Shared Flashcard Set


HIS 384: Muslim World: Middle Ages to WWI Midterm
Based on Eric's Outline. Simplified and Expanded
Undergraduate 4

Additional History Flashcards




-From western central Asia. No Turks lived in Turkey until 11th century. Were pastoralist nomads; more culturally similar to Mongols than Arabs/Persians
-Before Anatolia: little known, no written language (earliest sources: Chinese). Write in Arabic/Persian until 14thC (Turkish considered lowly language).
-First intro to Arab world: Slave soliders in 9th C. 12th C: hundreds of thousands migrate, possibly b/c of population pressure/land crowding (Seljuks rise to power in 1030s, pushed out by Mongols).
-Mostly shamanistic before converting
-After Battle of Manzikert: settle in central Anatolia. Politically motivated conversions to Islam.
-Seljuks take remained of Anatolia in 13th C
Osman I
R late 13 to early 14th C
-First Ottoman Sultan
-1299: Declared independence from Seljuks
-Ruled a former Byzantine territory; expanded settlements to edge of Byz empire
-Captured, moved capital to Bursa
-Mongol invasions pushed Muslims west to him, quickly consolidated power
-Admired as strong/dynamic ruler long after death.
-The empire he founded rose to supplant the eastern ancient Roman Empire, world power for over 6 C's
Salah al-Din
Late 12th C to mid 13th C
The most famous Ayyubid ruler.
Reputation for fairness, generosity, and being just known as far as Europe
R. Late 14 to early 15th C
-Born in Central Asian Turkic tribe, not an heir (“middle class” nomad, part of Mongol Empire remnants).
-Very efficient commander, astute politician. Played factions against each other.
-Legitimized his rule by marrying women who were descendants of Genghis Khan, taking care of Genghis' descendent.
-Founded Timurid Empire
Mehmed I
R. early 15th C, Ottoman Sultan
-Succeeded Interregnum (“Second Founder” of Ottoman Empire).
-Restored empire, moved capital from Bursa to Edirne, expanded territory, founded a school & a refectory for the poor.
-Green Mosque/ Mausoleum (Bursa): said to be most beautiful specimen of Ottoman architecture & carving in existence.
When he died, his death kept a secret so as not to disrupt the Dynasty (need for stability).
Mehmed II
Mid to late 15th C
-Ottoman sultan
- As kid sent to govern province (long standing Ottoman custom, gain experience).
-Dad Murad II abdicated throne to 12 y/o Mehmed after peace treaty.
-First reign: asked dad to reclaim throne, peace treaty was being ignored, Battle of Varna (If you’re Sultan, lead your armies. If I am Sultan, I order you).
-Second reign: strengthened navy, Conquered Constantinople, portrayed himself as world leader (Hired most prestigious painter for portrait, declared himself heir to Roman Empire, commissions history of his rule in Greek, called himself ruler of two seas & two continents).
-Recovered Ottoman power on other Turkish states (Beyliks).
-Absorbed last vestiges of Byzantine rule, accomplishment brought glory and prestige.
Murad II
-Mid 15th C
-Ottoman Sultan
-Long wars with Balkan Christians and Turkish Emirates
-Two reigns, Father of Mehmed II
-Battle of Varna. Mehmed II wrote: "If you are the Sultan, come and lead your armies. If I am the Sultan I hereby order you to come and lead my armies."
Safi al-Din
Mid 13th to early 14th C
-Many legends about childhood.
-Inclined to religion/religious lifestyle, wandered until 16 looking for teacher (master: the great Sufi Murshid).
-Murshid’s favorite, spiritual heir, son in law.
-Over the following 170 years, his order gained political/military power, founding Safavid dynasty.
Shah Ismail
R early 16th C
-Shah of Iran, founder of Safavid Empire. Re-unified all of Iran by 1509
-Claimed to be something like God on Earth, gains him support.
