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HUM 212 (best)
Undergraduate 1

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The Great Schism (1379-1417):
- An anti-pope is elected, both claiming to be the bishop of Rome
o One pope in Rome, and another in France (Avignonese Pope)
o The supporters mirrored the 100 years war: France and its allies support the French pope, England and its allies support the Roman pope
- Caused much anxiety among the people: “What if we support the wrong pope, the person who demands worship, and we go to Hell?”
- Led to The Council of Pisa, a 3rd pope elected to get rid of the problem, but nobody accepts it. Now there are three popes.
Devotio Moderna:
- A Christian individual needed to meditate on Christ alone, and try to live as him. It is not about rituals, it is about piety.
- Means “modern devotion”
- A founder was Thomas a Kempis, the author of The Imitation of Christ
Erasmus (1469-1536):
Early Life
- A commoner, very smart. Became a priest. Became a primitive theologian, not a scholastic theologian. Go to the Bible, the source itself. Get pure Christianity
- Found a copy of Valla’s Annotations on the NT. Inspired, he takes on Valla’s work to translate the Bible.
- A committed pacifist, summed up by Sermon on the Mount
- His goal= Get back to original Christian thought (peace), and we will have a better world
- Tutored the grandson of Ferdinand and Isabella, who would become pope and king of Spain
- Wanted to reform church (but not radically)
Writings of Erasmus:
- In Praise of Folly (1511): His most famous. Analysis of universities and priesthood
- Annotated Greek New Testament: Luther used it
- New Testament (1519)
- Adagia: The big seller- What all educated people should know, a guide to classic culture
The Council of Constance (1414-1418):
- After The Great Schism
- Switzerland
- Sacrosancta Decree: The general council of the church should be above the pope. In general times of emergency, the council rules. A church council should be held every 10 years.
- Rejects absolute Monarchy, and is constitutional
The Price Revolution:
-During the Age of Iron
-A period of sustained inflation (grain was 4 times as expensive, 6 times for Spain)
- Population Increase:
o More people = more demand for goods, supply didn’t match
- Too much silver and gold brought back from Mexico and Peru to Spain causes it to devalue
- Debt and inflation
o Debt funding wars
o Printing money devalued money
- Rural producers
o Some do very well due to high grain prices
- Urban consumers
o Most negatively affected by this price revolution
o Craftsman wages only doubled, while grain became 4 times as expensive= ½ purchasing power
- Crisis of Seigneurial rents
o Landlords hit hard. Rent set a long time ago, while inflation is happening meaning the value they are receiving is decreasing
Martin Luther (1483-1546):
- Upper middle class, owned a mine.
- Pushed into law by father, but did not like it. Was always bothered by uncertainty if he was good enough for good
- The Vow to St. Anne (1505)
o If you save me from this thunderstorm, I will become a monk. He does
- Gets a Ph.D in theology, he is disgusted by Rome and its corruption
- He was mad at God; it is unfair to believe we all have original sin and are damned from the start
- The Problem of Sin: The Tower Experience (1515):
o He realizes while studying Paul’s works, that if he has faith in God, he does not have to worry.
- The Indulgence Controvery:
o Yohan Tetzel is selling indulgences for Rome. The money would be used for a new Basilica
o Luther is greatly angered and responds with…
- The 95 Theses (1517):
o Luther posted them, some very controversial
o Says the pope made a mistake allowing indulgences (the pope is all holy and cannot make mistakes)
o It was eventually printed, which worried Luther because a lot of it wasn’t refined, he didn’t expect it

