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History 106 Final
I.D terms
Undergraduate 1

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Trench warfare 




  • -horrible way of fighting used during WWI
  • enemies try to overtake each other's trenches
  • extremely difficult because as soon as you get out of the trench, you get shot at
  • no-man's land is area in between
  • significance- primary way of fighting used in WWI. caused many casualties
  • Term
    The Lusitania

    • British liner that was sank off the coast of Ireland by a German U-boat in 1915
    • 1200 casualties, 28 Americans
    • Germans had warned Americans to stay off British ships
    • still put pressure on Wilson to join the war
    • Jane Addams didn't want wilson to join the war
    • significance- put pressure on Wilson to join the War

    Zimmerman Telegram

    • German foreign secretary Arthur Zimmerman sent a telegram to Mexican Ambassador that was intercepted by the British
    • it said that Germany would help Mexico get back Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico if they declared war on the U.S
    • Significance- made the U.S Call to war even stronger

    Selective Service Act

    • passed in 1917 and required all men between 21 and 30 to register with the draft board
    • later modified 18-45
    • secretary of war Baker was in charge of the draft and worked PR
    • He made the draft registration a patriotic day of celebration to try to avoid riots
    • significance- started the draft 

    John J. Pershing

    • John J. Pershing was an American general that was in charge of stopping attacks on US villages and citizens by a Mexican bandit named Pancho Villa.
    • when Villa kept evading Pershing, Wilson ordered the US National Guard to patrol the border
    • this angered the Mexicans because they saw Pancho Villa as a hero
    • significance- caused anti-american feelings at the mexican border


    Boxer Rebellion



    • boxers were a secret group of anti-foreign chinese that killed thousands of chinese christians and foreigners in 1900
    • their feelings were part of the old chinese way of thinking, people hated the western influence
    • americans wanted to trade with china
    • the US contributed 2500 soldiers
    • successfully defeated them
    • significance- strong anti american feelings in china

    Panama Canal

    • man-made canal in panama
    • connects the atlantic to the pacific
    • started by the french but fell apart due to yellow fever and mismanagement
    • France sold the project to US but Panama denied it so France organized a revolution and took over the gov.
    • significance- major trading route than connected the atlantic and the pacific

    The Fourteen Points

    • US aims in WWII as summed up by Wilson
    • covered giving countries the freedom to choose their own political futures, considering the interests of the people in imperial disputes and a larger postwar plan. 
    • solidified Americans' support for the war 
    • significance- gave proof that America was getting involved for noble reasons, not selfish ones.

    Treaty of Versailles

    • conference between the French, British, Italian, Japanese, and American leaders that dealt with postwar decisions
    • germany was to be punished for causing the war by being disarmed, stripped of its colonies, admitting to starting it, and having to pay reparations
    • took away 1/8 of their land
    • significance- made the Germans angry and bitter which paved the way for Hitler and world war 2

    League of Nations

    • A new international organization that was formed during the treaty of versailles. 
    • one part of the treaty that embodied Wilson's vision for peace and justice
    • wilson traveled around the country trying to gain support for it
    • the exertion caused him to have a stroke
    • senate split into 3 groups with different opinions on the league
    • Wilson refused to compromise so the US never joined the league
    • significance- Wilson's main focus that caused him to have a stroke


    • rose to power in the 1920's again
    • spurred by racial tensions and a movie glorifying the KKK
    • 2 men from Georgia realized it could be a very profitable business 
    • charged membership fees and sold robes
    • strong mob mentality
    • died out when the grand dragon was convicted of rape
    • significance- strong terrorist organization that targeted different races

    National Origins Act

    • Act passed in 1924 that severely restricted immigration to the US
    • only 2% of the people from any origin of people from any origin were allowed to immigrate to America
    • primarily aimed at southern and eastern europeans
    • common impulse to keep america "american"
    • war had boosted nativism
    • significance- restricted immigration greatly


    • belief that the bible told the literal truth
    • targeted Darwin's theory of evolution 
    • Scopes Trial
    • mainly southern and western passed anti-evolution laws
    • caused many judicial problems and laws prohibiting teaching evolution