-Converted Iran from Sunni to Shia; key in rise of Twelver Shiaism.
-Affirmed divinity by writing poetry (in Turkish so that even uneducated could read them)
-1514: Defeat at Battle of Chaldiran destroyed his belief of invincibility/divinity
formed as religious group in 13thC Iran, politically significant from 16thC+
Originally red hat worn by supporters of Safavids, symbolizes adherence to Safavid religious leader/movement. Experienced,feared fighters.
Later, name given to variety of Shia militant groups in Anatolia/Persia from late 13th+ who helped found Safavid dynasty by supporting Ismail.
Shah Abbas I ended Kizilbash power by killing members.
Murad I
R mid to late 14th C
-Third Ottoman Sultan, Followed by Beyezid I
-Died at the Battle at Kosovo (both sons rush to command; Yakub Celebi strangled, Bayezid sole claimant to throne, first Ottoman fratricide).
Beyezid I
Ottoman Sultan R. Late 14th to early 15th C
-1389: First Ottoman fratricide, Battle of Kosovo. Murad I (dad) killed, two sons rush to command; Yakub Celebi strangled at Bayezid’s order, sole claimant to throne.
Siege of Constantinople: Twice, lasting seven years. Defeated Crusaders (defenders). Bayezid left city to fight Tamerlane.
-1402: Defeated, captured by Tamerlane (Battle of Ankara), resulted in Interregnum (sons escape, started civil war). Battle was culmination of years of insulting letters btwn the two
Salah al-Din
Late 12th C Saladin. First and most famous Ayyubid Sultan of Egypt & Syria.
-Led Muslim & Arab opposition to European Crusaders in the Levant; led recapture of Israel.
-At height ruled Egypt, Syria, Mesopotamia, Hejaz & Yemen.
-Respected by Richard the Lionheart, Crusaders; celebrated example of chivalry.
R. Late 14 to early 15th C
-Born in Central Asian Turkic tribe, not an heir (“middle class” nomad, part of Mongol Empire remnants).
-Sought to restore the Mongol Empire
-Very efficient commander, astute politician. Played factions against each other.
-Legitimized his rule by marrying women who were descendants of Genghis Khan, cared for Genghis' descendent.
-Founded Timurid Empire
Abbas I
R late 16 to early 17th C Shah of Persia
-Greatest ruler of the Safavid dynasty
-Came to throne during troubled time: Kizilbash factions; Ottomans & Uzbeks exploit political chaos to seize territory; coup.
-Made Shah in a coup: not puppet, seized power for himself: reduced Kizilbash influence in gov’t/military, reformed army. Result: able to fight Ottomans, Uzbeks, Mughals, Portuguese; reconquer lost provinces.
-Tried to take away power of Kizilbash (successfully) by killing people.
-Changes scholarly character of religion; previously accepting, now only Sufism
-Established diplomatic links w/European Christian states.
Women is Muslim Empire
-Gender separation much clearer in high social positions (eg: nomads camp together, don’t wear veils). Upper class have harem(lik) and selam(lik); houses divided physically & socially btwn genders.
-Women less documented. Surveys don’t include women except rare instances where female head of house. Sources are male; no access to women’s circles.
-Both laws & social pressures push women into subordinate roles
-Lady Montagu: British diplomat’s wife, became friends w/upper class women; wrote of her experiences, one of only first hand accounts.
-Important Women: Roxelana
-Early to mid 16th C
-Former Ukrainian slave/concubine. Legal wife of Suleyman
-Legendary love story: Then favorite concubine banished & son executed (heir apparent) banished after she fought w/Roxelana, became new fave; huge influence over Sultan; astonishing break with tradition: freed, became legal wife
-Brilliant politician; among most influential women in Ottoman history.
-Son Selim II inherited empire from father Suleyman
Suleyman I
1520-1566 longest reigning Sultan.