Martin Luther: Works and later life:
- By faith alone do we go to heaven, works not good enough
- The Diet of Augsburg (1519):
o Papacy orders an apology from Luther, who refuses and pitches for a church council. He stood strong for “by scripture alone”
- The Reformation Treatises (1520):
o Foundamental statement of the new reformation, written by Luther
 1) Criticizes Sacramental Systems: Baptism, and Eucharist ONLY.
 2) Addressed to German Nobility: Reform the church in Germany whether the pope agrees or not
 3) Freedom of a Christian: Starts with a paradox: Christians perfectly free of all, and servant of all. Free of human authority. Can talk directly to god, only possible through faith alone
- The Diet of Worms (1521):
o Luther’s “kidnapping” by friendly people
o Luther ordered to apologize or he will be killed, he again refuses
o Taken to a castle, where he grows a beard, and writes his translation of the New Testament into German. People can now read the scripture themselves.
The Key Principles of the New Theology:
- Sola Fide, by faith alone
o Faith alone is justification, not works at all
- Sola Scriptura
o Anything that is practiced must have a basis in scripture. Nobody can demand you believe in a practice if it is not in scripture
o Purgatory, indulgences, etc are thrown out
- The Priesthood of all believers
o No religious specialists needed as mediators between you and God
o Any baptized individual is a “priest”
o Normal everyday life can be holy. Not just monks etc. Even sex can be as holy as a monk praying
- Law and Grace
o Only despair can come from the law
o Law -> Despair -> Find faith in God
Anabaptists (16th Century)
- The issue of infant baptism not directly in scripture
- The Anabaptists who were very radical though to get rid of infant baptism as well.
- They reject society as a whole, create an anti-society group of Christians.
Break with Zwingli
- They did not meet eye to eye
- Even Zwingli says he thinks they should be killed
- Pacifists, very uncompromising, seen as people who could overturn society, did not follow judicial binding oral agreements
The Munster Commune (1534-1535)
- John of Leyden
o An immigrant from the Netherlands who proclaims himself the Mosiah
o He takes over Munster; anbody who disobeyed was killed
- The Siege of Munster
o God rid of private property, got 12 disciples to run government, initiates polygamy
o A siege of the city occurs. All the Anabaptists are killed and John is captured and tortured. This was done by the local Catholic bishop, and various princes of Germany. Put down in a horrific fashion to make an example
o If something like this spreads, and not willing to accept traditional systems of control, it would be the end of the world
John Calvin (1509-1564)
- Came from an upper middle class family. From France
- Fan of Erasmus, trained as a lawyer
- Institutes of the Christian Religion:
o Writes many volumes
- Preaches in Geneva
Calvin’s Theology: “Tulip”
- Total Depravity: Man is born doomed
- Unconditional Election: Saved ones chosen by God. No human effort.
- Limited Atonement: Christ only died for the chosen
- Irresistible Grace: God’s will not resistible
- Persaverence of the Saints: Saints will persevere to salvation

- It actually spread and took off, Calvin takes out practices not in scripture, and was attractive to the anxious culture of this time, concerned with death

- Geneva becomes center of printing and refugees go there. It spread to Hungary, Netherlands, Scotland. It was a more grassroots spreading than Luther’s teaching, which went to princes etc
- Came from an upper middle class family. From France
- Fan of Erasmus, trained as a lawyer
- Institutes of the Christian Religion:
o Writes many volumes
- Preaches in Geneva
Calvin’s Theology: “Tulip”
- Total Depravity: Man is born doomed
- Unconditional Election: Saved ones chosen by God. No human effort.
- Limited Atonement: Christ only died for the chosen
- Irresistible Grace: God’s will not resistible
- Persaverence of the Saints: Saints will persevere to salvation

- It actually spread and took off, Calvin takes out practices not in scripture, and was attractive to the anxious culture of this time, concerned with death

- Protestants, during the wars of religion in France
- The spread of Calvinism in France leads to many Protestant converts
- The Hugenots were part of the Guise noble family that was fighting for power after the sudden death of Henry II
Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556)
- Seriously wounded in the battle of Pamplona, he has time to think and is converted. He dedicates himself to the defense of Catholicism.
- Seek out heavenly authority over earthly authorit
- The Spiritual Exercises:
o Attends a university in Paris where he writes his introspective, process of meditation
- The Vow at Montmartre (1534)
o They want to form a new order completely. Dedicated to spreading the faith, be obedient to the pope
- Jesuit Order Approved: Pope affirms the monastic order, obedience to the pope
Charles V
- Wanted a council to heal divisions in Germany. Turks were a threat, and we need to be unified to fight them. Bringing Protestants back to Catholicism will also be political unity
- Charles inherited massive land in Europe. He pursues the title of Holy Roman Emperor, many saw his reign as a good thing, but his territory surrounded France, who were not comfortable
- The Hapsburg-Valois Conflict
o Spain and Austria vs France
- Four Wars vs Francis I of France
o All Spanish victories
- Battle of Pavia
o Spanish captured Francis I
- The Sack of Rome
o Charles’ imperial army (mostly German and Protestants) invade and sack Rome. Very embarrassing
- France allies with the Turks, which greatly angers Spain. Spain still wins

