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HIST 461 Final Review
Terms for review for HIST 461 final
Undergraduate 4

Additional History Flashcards




Sino-Soviet Split

Split between the USSR and Maoist China, reflecting Mao's increasing independence

  • initially, reflected desire to radicalize world communist confrontation:
    • at first attacked peaceful co-existence (also, Mao threatened by de-Stalinization)
    • forsook Soviet model for more radically communistic GLF
    • attacked Quemoy in 1958 to antagonize US
  • grew into anti-Soviet movement
    • tit-for-tat responses with Mao's denunciation of Cuban Missile Crisis, Khrushchev as "capitalist roader" in 1963; Soviets refusing to support Sino-Indian War
    • attacks on Sino-Russian border in 1969 and 1972
    • drew nearer to US in 1972
    • uneasy cooperation over Vietnam, later opposition in 1979 over Vietnam-Cambodia
Shanghai Communiqué

Feb 28, 1972 communiqué issued jointly by Nixon and Mao during Mao's visit to China

  • agreed to disagree on Taiwan issue (recognition in 1979 moderated by Taiwan Relations Act, maintaining US support of Taiwan)
  • agreed to reduce military confrontation
  • agreed to pursue normalized relations
  • increased economic and cultural exchange
Long March

October 1934-late 1935 relocation of the CCP from Jiangxi in south central China to Shaanxi in northwest China


  • sought to escape Chiang Kai-shek's "extermination campaign" backed by German-trained troops
  • many died, but immortalized in CCP mythology
  • Mao emerged as dominant figure due to his able leadership on the march, rising amid other leaders' ousters at party congress in early 1935, en route
Xi'an Incident

December 1936 kidnapping of Chiang Kai-shek in Xi'an, forcing him to accept a United Front with the CCP against Japan

  • Chiang had visited his general forced out of north China by Japan
  • had ordered the general's forces to attack CCP, not focusing on Japan as desired by student movements and national salvation leagues demonstrating across the country
Nanjing Massacre

December 1937 destruction of the Nationalist capital, Nanjing, during the Second Sino-Japanese War, in which Japanese generals let their students let off steam by "rape all, loot all, kill all" policy, justified by claim that Nationalist soldiers had put on civilian clothes (truly hoped to force an end to the longer-than-expected war, which Chiang refused to surrender)

Great Leap Forward

1957-61 mass mobilization and CCP campaign to drive more radical communalization and industrialization

  • sought to implement radical communalization, forcing farmers into communes and workers into communes with community kitchens
  • attempted primitive industrialization with "backyard furnaces," attempting to pass Great Britain in steel production as a representation of forward progress
  • represented surge in nationalism and split from Soviets, with attack on Quemoy and rejection of Soviet planning techniques
  • resulted in massive famine and starvation due to poor harvests and weather, with Mao humiliated until pragmatists took over
Red Guards

Revolutionary youth group formed in response to Mao's call for a Cultural Revolution in April 1966, mobilizing to lead a radicalization of the CCP and China


  • students left schools, trekked to Beijing to see Mao, in development of Maoist cult
  • read and wielded Mao's "Little Red Book"
  • rejected educational models and led public humiliations of party and civic leaders, as well as intellectuals and professionals
  • fought against any of the Four Olds, denouncing "capitalist roaders"

Eventually grew out of control, reined in by PLA in 1968-69, sent to countryside to "learn from peasants"

Gang of Four

Radical leaders, led by Jiang Qing, Mao's actress-turned-wife, who had helped instigate the Cultural Revolution and sought to continue and intensify it through the 1970s, trying to gain power until their arrest in October 1976 after Mao's death

1989 Democracy Movement

Student and civilian movement in Beijing developing out of student protests in mourning for death of Hu Yaobang, the Sec. Gen. fired during pro-Fang Lizhen demonstrations in 1986, escalating into occupation of Tiananmen Square during Mikhail Gorbachev's May 1989 visit, before being crushed from June 4-5

Cultural Revolution

1966-76 mass mobilization instigated by Mao to revitalize the communist spirit of the CCP against post-GLF pragmatism, especially as he felt his power waning before Zhou Enlai and moderates like Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping; galvanized young people into "Red Guards"

Deng Xiaoping

Leader of China from roughly 1978-89, presiding over a transformation from a Maoist revolutionary state to a modern capitalistic one

  • represented moderate wing after CR, carrying out Zhou's 1973 vision of "Four Modernizations"
  • maintained political dictatorship, suppressing 1986 and 1989 democracy movements
Four Modernizations