-Suleyman the Magnificient, the Lawmaker
-Complete reconstruction of Ottoman legal system (society, education, taxes, criminal law). Created Sharia. Built new legal institutions that centralized the empire; made state presence felt in every corner of the empire thru efficient taxation and Cadastral surveys (Cift = amount of land you can plow w/2 oxen. Pay based on how man cifts you have)
-Reigned at height of Ottoman’s military, political & economic power; prominent monarch of 16th C Europe.
-1520s: Personally led Ottoman armies to conquer Christian strongholds (Belgrade, Rhodes, most of Hungary). Hungary vital: Great-granddad Mehmed II failed; only force capable of stopping Ottoman gains in Europe; defeat of Hungary makes Ottomans pre-eminent power in Eastern Europe.
-Siege of Vienna (1529): first Ottoman attempt for city, opportunistic after decisive Hungary victory; ended century of unchecked conquest; empire can’t sustain more western growth.
-Annexed most of the Middle East (conflict w/Persians), large portions of North -Franco-Ottoman Alliance (1536): Diplomatic alliance against common Habsburg enemy Charles. Badly received in Christian countries Africa. Decade late, peace btwn Francis & Charles ends alliance
-Navy: Suleyman saw Spanish fleet’s presence in Mediterranean as early indication of Charles V’s intentions (Battle of Preveza: defeated 1538). Barbarossa: privateer, appointed admiral-in-chief; rebuilt fleet to rival that of all Med countries combined. His Ottoman fleet dominated the seas (Mediterranean to Red Sea & Persian Gulf). Barbary pirates employed against Spain from 1540s+)
-Great patron of culture: oversaw Golden Age of of Empire’s artistic, literary & architectural development.
-Love story: married concubine Roxelana; son Selim II succeeds.
Increasing prominence after 14th C
-Official title of a person who functioned as interpreter, translator, official guide btwn Turkish, Arabic, Persian polities of the MIddle East & European polities.
-Merchants hire dragoman; being hired grants same status as foreign national (tried by consul instead of Ottoman authorities).
-Position was particularly prominent in Ottoman Empire; many Muslim Ottomans refuse to learn non-Muslim languages. Dominated by ethnic Greeks
-Nations get titles to go along with their status (French are protectors of all Catholics & gain power to defend anyone faith).
Battle of Manzikert
Late 11th C
-Seljuks already controlled most of the middle east, need pasture, Sultan encourages allies to migrate.
-Sultan refused treaty, war followed (Byzantines vs Seljuks), huge Seljuk victory.
-Significance: Decisive defeat of Byzantines & capture of Emperor undermined Byz authority in Anatolia & Armenia. Fallout was nearly disastrous for Byz: economic & several civil conflicts severely weaken ability to defend border; leads to mass migration of Turks into central Anatolia (lose 30K square miles of empire).
Rise and Fall of Mongols
-1243: Mongols seize power: Defeat Seljuks, must pay tribute.
Mongol empire is not stable; suffers from structural problems (longest contiguous empire in history) & internal fighting.
-End of 13th C: Mongols begin to crumble. Regional governors realize there is no central ruler, begin to act more independently over time.
-1300’s to 1462: Anatolia broken into 20 beylics. Each Bey (ruler) rules 1 or 2 cities. Includes: ‘Uthmanli Beylic (beginning of the Ottoman state)
Early Ottoman Expansion
Thru 14th C
-Osman: Late 13-early 14th C: Independence from Seljuks; expanded settlements to edge of Byz land; captured Bursa, made capital.
Earliest conquests came at the expense of the Byzantines.
-Early 14th C: Bursa captured (capital until 1361); Captured Iznik (Nicea)
-Mid to Late 14th C: Earthquake in Gallipoli destroys part of fortress. Ottomans take advantage; begins conquest of Europe. Greece, Bulgaria, Albania fall.
-1389: Victory at Kosovo marked end of Serbian power; allowed Ottoman expansion into Europe. Expand into Balkans. Crusaders fail (1396) to stop. Constantinople becomes goal.