Charles’ Abdication (1556)
- Charles, worn out from fighting the Turks and French, retires. He becomes a monk
- He divides the empire: Ferdinand (the new Holy Emperor) gets Hungary and Austria. Phillip the II, Charles’ son, gets everything else (Spain, the new world, Netherlands)
The Battle of Lepanto (1571)
- Conflict between Ottoman Turks and Christians is resolved
- A naval battle, a crushing defeat of the Turks
- After Suleima dies, the Turks still attack and take Cyprus
- The Holy League between Spanish and Venetians w/ other holy states make a navy (310 ships), and defeat the turks (250 ships)
- 10 thousand Christians slaves set free. Conflict between Turks and Christians over
The Edict of Nantes (1598)
- Gives legal rights to the Hugenots to worship in France.
- This was done by Henry IV, cousin of Henry III. Henry IV was a Protestant who converts to Catholicism, but decides to make Protestants legal. He was known as “Good King Henry.”
- He initiated a “chicken in every pot”
The Spanish Armada (1588)
- 130 massive ships sent to the English Channel
- Goal was to get out the heretic queen Elizabeth and replace with Mary Queen of Scotts.
- The English send fire-ships and damage the Spanish armada who has to retreat.
- Spain thinks it was because of their sins that they failed and tries again, but fails. Phillip the II (king of Spain at this time), dies, and son Phillip III makes a truce with England
- You cant use force to make people believe what you want
The Peace of Augsburg (1555)
- “who’s the rule, who’s the religion?”
- Legal status given to Protestants by forced truce that Charles V makes (he was not happy). Charles realizes that you cannot unify by force
Philip Melancthon (1497-1560):
- A friend of Luther, but a better linguist. Wrote the evangelical church’s creed (The Augsburg Confession), because Roman Catholic one was no good
- The Augsburg Confession was a statement of the essentials needed for Evangelical Christianity (faith=justification)
- Helps set up one of the first primary schools in Europe (Saxton), so literacy would lead to understanding the bible
Thomas More (1477-1535)
- A friend of Erasmus
- Trained in law, but inclined as a scholar
- Most famous for Utopia- coins the word
o Says perfect society on an island, no private property (leads to inequality). Everyone should work equally
o Means “no place” in Greek
Jan Hus (1370-1415)
- Supported Wycliff
- Czech preacher, fierce critic of wordliness and corruption of church
- Advocated communion in two kinds- unlike the Middle Ages when only priest took bread and wine, he believed all people should have both. This is symbolic of clerical superiority, and he believed communion should be unity.
- Summoned to the Council of Constance, granted letter of safe conduct by emperor, but he was arrested anyway. He was put on trial, and burned as a heretic. This lead to the Hussite Rebellion.
Johannes Gutenberg (1450)
- Developed movable type. This allowed for the production of books to be much cheaper
- The first book printed was the Gutenberg Bible
Effects of Printing
- Information was now easier to obtain
- Renaissance in N. Europe- Go back to the origins of Christianity
The Inquisition
- Alumbrados are persecuted (mystics, believed in mental prayer, not ritual)
- Persecution of Erasmians
o As a more extreme understanding of Catholicism arises, Erasmus is believed to be out of line. They capture many of his followers
- The Inded (1551)
o Books banned in Spain. Erasmus’ work was included in this
- Get rid of Lutherans
- The Great Autos-de-fe: “Act of Faith”
o Public displays of burning heretics. People forced to wear San Benitos, which showed you were once a heretic. You had to hang them in your church for a long time
In Rome
- Established in 1542 to get rid of Protestants
- Persecuted Protestants, and persecuted superstition (which hunts)
- Had another index, which banned texts in rome
- France- La Chambre Ardente (1547)
o The Burning Chamber, old laws against heresy were revived, it became a crime to have different beliefs than the Roman Catholic Church
Huldrich Zwingli (1484-1531)
- A powerful preacher in Switzerland
- Claimed he came to a new understanding of Christianity independent of Luther (church was strayed)
- Disputations in Zurich
o Where in scripture are these things based? (indulgences, celibacy, etc)
- Reformed Theology and the Swiss Reformation:
o He was more radical than Luther; if it was not directly authorized in scripture, take it out. This included saints, stained glass, organs in churches, etc.
o He and Luther in a conference talked, but Luther would not budge. They argued most over the Eucharist
The German Peasants’ War (1524-1525)
- Age of Iron’s tough recession was the background. Law to get more money from tenants caused backlash. Wealthy peasants could read and heard of “freedom” from Luther, but took it as they do not need to be locked down, and stopped paying rent
- The 12 Articles
o 10 were economic, 2 were religious. Directly choose minister from village, no institution not validated by word of God
- Luther was sympathetic for the peasants at first, but was dead set on non-violence even against an unjust ruler, and eventually said they should be destroyed
