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History Chapter 28
The Confident Years
9th Grade

Additional History Flashcards




Eisenhower "Ike" as a Republican
  • Accepted the New Deal, but did not expand on it
  • Both liberals and Conservatives liked him and wanted him as their cadidate
  • Easily beat Adalai Stevenson in election of 1952 

*the prosperity of the nation was closely linked with that of the automocile industry (GM)

  • 3.2% booming growth in the econommy per year started 1950-1964
  • workers wages rised faster tahn consumer prices→ most workers lived middle class lives
  • universal credit such as Visa and MasterCard made shopping easier...more ppl bought on credit
  • McDonald's and Holiday Inn were franchised in the 1950's

Wages and Discrimination

industrial cities offered minorities factory jobs that gave them wages that could finally support a family, but they were still the last hired and first fired


Termination Policy (NA's)



Does 3 Things:

1. Sold tribal lands. (proceeds distributed to tribal leaders)

2. refused to recognize individual tribes→many NA's lost the security of tribal membership

3. encouraged NA's to move to the cities. NA's were the largest suffering urban group

Reshaping Urban America

*Urban development and renewel

-cleared old areas of the city and replaced them w/ new amenities

-often people, namely minorities/poor ppl were eveicted from homes and old neighborhoods were destroyed

Federal Highway Act of 1956:



The New Fifties Family

*traditional homemaker role:  used new appliances to do chores, take care of kids

*family activities replaced hanging out w/ friends or at the tavern

*TV was a form of popular entertainment that could be enjoyed at home

  --it reinforced American values and conformity

Inventing Teenagers: the "youth culture"

prosperity allowed children to attend and finish school and young adults to marry after high school (women pursued husbands rather than careers)


*the number of emplyed women reached new heights. 35% of all women were employed

*Rock n Roll

-adapted the rhythm and blues of urban blacks (Elvis Presley, Buddy Holly, Beatles)

-contributed to by poor white Southerners, Hispanics, and the British working class

Turning to Religion

*churchgoing was seen as a bulwark to communism

  --added “under God” in the pledge

  --added “in God We Trust” to coins

* AAs used churches as rfeligious and community/social havens (helped set the stage for the civil rights movement


*forced the Supreme Court to pass precedents to keep church and state separate

-Engel v. Vitale:  can’t pray in school

 -Abington v. Schempp:  can’t have devotions or Bible reading in school

Engel v. Vitale
says you can't pray in school
Alington v. Schempp

says you can't have bible readings in school.

-separation of church and state.

Kitchen Debate

between Pres. Nixon and Krushchev


*message:  that abundance was the natural by-product of a free society – Americans should have the right to choose


Feminime Mystique
Betty Friedan's book about the unhappiness of college educated women who were expected to follow "kids and cooking" ideas

*easily elected pres in 1952 and 1956

*a “foreign policy” president over being a domestic pres

  --WWII D-Day hero

  --built NATO into an effective force

*Presidential accomplishments (mostly the fact that things didn’t happen. he never started anything drastic.)

  --ended the Korean War:  set bombs aimed at China in Okinawa, ended in a draw

  --kept the New Deal programs in tact

  --exerted US military and political power around the globe to avoid war

(people thought of him as a smiling grandpa :) and just trusted him to take care of things)


-most important aspectof his foreign policy was continuity (nothing changed. kept things the same)

-pursued containment as under Truman

-kept New Deal programs, but didn't add to them

-he, his leaders, and the American people wer consumed with the Cold War

The Technology and Bomb Race
  • Massive Retaliation: concentrate military spending where the nation already had the greatest advantage, atomic weapons- while downsizing the military and other weapons.
  • Strategy: brinkmanship*
  • Encouraged the production of fallout shelters and air raid drills
  • Allowed NASA to take over the satellite program

-US worried b/c the USSR had sent the first satellite (sputnik), animal (dog), and man into space

-US believed they suffered a missle gap: that the USSR was way ahead in IBCM technology

  • Although the threats of Soviet dominance were more preceived than real, IKE did little to dispel people's Cold War fears
Effects of Sputnik
  1. We Create NASA to take over the space program
  2. American schools placed a higher emphaisis on math and science courses
  3. Congress supported college and post-graduate studies in the National Defense Education Act-which provided funding for all levels of school
Suez Canal 1956
  • France, Britain, and Israli were all involved powers in the Suez Canal
  • Israli attacked Egypt 
  • Britain and France attempt to take over the canal

-all for economic reasons

  • Us gets involved and told Europeans to evacuate Egypt b/c they wanted to maintain good relations w/ the entire middle east--where we get our oil from

*Ike allowed comm to exist in E. Europe, and China, and even North Korea but--wanted to avoid meddling in areas that might lead to a nuclear war

* He used the CIA in Latin America to retain or place pro-American govts

*2x under Ike, the CIA overthrew democratically elected govts

--Iran: established a monarchy (shah) that lasted until 1979

--Guatemala: kept a govt friendly to American business

Middle East

*France, Britain, and Israel ganged up on Egypt, each for their own reasons


In 1956 – Israel attacked Egypt – a week later the Suez Canal Crises:  Britain and France tried to seize the Suez Canal


  --US forced a cease fire and told the Europeans to evacuate Egypt


  --US somewhat annoyed its allies but maintained good relations w/ the oil-producing Arab   




U-2 Incident (1960)

*significance: this postponed progress towards a nuclear disarmament


*backdrop:  the US and USSR seemed to be getting along somewhat, and were planning on
  having a summit meeting to discussing limiting nuclear arm testing


*but in May, USSR air defenses shot down an American U-2 spy plane over the heart of Russia


  --thinking the pilot was dead, Ike said it was a weather plane


  --but Krushchev dramatically produced the pilot and demanded an apology


*Ike was hoping that the indent would force Krushchev to accept international espionage, but Krushchev and the Russians were very insecure and angry

*Ike refused to apologize and the summit meeting was cancelled


Eisenhower Open Note Quiz


1.What was Eisenhower’s main foreign policy doctrine regarding the Cold War? 
2.What was the name of the first satellite to orbit the earth? 
3.What US organization helped overthrow communist governments in Latin America and the Middle East? 
4.What nation did the US replace in Vietnam as the supporter of a pro-Western government there? 


5.What was the affair that took place in the Russian skies, involving Eisenhower and Khrushchev, which set back disarmament talks for years? 



massive retaliation—spend on atomic weapons while economizing on military spending




U-2 incident—US spy plane shot down

John Foster Dulles
*proudly claimed that a toughminded diplomacy had repeatedly brought the US to war
Domino Theory
Ike belived that if one southeast asian nation fell to comm, they all would

JFK and the Bay of Pigs



*Bay of Pigs Crisis:  JKF approved an invasion in to Cuba to spark a popular rebellion tooverthrow - Communist Fidel Castro (April 17th, 1961)

  --the plan had started under Ike


--CIA trained Cuban exiles as the invaders  (sent people to try and make Cubans want to overthrow Castro), but JFK refused to use US troops to support the invaders. Cubans captured or killed all of the invaders.

*The plan failed miserably!! very embarrassing for JFK

Berlin Wall Crisis

*Berlin Wall Crisis:  the USSR built a wall to prevent the East communist Germans from escaping to the free West Berlin, Germany (August 13th, 1961)

JFK responded by doubling the draft, calling up reservists, and warning families to build fallout shelters

JFK and Vietnam

North Vietnam: under Ho Chi Minh

South Vietnam: Ngo Ding Diem

*The comm fighters that worked under Ho Chi Minh were called Vietcong.







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