schools -
Definition
 Cathedral schools began in the Early Middle Ages as centers of advanced education, some of them ultimately evolving into medieval universities. Throughout the Middle Ages and beyond, they were complemented by the monastic schools. Some of these early cathedral schools, and more recent foundations, continued into modern times. Cathedral schools were mostly oriented around the academic welfare of the nobility's children. Because it was intended to train them for careers in the church, girls were excluded from the schools. Later on, many lay students who weren't necessarily interested in seeking a career in the church wanted to enroll. Demand arose for schools to teach government, state and other Church affairs. The seven liberal arts: grammar, astronomy, rhetoric (or speech), logic, arithmetic, geometry and music.
Term
 Universitas -
Definition
 legal term meaning “corporation”/guild (protect interests, set standards). Universities as corporations of masters of arts (Paris) which grants masters and students protections and “privileges” (often foreigners) and right to regulate qualifications for membership in guild.
Term
 Four Humors
Definition
 - believed that each of these humors would wax and wane in the body, depending on diet and activity. When a patient was suffering from a surplus or imbalance of one fluid, then his or her personality and physical health would be affected. Black Bile: autumn, earthYellow Bile: summer, firePhlegm: winter, waterBlood: spring, air
Term
 Impetus Theory -
Definition
 (Jean Buridan) was an auxiliary or secondary theory of Aristotelian dynamics, put forth initially to explain projectile motion against gravity. It was first introduced by Hipparchus in antiquity, and subsequently further developed by John Philoponus in the 6th century AD. A radically different version was later developed by Avicenna (11th century) and Jean Buridan (14th century), which became an ancestor to the concepts of inertia, momentum and acceleration in classical mechanics. Explains both sublunar and celestial motions.
Term
 Printing Press -
Definition
 The mechanical systems involved were first assembled in the Holy Roman Empire by the German Johannes Gutenberg around 1440, based on existing screw presses. Gutenberg, a goldsmith by profession, developed a complete printing system, which perfected the printing process through all its stages by adapting existing technologies to printing purposes, as well as making groundbreaking inventions of his own. His newly devised hand mould made for the first time possible the precise and rapid creation of metal movable type in large quantities, a key element in the profitability of the whole printing enterprise.The mechanization of bookmaking led to the first mass production of books in history in assembly line-style. A single Renaissance printing press could produce 3,600 pages per workday, compared to forty by typographic hand-printing and a few by hand-copying.
Term
 Ontology -
Definition
 the philosophical study of the nature of being, existence or reality as such, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations. Traditionally listed as a part of the major branch of philosophy known as metaphysics, ontology deals with questions concerning what entities exist or can be said to exist, and how such entities can be grouped, related within a hierarchy, and subdivided according to similarities and differences.
Term
 Epistemology
Definition
 - theory of knowledge is the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope (limitations) of knowledge. It addresses the questions: What is knowledge? How is knowledge acquired? How do we know what we know?
Term
 Presocratic Philosophers -
Definition
 Greek philosophy before Socrates.The Presocratic philosophers rejected traditional mythological explanations of the phenomena they saw around them in favor of more rational explanations. These philosophers asked questions about "the essence of things": From where does everything come? From what is everything created? How do we explain the plurality of things found in nature? How might we describe nature mathematically? Others concentrated on defining problems and paradoxes that became the basis for later mathematical, scientific and philosophic study.
Term
 Atomism
Definition
 - Atomism is a natural philosophy that developed in several ancient traditions. The atomists theorized that the natural world consists of two fundamental principles, atoms (indivisible bodies) and void, (a vacuum, i.e. empty space). Atoms are indestructible and immutable and there are an infinite variety of shapes and sizes. They move through the void, bouncing off each other, sometimes becoming hooked with one or more others to form a cluster. Clusters of different shapes, arrangements, and positions give rise to the various macroscopic substances in the world.
Term
Definition
 is in the direction opposite to the movement of something else, and is the contrary of direct or prograde motion. This motion can refer to the orbit of one body about another body or about some other point, or to the rotation of a single body about its axis, or other orbital parameters such as precession or nutation of the axis. In reference to celestial systems, retrograde motion usually means motion which is contrary to the rotation of the primary, that is, the object which forms the system's hub.
Term
 Platonic Solids -
Definition
 is a convex polyhedron that is regular, in the sense of a regular polygon. Specifically, the faces of a Platonic solid are congruent regular polygons, with the same number of faces meeting at each vertex; thus, all its edges are congruent, as are its vertices and angles.There are precisely five Platonic solids (shown below):Tetrahedron, Cube (or Regular hexahedron), Octahedron, Dodecahedron, Icosahedron
Term
 Four Aristetolian Causes -
Definition
 1. Material Cause: what it is composed out of2. Formal Cause: arrangement of that matter (shape)3. Efficient Cause: how it came into being4. Final Cause: purpose, utility
Term
 Epicycle-on-Deferent Model -
Definition
 Ptolemy’s astronomy: was a geometric model used to explain the variations in speed and direction of the apparent motion of the moon, sun, and planets.
Term
 Condemnations of 1277 -
Definition
 Bishop of Paris condemns 219 motley propositions. Theologians worry about necessary claims (eternity of world, no vacuum, no plurality of worlds) and astrological determinism etc. as limits on God’s power. Considered particularly important by historians as they allowed scholars to break from the restrictions of Aristotelian science. This had positive effects on the development of science, with some historians going so far as to claim that they represented the beginnings of modern science.
Term
 Galen
Definition
 - was a prominent Roman (of Greek ethnicity) physician, surgeon and philosopher. Arguably the most accomplished of all medical researchers of antiquity, Galen contributed greatly to the understanding of numerous scientific disciplines including anatomy, physiology, pathology, pharmacology, and neurology, as well as philosophy, and logic. Galen's understanding of anatomy and medicine were principally influenced by the then-current theory of humorism, as advanced by many ancient Greek physicians such as Hippocrates. His theories dominated and influenced Western medical science for nearly two millennia. Used direct observation, dissection and vivisection represents a complex middle ground between the extremes of those two viewpoints.
Term
 Verge and Foliot Escapement
Definition
 - the earliest known type of mechanical escapement, the mechanism in a mechanical clock that controls its rate by advancing the gear train at regular intervals or 'ticks'. Its origin is unknown. Verge escapements were used from the 14th century until about 1800 in clocks and pocketwatches. The name verge comes from the Latin virga, meaning stick or rod. Its invention is important in the history of technology, because it made possible the development of all-mechanical clocks. This caused a shift from measuring time by continuous processes, such as the flow of liquid in water clocks, to repetitive, oscillatory processes, such as the swing of pendulums, which had the potential to be more accurate. Oscillating timekeepers are at the heart of every clock today.
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