- Peasant revolt led by Thomas Muntzer, a former friend of Luther. He thought Luther was too nice. Thought God would come back and smite the snobbish nobles
- Frankenhausen (1525)
o Thomas Muntzer and the peasants destroyed in battle. Nobles strengthen hold over the peasants
Elizabeth I (1558-1603)
- Wanted the church in England to be free from Rome and loyal to England alone. Protestant.
- Wanted to avoid civil war and keep order in England’s church and state
- The Doctrine of Adiaphora:
o Greek for “different matters”
o Things not in scripture are not related to salvation, therefore you should have no problem doing the things I say on these matters – Elizabeth I
- Puritans:
o Protestants in England who thought the apostolic church had to be restored, no compromise like Elizabeth wanted
- Recusants:
o Believed pope in Rome was head of church, not Elizabeth, loyal to the Roman Catholic Church
The Council of Trent
- Background is a pressure for a council. The Pope, Charles V, Spain, Portugal, France, all have a need for a council to happen
- Location of Trent was decided because Charles V pressured Protestants: come to council or pay. They would not go to Rome, so they decided on Trent
The First Period (1545-1547)
- One session on doctrine, one on reform, alternating
- The question of justification is addressed; Luther’s ideas were shot down saying faith without works would lead to anarchy
- The question of residency (bishops) was not solved and put off. If bishops had to be resident in their diasis, the papacy would lose a lot of money
- Luther said 2 sacraments, the council said 7
The Second Period (1551-1552)
- Returned to Trent, all 3 German Archbishops are present, and protestants present
- No compromise: they don’t offer anything to the Protestants. Ex: The Eucharist is actually transformed into body and blood.
- The council had to end because a Protestant army was heading their way and would destroy them
The Third Period (1562-1563)
- Question of residency and the origin of bishops addressed
o Pope says only he is divine, the rest are subordinate
o It is decided that bishops should be present more often in their diasis than they are now.
- Final Sessions
o Church should be more concerned with individual behavior, no illiterate priests should be tolerated
Accomplishments of Trent
- Provides dogmatic statements of doctrine
- Defined moral norms more easily
- Instituted some reforms of hierarchy
- Emphasized pastoral care at parish level
Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-1566)
- A great conqueror; he took all of Egypt and Syria, then turned his attention to Christendom
- He takes Gelgrade and Rhodes
- He has a massive victory at The Battle of Mochacs in 1526, and Hungary falls. This was a disaster for Europe; a major Catholic area now under Turkish control
- Vienna is taken, but Turks eventually have to retreat
- The Turks advance to North Africa, and Charles V captures Tunis. Charles’ men get malaria and have to leave allowing the Turks to take Tunis
- Preveza is taken in a Navy battle by the Turks
o This was a key location for supplying Greece, and shortly after Greece falls
The Jesuit Order
- Centralized military organization
- Active order: preach actively, did not want to be separate from the world
- Rule: preaching in Europe. Spearhead of creating Catholics from protestant rich areas
- Rule: Tutors to Elite: Taught Catholics who didn’t know anything, set up colleges for themselves to be well prepared
- Rule: Advisors: Become confessors
Other Orders
- Capuchins- F. Matteo Da Bascio
o Reform of Franciscan Order; live up to what we claim to believe
- Ursulines- Angela Merici
o Woman had to either marry and have children, or be a nun. They were not allowed to wander or leave home, ever
Philip II of Spain (1556-1598)
- “The paper king.” Obsessed with micro-managing and making the decisions himself
- The Low Countries in the Netherlands had a history in independence and did not like interference. Philip saw this as heresy
- The Iconoclast Riots:
o Calvinist mobs “purify” churches of superstition
- The Governorship of the Duke of Alba (1567-1573)
o Netherlands treated like a conquered territory by the Duke of Alba
o Rounds up and executes 6000 protestant heretics in 6 years
o He causes too much trouble, and the King of Spain is seen as a tyrant, leads to…
- The Spanish Fury
o Spanish army hadn’t been paid in 6 months, and they revolt taking Antwarp for themselves
- Phillip appoints Margaret of Parma and Alexander Farnese
o Alexander said he will respect Netherlands constitution, but no heresy allowed. The 10 southern provinces accept, but the north do not (they are mainly protestant)
The St. Bartholomew’s Daw Massacre (1572)
- Catherine’s plan is to marry her daughter (Margle) to Bourbon son Henry in order to unify Protestants and Catholics in France during the Wars of Religion in France
- Admiral Colengee (the most powerful protestant in France), was shot. Catherine orders a massacre of Protestant leaders, and eventually all Protestants. Hugenots are targeted, forced to drink blood, drown, burned, 5000 die.
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