    Scopes Trial

    • John Scopes was a teacher in Tennessee
    • There was a law banning the teaching of evolution
    • Scopes taught it anyway
    • taken to court
    • William Jennings Bryan joined the prosecution
    • Clarence Darrow tried to make Bryan look ridiculous
    • Scopes found guilty
    • Significance: took the Butler Act to court

    The Jazz Age

    • symbolized the period of freedom after the war
    • young people were swept away by the new jazz music that came about because of the modernist spirit of cultural innovation
    • people enjoyed going out, drinking, and having a good time
    • cars and other middle class items became more widely used
    • women were more open to defying social norms
    • significance- strong shift in culture

    The New Woman

    • sex, clothes, makeup, ideas, smoking, sophisticated, pleasure-mad
    • started during the jazz age
    • women were looser
    • significance- women were defying previous social norms


    • 20th century stereotype of young women
    • short hair, wore shorter skirts, little hats, makeup
    • perfect body was to be boyish and flat-chested
    • smoked cigarettes, liked to experiment with sex, alcohol, drugs, and liked to dance
    • rebels in a new age of freedom and enjoying life
    • significance- represented the new age of women


    Sacco-Vanzetti Case



    • involved a shooting in Massachusetts in 1920
    • a paymaster and guard were shot and killed, and two Italian immigrants were blamed for the crime
    • the trial was filled with discriminatory views and hatred towards the immigrants 
    • it was obvious they would be found guilty no matter what
    • got executed 
    • significance- showed the attitude of Americans at the time

    Volstead Act

    • It was the 1919 prohibition law
    • prohibited alcohol
    • very difficult to enforce
    • badly funded
    • might have actually increased alcohol consumption because it made drinking more rebellious
    • smuggling liquor and making moonshine was impossible to stop completely
    • made huge profits
    • significance- prohibited alcohol but was very hard to enforce


    Harlem Renaissance



    • time of great art and cultural development for blacks in America
    • after WWI, more blacks had moved into harlem
    • very close to nightclubs and theaters
    • caused a whole new culture hat revolved around the black community
    • jazz became popular 
    • books by black authors such as Langston Hughes became popular
    • broadway musicals had all black casts
    • significance- major cultural impact

    Marcus Garvey

    • founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association
    • originally from Jamaica
    • moved to harlem and then tried to convince blacks to return to "mother Africa"
    • glorified everything that was good about being black in a predominantly white society
    • gained much support, but was eventually convicted of fraud and deported
    • caused UNIA to fall apart
    • significance- one of the first people to start the proud to be black movement


    • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
    • headquarters in New York City
    • did everything it could to help colored people advance in society
    • helped them find work
    • offered welfare
    • gave them lawyers and assisted them in trials if need be
    • significance- provided a lot of service and support for black people

    Herbert Hoover

    • President of the US
    • elected because he did not support prohibition
    • started off promising 
    • promoted cooperative marketing
    • started the idea for the Hoover Dam
    • Great Depression destroyed his presidency
    • his idea of private initiative did not satisfy the country
    • raised taxes while wages were cut
    • significance-president during the great depression

    Bonus Army

    • WWI veterans marched to Washington DC and camped out
    • demanded their bonus pay because of the great depression
    • set up houses made of cardboard when congress refused to listen
    • Hoover made the mistake of calling in armed forces and using tear gas and machine guns to drive them away
    • significance- gave Hoover a bad image throughout the country and made him look heartless

    Adam Smith/ John Maynard Keynes

    • Keynes was a British economist that helped overcome the depression through deficit spending
    • Adam Smith wrote the Wealth of Nations and developed the idea of the "invisible hand"
    • he advocated Laissez Faire  
    • significance- two prominent economists 


    Social Security Act



    • started in 1935 to aid those that were unemployed, disabled, victims of industrial accidents, or single mothers
    • funds came from withholding some of workers pay and taxing employers as well
    • welfare program that paved the way for what we are using today
    • significance- important welfare program that is still in place today


    Tennessee Valley Authority



    • part of the Hundred Days, which was a period where congress enacted key measures to fix the great depression
    • Tennessee Valley Authority was the most innovative program that they made
    • involved taking an old hydroelectric plant that had been used during WWI and reopening it
    • made new jobs for those that lived in this poverty-stricken area and also generated electricity and helped provide recreational facilities and reduced flooding and soil erosion
    • significance- most successful achievement of the Hundred Days