Battle of Kosovo
1389 Serbia vs Ottomans
-Murad I died at the Battle of Kosovo (both sons rush to command; Yakub Celebi strangled, Bayezid sole claimant to throne, first Ottoman fratricide).
-Victory marked end of Serbian power: Both side lost leaders, armies virtually destroyed (Ottomans easily field new army, Serbia can’t)
-Allowed Ottoman expansion into Europe, expand into Balkans. Some Serbian noblemen wed daughters; leads to significant military contributions for Bayezid.
Battle of Ankara
1402 Bayezid I/Ottomans vs. Tamerlane/Timurids
-Battle was culmination of years of insulting letters btwn the two.
-Ottomans crushed. Bayezid captured by Tamerlane (kept in cage)
-Ottoman state weakened; Tamerlane reinstates defeated Anatolian leaders.
-Resulted in Interregnum (1402- 1413): sons escape, started civil war. One held Balkans, other Anatolia. Mehmet wins.
Ottoman Interregnum
1402-1413 Bayezid I’s sons (mainly Musa vs Mehmed I)
-Period of chaos, civil war after Beyezid I’s capture.
-Tamerlane recognized Beyezid’s son Mehmed I as Sultan; other sons refuse.
-Sons fight for control of the Empire; two rise above the others (one held Balkans, other Anatolia), each act as if only Sultan.
-Mehmed allied w/Byzantines & Serbians; 1413: gains control of whole Empire (Musa’s troops fled; Musa tried to escape, found dead in marsh)
Minor Dynasties of Egypt
late 9 to early 16th C
-Egypt important for agriculture.
-Under Muslim rule since mid 7th C. Remained Muslim thru Abbasid period.
-Gained independence during Abbasid fracturing. Not the first to break off from Abbasids but huge blow to the empire’s reputation & finances.
-TULUNIDS: Late 9th C. Ahmad ibn Tulun sent as Abbasid governor; kept taxes, built infrastructure. Left stable economy, experienced bureaucracy, well-trained military. First independent dynasty in Islamic Egypt. Fails b/c of successor’s incompetence.
-FATIMIDS: Mid 10 to mid 12th C. Muslim state met by Crusaders. Branch of Twelver Shii (don’t recognize Caliphate). Rare period where form of Shia Imamate & Caliphate united (rulers were Shia Ismaili Imams). Don’t try to convert population.
-AYYUBIDS: 12-13th C. First & most famous: Saladin (Ayyub’s son) gained independence, claimed Sultan of Egypt after dissolving Fatimid Caliphate, led Muslim & Arab opposition to Crusaders in the Levant, expanded territory. Control of empire contested; empire split btwn Syria & Egypt, later united but other territories lost by then. Overthrown by Mamluk generals.
-MAMALUKS: mid 13 to early 16th C. Slave soldiers rose to be dominate military caste, overthrew Ayyubids. In Egypt, “true lords,” w/social status above freeborn Muslims. Slave-king dynasty, not hereditary. Beat back Mongols, fought Crusaders.
-Sig: Symptomatic of increasing regionalism in Muslim World.
enter Muslim world in 9th C, politically prominent 13-16th C
-Soldier of slave origin who had converted to Islam.
-Slave soldiers: bought to Egypt by elites. Train; learn Arabic, Islam; convert at end of training, manumitted. First widespread use in the 9th C. In 9 to 13th C most states use slave soldiers (mostly from S. Russia, Central Asia).
-Social mobility: Rose to dominate military caste. Overthrew Ayyubids. Many parents sell kids (knew mobility?)
-Mamluk rulers: slave soldiers who rose to power; some rulers pressured sons follow. “True lords” w/social status above freeborn Muslims. Slave-king dynasty, typically not hereditary.
-The only state that links the Middle Ages with the early modern era. Beat back Mongols, fought Crusaders.
