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History 1600-present: -isms
Nationalism, conservatism, liberalism, republicanism, etc.
Undergraduate 3

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Nationalism: Who, what, when, where, why?
- Didn't appear appear until 19th century (although nationalist historians at the time wrote otherwise to legitimize the phenomenon); Roots in French Revolution, Napoleonic wars.
- Napoleon was exporting his own ideas, esp. after Napoleonic empire fell, these places still kept ideas and also they were taking more pride in winning great battles as whole country.
- Later scholars come to say that these nationalistic ideologists were seeking to create 'imagined communities' of complete strangers (look at Italy: north vs. south).
- Early nationalism was more aligned with liberalism and radical democratic republicanism. Later came dark side of nationalism: by the end of the 19th century (1870), ideas were entering nationalist leaders to promote national superiority.
- As things becoming more industrialized, cities becoming more important, and thus solid language base useful.
- As countries try to be closer, some groups in countries try to separate because of culture and language differences: Britain & Spain vs. France.
- Public education system: Spain not til 1950. France has it, gives peasants opps & expands language outside of Paris.
- Vienna
Jeremy Bentham
- Liberal, popular with workers of time
- Designed modern prison, closed circuit TVs.
- big intellectuals of 19th century from England.
- Wanted to reform schools & prisons. Modern prison.
- Promtoed utilitarianism.
- Panopticon - Observe (optic), pan (all), creating invisible omniscience, they don't know you can see them.
- spoke about the “dull compulsion of economic forces” – if you don’t have money you need certain things in life, and economic force compel you to do certain things (work jobs you wouldn't)
- Fell out with Proudon (anarchist)
- Marx’s organization called First International to united proletariat.
- He said Protestantism was the tool the upperclass used to enslave the public.
- Believed in dictatorship of the proletariat.
- Popular with workers
- He predicted the current economic crisis. That our economy goes in cycles.
Nihilism – believed life is meaningless, there is no God, no afterlife. People are, they be, then they go away, end.
- major critic, world coming to end
- Religion is cowardice.
Toulouse Lautrec
- Fractured both thigh bones in early teens due to what modern scientists call an unknown genetic disorder, probably problem later known as pycnodysostosis (also sometimes known as Toulouse-Lautrec Syndrome)
- Couldn't enjoy things typical of men of his age, so he became artist.
- Drawn to Mountmatre area of Paris known for its bohemian lifestyle.
- He hung around prostitutes, even mvoed into brothels, caught syphilis from his favorite prostitute.
- Became alcoholic, put in sanatorium, died probably from syphilis & alcoholism.
- Did morphine & sex for artificial world, sat around discussing art for art's sake.
- Idea of degeneration - look at heads, Nazis tried to destroy degenerate art.
- We're driven by sex and the subconsciesce - we're just playing games covering up our animalistic nature.
- We create religion for father figure
- Irish Playwrite & poet, locked up for homosexuality.
- "Decadent man", dandy, masculinity mroe based on wit, not strength
- Neo-colonialism, economic control.
- By 1830s, Europeans in Europe again: Spain out of S.A.
- Suddenly this imperialism c. 1840-1914 - Europeans dominate 80% of the world
- Result of capitalism - looking for new markets.
- Steamboat converted to gunboat to go to China, India, never conquered by West.
- Revolution of firearms (repeating rifle, artillery - big arms, mounted missiles -, then weapons of mass destruction later.
- 540 French troops able to beat 41,000 Africans.
- Italy only one defeated by Africa.
- Medicine for malaria
- Growing tensions between European powers.
- Berlin Conference 1884
- Spanish American War 1898
- Gentlemen's agreements until 1914 among big powers
- Germany: Namibia, Togo - France, North west Africa. Great Br - northeast and southern tip. No colonies had real civil liberties.
- Russian-Japanese war (1904-5), Russians lose, thus Russian Revolution 1905 that's crushed by czar. 1917 was successful revolution.
British imperialism
Shrunk by 1850, then expanded by 1914 due to money.
- South Africa to India sea routes important.
- Egypt - protectorate
- Sudan - Anglo-Egyptian rule, Sudan & Egypt buffer zones, canal built to cut through.
- British had first concentration camps in South Africa against those who opposed British government.
- Controlled India by divide and rule policy.
Berlin Conference
- 1884 - over Africa
- French wanted Egypt, part of British protectorate - Africa was so controversial that this was necessary.