    Wagner Act

    • Also called the National Labor Relations Act of 1935
    • guaranteed collective bargaining rights
    • permitted closed shops
    • outlawed blacklisting
    • also created the NLRB (National Labor Relations Board)
    • named after Robert Wagner, a senator
    • significance- helped the labor movement greatly

    Cash and Carry

    • requested by FDR to replace the neutrality act of 1936
    • allowed the US to sell supplies to the British as long as they paid in cash on the spot
    • helped the British in WWII and helped the US economy
    • significance- allowed the US to give aid to the British without technically being involved with the war

    Lend-lease Act

    • Roosevelt said that Americans could lend or lease war materials to any nation vital to America's security
    • passed in 1941
    • Roosevelt sent aid to the Soviet Union despite being communist because he wanted to everything he could to defeat hitler
    • revised the cash and carry policy
    • significance- allowed the US to take part in the war without officially taking a stance

    Neutrality Acts

    • Stated that arms sales and loans to nations at war were illegal and forbade Americans to travel on ships that belonged to countries that were at war
    • it showed Americans longed for peace and did not want to get involved in a war they did not have a part in like in WWI
    • significance- delayed American involvement in WWII

    Pearl Harbor

    • attack on Pearl Habor was the final straw that pushed America into joining WWII
    • Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7, 1941 and killed 2400 Americans
    • destroyed 13 ships and 360 aircrafts
    • decided to attack because America had stopped trading with them and had frozen all American assets in Japan
    • significance- caused America to get involved in WWII

    Japanese-American Internment

    • Anti-Japanese views caused pressure to be put on Roosevelt, especially after Pearl Harbor
    • Americans wanted to put Japanese-American citizens into camps fearing they were conspiring against the US
    • told to sell all their possessions and were made to live in desolate parts of the Great Plains
    • after the scare calmed down, some were allowed to attend college and get jobs
    • the government apologized for the injustice in the 80s
    • Clinton apologized again during his term
    • also got paid for the injustice
    • significance- exemplified the fear in the country at the time

    Rosie the Riveter

    • During WWII, women had to work in jobs men had previously occupied
    • married women and mothers started entering the work force
    • held non-traditional jobs such as operating cranes, driving taxis, making airplanes, loading shells, and worked in shop mills too
    • Rosie was the stereotype of the muscular woman ready to get the job done
    • they were still discriminated against and paid less
    • significance- exemplified the woman ready to enter the work force

    War Production board

    • Established by Roosevelt
    • allocated materials and distributed the production of civilian goods 
    • goods were rationed such as coffee, butter, sugar, gasoline, cheese and meat
    • people held meatless Tuesdays 
    • bumpers and other metal items were donated to help build airplanes
    • significance- helped ration goods for the war

    Good Neighbor Policy

    • FDR's policy that renounced any nation's right to intervene in the affairs of another
    • withdrew troops out of Haiti and the Dominican Republic
    • also terminated the Platt Amendment which took away any of US's rights in Cuba
    • Significance- another attempt by FDR to stay neutral

    Taft-Hartley Act

    • barred closed shops (workplace where all employees had to join the union)
    • outlawed secondary boycotts
    • required union officials to sign anti communist oath
    • weakened organized labor as a force for social justice
    • relocated labor intensive industries from Northwest and midwest to the sunbelt
    • significance- changed the labor movement

    Berlin Airlift

    • response to Stalin's blockade of Berlin
    • American cargo planes carrying food and fuel landed in West Berlin every 3 min. around the clock
    • provided city with a lifeline
    • Stalin ended blockade
    • revealed Stalin's readiness to use innocent people
    • heightened anti-soviet feelings in the West
    • significance- challenged Stalin's policies in Berlin, made the west dislike the Soviets even more


    • First artificial satellite (launched by Soviets)
    • put pressure on Eisenhower and America to show technological superiority
    • led to creation of NASA
    • improved education in US, especially to improve teachers of science, math, and foreign language
    • significance- first space mission, started the technological war

    Marshall Plan

    • European Recovery Plan
    • combat hunger, poverty, and desperation that spawned communism
    • Soviet Union and satellites didn't take part
    • western Europe began to get back on its feet and become an important trading center for America
    • Significance- helped Western Europe recover from the war