Mamluks and Mongols
The Levant, 1260
-1260: Mongols kill the Abbasid Caliph; expand west to Syria, almost to Egypt.
-1260: Mamluks resist: meet in modern Israel; decisive Mamluk victory, gain great prestige. Defeat again, drive east.
-Result: Ends Mongol expansion, threat to Muslim world. Mamaluks spread to Syria; capture last Crusader cities, end Crusade.
Mamluk Dynasties
Mid 13 to early 16th C
-Two Mamluk dynasties in Egypt, named for barracks where rulers trained.
-Bahri: Mid 13 to late 14th C. Most from northern Caucuses, Russia, and especially central Asia (Turkic). Resisted Mongols, Crusaders.
-Burji: Late 14 to early 16th C. Mostly from NW Caucuses. Very turbulent, short lived Sultans; typically transfer power thru assassination (avg reign 7 years) or political power-plays. In-fighting allowed Ottomans to challenge them.
-Sig: Distinction btwn the Bahri & Burji shows importance of ethnicity, culture.
Mamluk Economy
-Taxes: Very prosperous: rich agriculture (bread basket of world), crossroads of trade (passing trade taxed). Intermediary traders gain wealth in Cairo
-Cairo: 150K+ residents. City patronizes arts, culture; becomes important religious center. Most prestigious university in Muslim world (al-Alzhar).
-Initially prosper. Decline: Mid 14th C: Black Death, Portuguese divert trade to them, Indian Ocean
Ottoman Conquest of Egypt
Early 16th C
-Ottomans gain Anatolia, Syria & Egypt in year. First time Ottomans Muslim majority.
-Left Mamluks administration in place, semi-autonomous vassal state. Only changes: Sultan Selim I left w/5,000 janissaries.
-End 18th C: Napoleon conquers Egypt, encounters Mamluk remnants
Rise of Tamerlane
R. Late 14 to early 15th C
-Born among remnants of Mongol Empire; sought to restore Empire
-Mongolian Empire divided after loss to Mamluks (1260). Maneuvered into power; forces to submit or die, reputation for cruelty.
-Very efficient commander, astute politician. Played factions against each other.
-Military exceptionally hard to control; kept busy w/constant war (Conquered Golden Horde in Central Asia & Southern Russia; Caucuses, Iran, North India).
-Last seven years of reign spent on campaign (conquered Iraq west into Syria & Anatolia). Dies on campaign.
-Legitimized his rule by marrying women who were descendants of Genghis Khan, cared for Genghis' descendent.
-Founded Timurid Empire
Fall of Tamerlane's Legacy
(Late 14 to early 16th C)
-Short lived empire. Only son succeeds; managed to hold part of empire together, doesn’t expand much.
-Many great cities destroyed by his armies (ex. Ottomans: Destroyed Baghdad, Battle of Ankara). 17 million died from his conquests.
-Biggest problem in maintaining empire: Tamerlane very hands off in gov't, preferred to keep reconquering the same lands.
-16th C. Safavids end Timurid Empire. Timurid prince invaded India, founded Mughal Empire
Murad II's abdicatiion to Mehmet II
Mid 15th C
-Murad II negotiated peace treaty w/Hungarians; believes affairs in order.
-Murad II abdicates to retire in prayer. 12 year old Mehmet II in power. As kid sent to govern province (long standing Ottoman custom, gain experience).
-First reign: asked dad to reclaim throne, Hungarians preparing to break peace treaty. Battle of Varna (If you’re Sultan, lead your armies. If I am Sultan, I order you). Instability forces Murad II to stay for a bit.
-Second reign: Permanent, father dead. Strengthened navy, Conquered Constantinople, portrayed himself as world leader (Hired most prestigious painter for portrait, declared himself heir to Roman Empire, commissions history of his rule in Greek, called himself ruler of two seas & two continents).
-Recovered Ottoman power on other Turkish states (Beyliks).
