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history chapter 16
history chapter 16
9th Grade

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What did Hitler demand on April 28, 1938?
-Hitler demanded that the Polish Corridor, along with its port city of Danzig, be returned to Germany
Why did Russia sign a nonagression pact with Germany? The secrets they made along with it?
-hitler was promising Stalin territory
-agreed that they would divide Poland between them
-agreed that the USSR(Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) could take over Finland and the Baltic countries
What was the importance of Germany's attack on Poland on September 1st, 1939?
-no one yet realized that the Polish invasion had unleashed World War II
-a "lightning war"
-where fast-moving planes, tanks, & massive infantry forces were used to take the enemy by surprise
Who was the blitzkrieg first used on?
-it was used on Poland in the German invasion of Poland
What was Stalin's mistake regarding the invasion of Finland?
-thought that his soldiers would win a quick victory
-didn't worry about the Finnish winter
-a crucial mistake
-Finns attacked on swift skis
-Soviets(russians) struggled through the deep snow
-Soviet union did end up with the victory
What ended the phony war?
-Hitler launched a surprise invasion of Denmark and Norway
-he planned to build bases along the Norwegian and Danish coasts to strike at GB(Great Britain)
-in just 4 hours, Denmark fell
-2 months later, Narway surrendered as well
Where did the Allies escape to when Germany invaded France and how did Great Britain(GB) respond?
-the allies escaped to the beaches of Dunkirk, a French port city on the English channel
-they were trapped with their backs to the sea
-GB set out to rescue the army
-it sent 850 ships across the English Channel
Charles de Guille.....What did he do?
-set up a government-in-exile committed to reconquering France
-went on to organize the ~*Free French military forces*~ that battled the nazis until France was liberated in 1944
Winston Churchill
-th new British Prime Minister
-had already declared that his nation would never give in to the Nazis
What helped turn the tide of German invasion in Great Britain's(GB's) power?
-Winston Churchill declared that his nation would never give in to the Nazis
-his plan Operation sea lion--was first to knock out the Royal Air Force(RAF) and then land 250,000 soliers on England's shores
-the Luftwaffe=Germany's air force began bombing GB(Great Britain)
-outnumbered, the RAF had 2,900 planes to the Luftwaffe's 4,500
-at first, Germany targeted Britain airfields and aircraft factories
-then, they began focusing on the cities, esp. London--to break British morale
-despite the destruction and loss of life, the British fought on
What had the Allies learned from the Battle of Britain?
-stunned by British resistance, Hitler decided to call off his attacks
-instead, he focused his attention on Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean
~*the allies had learned a crucial lesson: Hitler's advances could be blocked*~
Who became Germany's most important Axis ally?
-remained neutral at the beginning of the war
-with Hitler's conquest of France, Mussolini knew that he had to take action
-otherwise, Italy would not share in Germany's victories
-after declaring war on France and GB(Great Britain), Italy became Germany's most important Axis ally
-Mussolini moved into France along with the Nazis
What happened in Dec. 1940 (from Dec. 1940-June 1941)?
-in Dec., the British decided to strike back
-the result was a disaster for the Italians
-within 2 months, the British had swept 500 miles across North Africa
-they had taken 130,000 Italian prisoners
-Hitler sent General Rommel, later known as the "Desert Fox," to Libya
-his mission was to command a newly formed tank corps, the Afrika korps
-determined to take control of Egypt and the Suez Canal, Rommel attacked the British at Agheila in March
-British forces retreated 500 miles east to Tobruk
-in Jan., the British drove Rommel back to where he had started
-by June, the tide of battle turned again
-Rommel regrouped, pushed the British back across the desert and seized Tobruk
-this was a shattering loss for the Allies
Why did Hitler want to take SE Europe?
-the Balkan countries of SE Europe were key to Hitler's invasion plan
-Hitler wanted to build bases in SE Euopr for the attack on the Soviet Union(Russia)
-he also wanted to make sure that the British did not interfere
Operation Barbarossa; Why was it unsuccessful?
-Hitler could move ahead with his plan to invade the Soviet Union(Russia)
-it was called this
-in June 1941, the roar of German tanks and aircraft announced the beginning of the Blitzkreig invasion
-the Soviet Union(Russia) was not prepared for this attack
-with 5 million men, the Red Army from the Soviet Union(Russia), was the largest in the world but it was neither well equiped nor well trained
-Soviet General Georgi Zhukov had fresh Siberian divisions and the harsh Soviet winter were on his side
-at temperatures fell, the Germans, in summer uniforms, retreated
-their fuel and oil froze
-tanks, trucks, and weapons became useless
-the Furher(Hitler) sent his generals a stunning order: "No retreat!"
-German troops dug in about 125 miles west of the capital
-they held the line against the Soviets until March 1943
-Mascow had been saved and had cost the Germans 500,000 lives
What did the U.S. do between 1935-1937?
-Congress passed a series of Neutrality Acts
-the laws made it illegal to sell arms or lend money to nations at war
-but Pres. Roosevelt knew that if the Allies fell, the U.S. would be drawn into the war
-in Sep. 1939, he persuaded Congress to allow the Allies to buy American arms
-they would pay cash and then carry the goods on their own ships
Lend-Lease Act
-passed in March 1941
-the Pres. could lend or lease larms and other supplies to any country vital to the U.S.
Atlantic Charter
-made between Roosevelt and Churchill
-it was a jiont declaration
-it upheld free trade among nations and the right of people to choose their own government
-later served as the Allies peace plan at the end of WWII
What happened on Sep. 4, 1941?
-a German U-boat suddenly fired on a US destroyer in the Atlantic
-Roosevelt ordered navy commanders to respond
-they were to shoot German submarines on sight
-the US was now invovled in an undeclared naval war with Hitler
-to almost everyone's surprise, the attack that actually drew the US into the war did not come from Germany, it came from Japan
Why was the US's info regarding Japanese invasion of SE Asia important?
~*Japan conquered European colonies there, it could also threaten the American-controlled Philippine Islands and Guam*~
-to stop the Japanese advance, the US government sent aid to stregthen Chinese resistance
Why did Japan get upset with the U.S.?
-the US cut off oil shipments to Japan
Pearl Harbor; What happened?
-in the morning of Dec. 7, 1941, American sailors in Hawaii awoke to the roar of explosives
-the US had known from a coded message that an attack might come but they did not know when or where it would happen
-within 2 hours, the Japanese had sunk or damaged 18 ships, including 8 battleships--nearly the whole US Pacific fleet
What was the significance of the bomb attacks in Tokyo, 1942?
~*the Japanese could be attacked*~
-the US wanted revenge for Pearl Harbor
Battle of Midway; describe it.
-the US knew that a force of over 150 ships was heading toward Midway
-the Japan force was the largest fleet ever assembled
-the US was outnembered 4 to 1 in ships and planes
~*USA won*~
What was General Douglas Macarthuer's strategy against Japanese troops?
-believed that storming each island would be a long, costly effort
-wanted to "Island hop" past Japanese strongpoints
-would then seize islands that were not well defended but were closer to Japan
-after taking the islands, he would use air power to cut supply lines and starve enemy troops
Describe the Battle of Guadalcanal
-the US learned that Japan was building a huge air base on this island in the Solomon Islands
-had to strike before the base was completed and became a Japan strongpoint
-marines and Austrialian support took it over in the night
-took it over easily
-fresh troops soon poured in...
-turned into a savage struggle as both sides poured in fresh troops
-the Japanese people called it "The Island of Death"
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