    Iron Curtain Speech

    • Churchill's speech at Westminster college in Missouri
    • Stalin had spread an "iron curtain" over Eastern Europe
    • called for an alliance of English speaking people and stressed the importance of Anglo-American monopoly on nuclear weapons

    Truman Doctrine

    • 1947
    • money supported Greece and Turkey in their fight against communist Soviet Union
    • "freedom" and "liberty" against oppression and terror
    • set standard for US foreign policy
    • significance- first of many containment policies

    Cuban Missile Crisis

    • convinced both sides of the need for nuclear superiority
    • Russians had nukes in Cuba pointed at the US
    • ended without any fighting
    • significance- scary point in the Cold War


    • United military, economic and diplomatic strategies
    • contain any further soviet communist expansion
    • inspired by George F. Kennan's letter to Truman warning him of Soviet expansion
    • significance- led to many different policies that would lead to our involvement in other countries to try to stop the spread of communism

    Domino Theory

    • Eisenhower
    • warns that if Vietnam fell to communists, then Thailand, Burma, Indonesia, and ultimately all of Asia would fall
    • Significance- led to our involvement in Vietnam

    National Security Act of 1947

    • created after Truman Doctrine
    • unified the armed forces under a single department of defense 
    • created national security council
    • created central intelligence agency
    • significance- changed our defense strategies and created new departments


    • North Atlantic Treaty Organization
    • Alliance of nations in which "an armed attack against one or more of them..shall be considered an attack against them all"
    • marked formal end of US's avoiding entangling alliances abroad
    • Soviet Union responded with East Germany and Warsaw pact
    • significance- created a strong alliance with the US


    • desperate to be reelected, Republican Senator Joseph R. Mccarthy began accusing hundreds people of being communists
    • appealed to midwest republicans and blue collar workers
    • significance- caused paranoia and people to be arrested for no reason

    House UN-American Activities

    • HUAC
    • held hearings to expose communists in film industry 
    • the "Hollywood Ten" refused to testify about past political practices under 1st amendment 
    • HUAC cited them for contempt of congress and sent them to federal prison
    • Barred media from anything that seemed remotely un-american
    • suppressed many labor unions who feared being red or pink
    • significance- contributed greatly to the paranoia of communism

    Emmit Till

    • 14 year old boy from Chicago
    • murdered by roy Bryant  and J.W Milan for flirting with Bryant's wife
    • caused outrage among black community
    • mother had open casket, so everyone could see what happened
    • two men were acquitted and later admitted their guilt
    • significance- spurred an even stronger civil rights movement

    Brown V. Board of Education of Topeka, KS

    • reversed precedent of separate but equal in Plessy Vs Ferguson
    • Earl Warren spoke for unanimous court
    • said black and white schools were inherently unequal and denied black children equal protection of the law
    • integrated schools
    • significance- ended school segregation


    Freedom Rides


    • organized by congress of racial equality (core)
    • rode through the south on buses celebrating the ban of segregation in interstate transportation
    • angered whites
    • riders were beaten and bus was burned in Anniston, Alabama
    • significance-forced ICC to desegregate all interstate carriers and terminals

    Greensboro Sit-ins

    • four black college freshmen sat at all white portion of woolworth's diner
    • refused to move
    • 100's of other followed with sit ins
    • whites violently resisted
    • Greensboro grudgingly let blacks sit at diners and be served
    • significance- showed non-violent protests worked and encouraged youth to use non-violent resistance to make a stand 

    Civil Rights Act of 1964

    • most significant civil rights law in US history 
    • banned racial discrimination and segregation in public accommodations
    • outlawed bias in federally funded programs
    • granted fed. gov. new powers to fight school segregation 
    • created equal employment opportunity commission (EEOC)
    • significance- ended civil rights

    Voting Rights Act of 1965

    • ended any tests or device that denied the vote
    • authorized federal examiners to register voters in states that had disenfranchised blacks
    • boosted the registered voters in south from 1 million to 3.1 million
    • many more blacks started holding office
    • raised overall quality of life for most blacks
    • significance- important step in equality of the races

    Black Power

    • expressed the need for militant self defense and rapid social change
    • inspired largely by Malcolm X
    • wanted nothing to do with whites
    • significance- a strong black movement