- Brits almost went to war in 1890, they launched ultimatum against Portugues in breach of Treaty of Windsor.
Spanish American War
1898 - Spain lost all colonies
19th century wealth/capitalism
- Minority getting richer, poor getting poorer.
- "Wage slavery"
- "Time is money" immerges
- Leisure time immerging - three 8 hour periods work, leisure, sleep.
- Child labor, often worst of jobs.
- Unemployment appearing as problem.
- Trade unions, socialism immerge.
- Still 6 hour work weeks
- For rich parts of city: public libraries, schools, street lighting, electricity
- For poor: like 3rd world shanty towns.
- Disease rampant in working class areas. Daunton calls it century of death: such as cholera, typhoid, summer diarrhea (caught on by flies from rubbish, you could die from it). 7-8 families using same toilet
- England richest country in world, but poor dieing at 29-35, living wild sex, drug, violence.
- Education didn't help low class that much.
- Authorities built serious prisons to lock people up (Jeremy Bentham)
- Modern police, women had "double burden", creation of welfare state, modern prostitution.
- Immerges as people see unemployment result of increase in capitalism.
- Responsible for creating 'New World Order'. Unveilled in Vienna Conference of 1815.
- You could say that Metternich's efforts caused no war, but still ignored democracy and thus lots of poor rebellions, uprisings.
- Conservatism, wanted to maintain old powers, ignored democracy
Congress of Vienna of 1815
- Here Metternich unveiled the conservative blue print for Europe: Italy & Germany would be divided, Poland wouldn’t exist.
- France was blamed for the war, but wasn’t punished.
- There wasn’t another European War until 1870, general war until 1914.
- Laissez-faire/capitalism (fashionable idea of the time)
- Ending the way people could inherit wealth – if you were a lord you could pass on your wealth to your son, which they were trying to change so people would have to work for it.
- Democracy – not like we know it today: some sort of democratic reform, not for everyone, property restrictions.
- Stood for what we now know as civil liberties: free press, freedom to have meetings.
- The Catholic Church was losing a lot of power, many liberals were anti-clerical.
- In favor of old-ways, keeping old powers, more favorable towards Church.
- Right after Napoleonic Wars (up to 1814) At Vienna Conference, Quadruple alliance formed, headed by Metternich: Russia, Prussia Austro-Hungary & Great Britain, Metterich - said to stifle liberal and national impulses.
- Congress of Vienna later known as part of Conservative Order
- Later at end of 19th century, early 20th, conservatives reacting to liberal movements. You had "belle epoch", but superficial and conservatives & radicals feared coming years. Conservatives really scared of crime, worried about degeneration.
- Freaked out by "new woman", "decadent man"
- Different from socialism in that it is the founding for communism, it is socialism taken to an extrem. All governments can be part socialist, because that's just when things are taken from the private sector and run by the people/government.
However, marxism today is known as unachievable ideal, communism usually fails.
- Marxism described as Communism in Communist Manifesto 1848 by Marx & Engels.
- Not til 19th century (although nationalist historians at the time wrote otherwise to legitimize the phenomenon); Roots in French Revolution, Napoleonic wars. Napoleon was exporting his ideas, then when Napoleonic empire
- National flags and anthems invented, along with first modern Olympic games held.
- Where people gathered in cities – national language become more of a priority, to make the industrial economy more efficient. Then minorities in cities moving to cities and grouping up,
- Cultural Identity also a factor, especially with oppression: Basque in Spain w/ ETA(basque in France not oppressed and thus today they don’t want to break away like Spanish), Irish.
- Public education – esp. common in France, immergence of state education - key to social mobility - why people begin to love nation states: using public education you can move on in life. Peasants learn to read & write & they can actually advance in life.
- Spain doesn’t give public education until 1950s
- What we know as French today wasn’t spoken beyond Paris
Dark side of Nationalism
end of 19th century. On one level bc of ideological conflicts (socialism vs. other isms) - many people in Europe believed class (if you were a worker), or left-leaning ideologies, were more important than nationalism. W/ later nationalisms, like in Germany, there's national superiority. It becomes quite ugly by end of 19th century. They begin defining themselves against another group. Origins of contemporary racism, biological racism, This ideology, that comes with Hitler, is why you have 2 world wars in early europe (1914-18, 1939-45).
James Joyce
Got rid of linear narrative
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