-Absorbed last vestiges of Byzantine rule, accomplishment brought glory and prestige
Fall of Constantinople
1453 Mehmet II
-1422: First Siege of Constantinople (Murad II). 1453: Second Siege.
-Mehmet II: prepares by building fortification to block Bosporus traffic. Invests development of cannons for siege. Grossly outnumbered city’s defenders.
-Ottomans install boats in Bosporus from which to bombard city walls.
-May 29 1453: breech walls, pour in w/no resistance. End of the last eastern roman state.
Mehmet after the Conquest of Constantinople
-Before the assault, promised 3 days plunder; stopped after 1 day (mercy).
-Eager to Repopulate City: Two days later, allowed residents to return. Buys slaves, frees on condition they live in city.
-Allowed religious freedom, reinstates the patriarch.
-Gives trade rights to the Genoese.
-Makes the Haghia Sophia a Mosque
Auspicious Event
Early 19th C
-Early 17th C: Corps no longer elite military unit; many not soldiers, simply extorted money from state & dictated its gov’t. Added to decline of Ottomans.
-By Early 19th C: Almost universally hated. Public & gov’t agree: too much power, threat.
-1826: Janissaries notice new army being formed; mutiny, fight on streets. J barracks burned, massive casualties. Ringleaders killed, tens of thousands J killed; others exiled, imprisioned. Few escape, no longer threat.
-Mahmud II ends centuries old elite order in brief span.
Jelali Rebellions
Late 16 to early 17th C
-Series of revolts in Anatolia against Ottomans
-Former soldiers appeal to brigands & people from medrese (being replaced by state educated advisors, nowhere to go & no other training.)
-The groups mix w/militia & begin attacking merchants, disrupting trade.
-State reactions weak; lack of action emboldens (longest rebellion in Empire)
-Not attempt to overthrow govt, want to be co-opted into state; reaction to social & economic crisis.
-Outcome: Leadership co-opted by state in 1620s. Movement then becomes marginal & sporadic.
Rises in prominence in 16th C
-Two traders brought from Yemen, opened coffee shop as a way to market it.
-Coffee explodes and revitalizes trade and stimulates the economy (esp. Egypt). -20 years later there is a coffee shop in every small city.
-The economic upswing lasts until 1700s.
Social History of Anatolia
-Details vague, focus on leaders more than common people.
-Before Battle of Manzikert: Anatolia is a patchwork of coexisting cultures (small Jewish communities, etc)
-After Battle of Manzikert (Late 11th C): Influx of ethnic Turks, other Muslims being pushed out by Mongols. Steady rate of conversion to Islam.
-14th C. majority of people have converted to Islam.
1300’s – 1462 Anatolia is broken in to 20 beylics. Includes ‘Uthmanli Beylic(beginning of Ottoman state)
'Uthmanli Beylik
14th C to 1462
-Very little known about Ottoman beginning(late 13th C), not well documented.
-Modest state, few dozen people running it (tax collectors, etc) which was inefficient. Much of what is “known” is a backwards projection.
-Military commanders conquer future Ottoman land, later co-opted into state.
-Beginning of 14th C: Byzantine text states that Osman is causing trouble at edges of Byzantine Empire
Reasons for Ottoman Success after Ankara
-Why Ottomans rise to power after defeat by Tamerlane (1402)?
-Ottoman claim divine predestination.
-Gibbons: Ottomans closest to dying Byz Empire, defeat parts. Capture Constantinople: kept Byz institutions, gave them power. Implication: Muslim Ottoman Turks wouldn’t have succeeded w/o Christian help.
-Tribal structure – created alliances. Families are related by blood. Many distant relatives make clan, many clans make tribe. To form alliances, “find” common ancestor. Made them adaptable, able to bring people together.
Weaknesses of the Byzantines
Weakness of the Byzantines
-14th C: Byzantine empire is basically Istanbul, rich city w/limited political control outside.