    Manhattan Project

    • inspired by refugee physicists Leo Szilard, Enrico Fermi, and Albert Einstein who wanted FDR about Hitler's discovery of uranium fision
    • project to develop the atomic bomb
    • beat the germans in the race to develop A bombs
    • changed the world
    • led to end of war in Pacific
    • significance- forever changed warfare

    Island Hopping

    • Macarthur's strategy for war in the Pacific
    • capture strategic islands (airfields) and move onto the next
    • inched closer to Japanese homeland
    • very successful
    • significance- important strategy in world war I

    GI Bill of Rights

    • The Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944
    • gave veteran's priority for many jobs, occupational guidance, and if needed, 1 year of unemployment benefits
    • provided low interest loans to some 4 million trying to start a business, buy a home, or start a farm
    • gov. paid up to 4 years of further education or job training
    • democratized higher education
    • new universities built to support the new incoming college students 
    • less women were admitted
    • significance- provided veterans with many services

    Affirmative Action

    • compensate for past racial discrimination
    • set aside building contracts
    • industries adopted hiring goals and recruitment training programs
    • colleges reserved spots for minority applications
    • University of California Regents V. Bakke said it was was unconstitutional to have racial quotas
    • significance- gave minorities more of an opportunity

    Great Society

    • LBJ's plan to end poverty and racial injustice 
    • passed voting act, started medicare and medicaid
    • dealt with enviornment
    • extremely liberal
    • hated by republicans
    • helped millions of poor and underprivileged
    • significance- created many new programs to help society

    Miranda V Arizona

    • supreme court case that said that police must advise suspects of their rights to remain silent and to have counsel during questioning
    • Ernesto Miranda was arrested for rape
    • confessed without the presence of a lawyer
    • defense later appealed saying the confession was not voluntary
    • Earl Warren said police had to inform people of their rights
    • miranda was tried again and found guilty
    • significance- established "Miranda Rights"

    Cesar Chavez

    • Leader that helped advance Latinos in America
    • fought for better conditions of farm workers
    • teamed up with united farm workers (UFW)
    • boycotted grapes
    • significance- helped the advancement of Latino rights


    Betty Frieden



    • wrote the "Feminine Mystique"
    • posed the "problem that has no name"
    • the frustration of educated, middle-class wives and mothers who had subordinated their own aspirations to the needs of men
    • urged women to pursue careers that would establish their own identity
    • significance- addressed a long standing social issue that had not been spoken of before

    National Organization for Women

    • formed by women who were mad that the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission didn't enforce the ban on sex discrimination
    • labored "to bring women into full participation in the mainstream of American society:
    • lobbied for equal opportunity, filed lawsuits against gender discrimination and mobilized public opinion against sexism
    • Significance- helped the women's right movement greatly

    Geneva Accords
    • conference in Geneva, Switzerland
    • arranged a cease fire between France and Vietnam
    • divided Vietnam at 7th parallel until elections in 1956 would choose the government of unified nation
    • eisenhower refused to sign it
    • southeast asia trety organization was created (SEATO)
    • significance- divided Vietnam
    Gulf Of Tonkin Resolution

    • North Vietnamese patrol boats fired upon US destroyers in Tonkin Gulf
    • LBJ says Americans are victims and asks congress to pass resolution which will give him authority to "take all necessary measure to repel any armed attack" and to "prevent aggression"
    • senate and house both pass it (landslide)
    • beginning of Vietnam

    My Lai Massacre

    • Charlie Company under command of First Lieutenant William Carley enters village of My Lai where they  believe the Vietcong are
    • found women and children instead
    • massacred them
    • military kept it a secret for a year
    • when it surfaced, it became symbolic of the war's brutality and futility of the US war effort
    • heightened anti-war feelings even more

    Tet Offensive

    • Vietcong and North Vietnamese Army unleashed massive offensive attack on first day of Tet (Vietnamese New Year)
    • attacked over 100 towns and cities
    • were repelled by south vietnamese and americans and failed
    • American media showed that we could not win the war at an acceptable cost
    • approval for the war sank even lower

    Paris Peace Accords

    • January 1973
    • ended hostilities between America and N. Vietnam but didn't resolve the differences between North and South Vietnam
    • during the war, America lost 58,00 and 300,000 were wounded
    • spent at least 150 billion
    • war was over for America

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