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Hist Exam 1
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Undergraduate 2

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William Tweed

William M. Tweed (April 3, 1823 – April 12, 1878), sometimes informally called Boss Tweed, was an American politician who was convicted for stealing between 40 million and 200 million dollars[the courthouse- 1870s] from New York City taxpayers through political corruption. Tweed was head of Tammany Hall, the Democratic Party political machine that played a major role in the politics of 19th century New York. He died in jail.


 "Boss" of "Tammany Hall" (1854) (NYC's Democratic Political Machines)

Tammany Hall also served as a social integrator for immigrants by familiarizing them with American society and its political institutions and by helping them become naturalized citizens. One example was the massively expedited, although legally dubious, naturalization process organized by William M. Tweed. Under Tweed special naturalization committees were established to complete the forms, pay the fees and obtain the witnesses necessary for naturalizing immigrants, and judges were compelled to expedite naturalization proceedings.[5]

John Wesley Powell

    •    Union army fighter - civil war
    •    Has one arm
    •    Geologist by training by Illinois Wesley university
    •    USGS - organization that produces topo maps
    •    Went west - first white man to float the Colorado river. Brings back detailed reports about what the west is like
    •    Emphasizes the limitations of water
    •    Very arid, desert
    •    Differences from the eastern view
    •    Water has to be treated by common property - federal government needs to respect this politically


    •    William Gilpin, the governor of Colorado, said that the West was great, the rain was plentiful and there were no problems - his view won over Powell's and everyone rushed out West.

Helen Hunt Jackson
    •    Wrote a book in the 1881 called "A Century of Dishonor" - sold widely
    •    Outlaws the many ways that the federal government had broken relationships with the Indians - fraud, corruption, and violence proposed by this "nation of equal rights"
    •    Only way to save Native Americans, is to make them more like white men
    •    Eradicate their culture
    •    Force to go to white schools, not use native tongue anymore, men get a mandatory haircut
    •    Currency
    •    Debate over the money standard in America
    •    Ever since the civil war when the government first started printing greenbacks (paper money) instead of using gold/silver currency
    •    Greenbacks are not redeemable by the gold currency
    •    Many people in debt - people want greenbacks so that the inflation goes up, meaning that their debt would be decreased.
    •    Poor people want greenbacks ---- rich people want gold currency
Freedman's Bureau
1865: the Freedman's Bureau established
    •    Headed up by General Oliver Howard.
    •    Established officers in each Southern state that were there to resolve labor contracts between freed persons (ex. Slaves) and white employers.
    •    Set up schools for the children of freed slaves
    •    Established temporary relief measures such as clothing, food, etc.
Andrew Johnson

became pres in 65 when Lincoln was shot

     •    Always been opposed to the idea of the confederacy
    •    Democrat, was put on the presidential ticket on 1864
    •    Ideas revolve around the ideas of the yeoman farmer (not the ideas of the plantation owners…poor). He hates the big elite planters - believes they are responsible for the civil war and should be punished. Also a racist. During the war "damn the negroes…"
    •    Reconstruction
    •    At first they think Andrew is own of their own…Johnson is a strict constructionist. Like many whites, Johnson found it hard to accept the suffrage acts. "no such thing as reconstruction, those states have not gone out of the union, so reconstruction is unnecessary."
    •    As eager as the radical republicans to get rid of the elite planters, but has no care for the African Americans
    •    Johnson asks that anyone who owns property over 20,000 dollars cannot be pardoned. But could ask for special pardon - these planters still had control of the wealth of the south.
    •    Johnson begins to issue edicts. A native unionist becomes the governor in each state. Requires each state must invalidate their secession ordinances, ratify the 13th amendment (which abolished slavery), and advocates a very limited black suffrage - right to vote (only applies to those having education or military service). It's purpose was to disarm the radical republicans

Basically the planters can get away with what they want to. The black codes begin to be cast - southern state legislatures passing codes to preserve slavery - a way to maintain servitude although legally there cannot be slavery. Passed by every ex-confederate state

14th Amendement
an extra safe act for violating the civil rights act. Cannot take away any citizenship without due process of law
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