-Geographic location – Far from modern Turkey, allows Ottomans to raid whenever they like, raids bring wealth.
-Ghazi Theory: Volunteer soldiers from Western world allowed Ottomans to win. Volunteer Muslims traveled to fight w/Ottomans (volunteers called ghazis). Debate over Ghazis’ motivation; religious, money (always mentioned, got along w/Christians) or both.
Ottomans and Nomads
-Incorrect notion that nomadism is ancient/primitive; nomads developed after agrarian systems.
-Relied on sedentary people: market for goods, bought farmed food.
-Turks: nomadic origins. Still nomadic segments until capture of Bursa
- Bursa: big city, Ottomans became increasingly sedentary; gave sedentary people greater status, pressure nomads to settle (tax sheep, impose tax on nomad regardless of herd’s size)
- Why Pressure: Nomads source of instability; constantly travel, can’t control/track; many are horsemen w/military training, possibility of being destructive.
-Established by Romans before the rise of Islam.
-Capital of Eastern Roman Empire, most prestigious city in the “known world,” one of largest/richest.
-Dream of Islam to conquer it: no headway in 7 & 8th C. Ottomans limited success at first: Blockade (late 14th C Beyezid), First Siege (1422, Murad II),
-Fall of Constantinople (1453) to Mehmet II
End of Middle Ages?
-End of Asia/European trade? or Start of Renaissance?
-End of trade: Claim conquest of Constantinople ended middle ages by cutting trade btwn Asia & Europe. Wrong: Mehmet II immed signed treaty w/Genoese
-Start of Renaissance: Court scholars leave Constantinople for S Europe.
-Sensical but overstated
Ottoman Legal System
-Mongols impose tax, after Mongols Muslim states impose taxes as well.
-Ottoman empire has Shari’a and Kanun (secular type of laws). Shari’a is universal, Kanun is secular and allows for regional variations according to tradition.
-Kanun allows Ottomans to leave newly conquered lands fairly unchanged
-Tradition becomes an important legal argument
-Governors of newly conquered land sent to other side of empire, keep status but lose power base. Allows empire to take advantage of experience w/o risking uprisings.
Millet System
Started in 16/17th C
-Ottoman: Differing legal status based on religion, religion most important aspect of social status
-Each millet led by its own leadership (Rabbis, Patriarch, etc) who also acted as its judge/defender during conflicts (judge if it is a co religious dispute), but anyone allowed to take their case to Shari’a court instead
-Discrepancies in Millet system: laws vary
Started in 16th-17th C.
early 15 to early 17th C
-Modification of slave soldier system
-Practice of Ottoman Empire conscripting boys from Christian families. Taken by force, converted to Islam, trained & enrolled in royal school.
-Officers would go to small town/village round up all males under 20, as well as priest w/ baptism log for the previous year, and takes 1 child for every 40 households.
-Only the brightest and healthiest kids taken
-Educated, made to feel special; eventually become top statesmen
14 to 19th C
-Created by Sultan Murad I (late 14th C)
-Not all from Devshirme conscriptions become elite. Name means “new soldier”
-Some sent to Anatolia, work as farmhands for Turkish families.
-Integrated into Turkish culture and sent back to Istanbul to be Janissaries.
- Initially only Christians from Balkans.
-Goal was to centralize army, placing Jannisary in unit meant to give sense of belonging & family.
-Comprise infantry units that formed Sultan’s household troops & bodyguards
-Rise to prominence. Gain too much power, eliminated in 19th C w/Auspicious Incident.
Rising Power of Janissaries
-Over time power increased, become main military unit of Empire.
-Sipahi (elite calvary) units last a while
-Ghazis gone
-Leader of the Janissaries picked bodyguards for sultan and could have contact with sultan on a daily basis.
-Eventually gained a lot of power (money for support which became tradition)
-Osman II (1618-1622) Osman II tried to replace Janissaries and they killed him
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