Deng's implementation of a 1973 plan forwarded by Zhou Enlai to modernize agriculture, industry, technology, and military, in order to strengthen China

  • agriculture: implemented responsibility program, assigning leases of land and capital to peasant families, demanding quotas but allowing sale of surpluses and side businesses
  • industry & technology: sponsored special economic zones in China where foreign investment could be targeted and promoted
  • military: military modernized, particularly after difficulties against Vietnam in 1979 border war
1946 Constitution

New constitution for Japan, which enshrined liberalism, pacifism, and social democracy

  • Forced a system of parliamentary sovereignty upon Japan, making the House of Reps. (Lower House) of Diet most powerful
  • Made emperor a purely symbolic figure, devoid of political or religious power
  • Enshrined pacifism into Japan, although exempted to create national police force after 1950
  • Incorporated social democratic values of employment, opportunity, and health care

The bureaucracy organizing administration of the occupation of Japan

  • dominated by the US over Far East Commission (FEC) in turn dominated by Gen. Douglas MacArthur
  • goals shifted from tearing down Japan to rebuilding it through existing institutions, with emperor devoid of religious/state power but symbol for national unity--to guard against communism
  • initially broke up zaibatsu, but later attempted to reinforce the Japanese economy to make it prosperous
  • forced new constitution upon Japan in 1946
  • occupation ended in 1952 with peace treaty signed in 1951 (including one with ROC, not PROC) as well as security treaty allowing US troops to remain in Japan and Okinawa
March 1st Movement

Anti-Japanese movement in Korea, inspired by Wilsonian rhetoric of self-determination at the Versailles Conference


  • 33 patriots signed a declaration of independence and marched it to the Japanese governor-general
  • initial repression overwhelmed by popular support, leading to institution of softened "cultural government"
Korean War

1950-53 conflict in which the US led a UN "police action" against North Korea to repel it from its June 1950 invasion of South Korea

  • UN attempted to push North Korea out of the peninsula entirely, prompting Chinese intervention
  • war stalemated by 1951, until truce arranged in 1953
Japanese Rule of Korea

Three Phases:

  1. Governor-General of Chosen, 1910-19 [police state]
  2. Cultural Government, 1919-31 [slightly liberalized, with Korean business allowed]
  3. Mobilization, 1931-45 [Korea treated harshly, with forced industrialization, Japan-ization, and seizure of "comfort women" for troops in WWII]

Mixed legacy, having ended social hierarchy in Korea and laid foundations for industrialization but at extreme cost in Korean life and liberty, as well as human rights abuses through cultural oppression and "comfort women"

Sunshine Policy

Kim Daejung's policy of reconciliation with North Korea by providing it with food and energy aid and helping coordinate cross-border business development, such as a business park as well as Diamond Mountain tourist center

"One country, two systems"

Policy agreed to in PRC-UK 1984 agreement over Hong Kong, enshrined in Hong Kong Basic Law (governing island after 1997 handover to PRC), guaranteeing a certain level of autonomy

  • made Hong Kong a "special administration region" (SAR), allowing maintanence of civil liberties
  • governance to be "Hong Kong ruled by Hong Kong people," although subject to mainland approval
  • agreed not to infringe on capitalist system for 50 years
comfort women

Use of Korean women as prositutes for Japanese soldiers throughout WWII in Asia, and currently representing a controversy in East Asia as Japan tries to come to grips with its past and Korea/China seek reparation for the suffering of their people (even as women themselves suffered scorn and rebuke on returning home)

Yasukuni Shrine

Controversial shrine in Tokyo, housing the remains of national military heroes including some war criminals from WWII--visitation of which by Japanese PMs represents a broader struggle over how to deal with the past and the constitutional separation of church and state


Manchurian Incident


September 1931 bombing of the South Manchuria Railway, likely by Japanese soldiers, providing the context for Japanese invasion and eventual occupation of Manchuria, converted into Manchukuo under Pu Yi in 1932 after clashes with Chinese in Shanghai (represented first step toward Sino-Japanese and Pacific wars of conquest)

One Child Policy

Policy implemented by CCP in late 1970s forcing families to pay fines for having more than one child, or in most harsh phases in 1980s have forced abortions or sterilizations; emphasis on boys has led to female infanticide and new exemptions; socially has led to 4-2-1 problem of grandparents:parents:child, with huge social burden on children

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