# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Hematology
JJC Vet Tech 140
225
Veterinary Medicine
04/06/2014

Term
 RBC Count for-k9-feline-eqiune
Definition
 k9: 5.4-7.8 x 10^6 (5-8)feline: 5.8-10.7 x 10^6 (6-11)equine: 6.4-10 x 10^6 (6-10)
Term
 Thrombocyte Count for-k9-feline-equine
Definition
 k9: 1.6 - 4.3 x 10^5 (1-4)feline: 3-8 x 10^5 (3-8)equine: 1-2.7 x 10^5 (1-3)
Term
 WBC Count for-k9-feline-equine
Definition
 k9: 6-17 x 10^4or3 (6-17)feline: 5.5-19.5 x 10^4or3 (5-20)equine: 5.2-13.9 x 10^4or3 (5-14)
Term
 HCT of-k9-feline-equine
Definition
 k9: 37-54feline: 30-47equine: 32-47
Term
 How to estimate Hb?
Definition
 PCV/3
Term
 How to estimate RBC?
Definition
 PCV/6
Term
 MCV
Definition
 Mean Corpuscular Volume
Term
 MCHC
Definition
 Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration
Term
 MCV=
Definition
 (PCV x 10) / RBC
Term
 MCHC=
Definition
 (Hb x 100)/PCV
Term
 How many major types of cells are in blood?
Definition
 3- RBCs, WBCs, thrombocytes
Term
 An initial screening of the blood should include:
Definition
 -PCV/HCT-TP-Hb-total WBC-diff WBC
Term
 The most numerous of all blood cells is the ___.
Definition
 erythrocyte
Term
 RBCs are measured in ___.
Definition
 millions per microliter
Term
 What species have nucleated RBCs?
Definition
 -birds, reptiles, fish
Term
 1 leukocyte per 100x field =
Definition
 100-150 per microliter
Term
 Normal amount of leukocytes per 100x field?
Definition
 18-51
Term
 Term for creation of leukocytes?
Definition
 leukocytopoiesis
Term
Definition
 megakaryocytes
Term
 Thrombocytes may have what in their cytoplasm?
Definition
 basophilic fragments
Term
 Term for creation of thrombocytes?
Definition
 thrombocytopoiesis
Term
 1 thrombocyte per 100x field =
Definition
 20,000 per microliter
Term
 Normal amount of thrombocytes per 1000x field?
Definition
 8-15
Term
 What is the measure of how much "room" is inside a RBC?
Definition
 MCV
Term
 MCV is expressed in...
Definition
 femtoliters
Term
 What is a measure of how much hemoglobin is in a RBC?
Definition
 MCHC
Term
 MCHC is measured in...
Definition
 g/dL
Term
 Do you use an anticoagulant to find PCV?
Definition
 yes
Term
 PCV is measured in...
Definition
 %
Term
 Layers of a hematocrit tube?
Definition
 clay, RBCs, buffy coat, plasma
Term
 What type of cell has the highest SG of all blood cells?
Definition
 RBCs
Term
 The most important tool in developing a hemogram is ___.
Definition
 PCV
Term
 The two most plentiful leukocytes will always be...
Definition
 neutrophils and lymphocytes
Term
 Other names for neutrophils?
Definition
 -polymorphonuclear leukocytes-segmenters-segs
Term
 Another name for bands?
Definition
 stabs
Term
 Agranulocytes are also known as...
Definition
 mononuclear leukocytes
Term
 How does the N:L ratio differ between species?
Definition
 carnivores N:L > 1 ruminants N:L < 1 horses N=L  pigs N:L varies
Term
 Leukocytes remain in the vasculature for...
Definition
 6-72 hours
Term
 Which leukocytes do not return to the vasculature after being in the tissues?
Definition
 granulocytes and monocytes
Term
Definition
 70%
Term
 1 microliter =
Definition
 1 millionth of a liter, or 1mm^3
Term
 Term for the creation of neutrophils?
Definition
 granulopoiesis
Term
 Granulopoiesis takes how long?
Definition
 3-7 days
Term
 Neutrophils stay in the circulation for how long?
Definition
 6-15 hours
Term
 Barr body
Definition
 "drumstick" sticking off a segment in a neutrophil, signifies female
Term
 The nucleus of a band cell can be what shapes?
Definition
 U or S
Term
 Rod-shaped granules are associated with what species and what cell?
Definition
 cat eosinophils
Term
 What domestic species has the largest eosinophil granules?
Definition
 horse
Term
 Orange/grey granules are associated with what species and what cells?
Definition
 cat basophils
Term
 A raspberry-like eosinophil is from what species?
Definition
 horse
Term
 A jewel-like eosinophil is from what species?
Definition
 cow
Term
 Name the blood-forming organs:
Definition
 -bone marrow-liver-spleen-thymus-kidneys
Term
 A meaningful interpretation of hematological data depends on __ and __.
Definition
 thorough Hx and PE
Term
 ___ - fibringoen = ___.
Definition
 Plasma - fibrinogen = serum
Term
 Blood fluid consists of:
Definition
 -water-plasma proteins-electrolytes-vitamins and minerals-hormones-fats
Term
 Why are erythrocytes biconcave?
Definition
 -bend in capillaries-surface area to carry O2 and CO2
Term
 The two rarest blood cells to find are __ and __.
Definition
 eosinophils, basophils (most rare)
Term
 Names the "pools" of leukocytes.
Definition
 -proliferation pool-storage pool-circulation pool-marginal pool-body pool
Term
 Term for the process by which leukocytes squeeze through blood vessel walls into the tissues?
Definition
 diapedesis
Term
 Term for when leukocytes "stick" to the endothelium of blood vessels?
Definition
 marginate
Term
 Name of the left-to-right description of how granulocytes mature?
Definition
 Schilling's Maturation Pathway
Term
 Describe the order of maturation of neutrophils.
Definition
 myeloblast > promyelocyte > myelocyte > metamyelocyte > band > seg
Term
 How many immature neutrophils are generally found in healthy blood?
Definition
 1-3%
Term
 How many immature neutrophils are found in the blood when there is a left shift present?
Definition
 5-10%
Term
 A left shift can be either __ or __.
Definition
 regenerative, degenerative
Term
 A left shift in a hemogram indicates...
Definition
 an increase in immature cells in that hemogram
Term
 PNP
Definition
 proliferation neutrophil pool
Term
 SNP
Definition
 storage neutrophil pool
Term
 CNP
Definition
 circulating neutrophil pool
Term
 MNP
Definition
 marginal neutrophil pool
Term
 A mature neutrophil has ____ segments.
Definition
 3-5
Term
 a neutrophil with >__ segments is called a ___.
Definition
 >5 segments is a pleokaryocyte
Term
 The primary function of a neutrophil is...
Definition
 to kill/phagocytize "bugs"
Term
 Segs only stay in the CNP for ___ before ___.
Definition
 a few hours before marginating
Term
 When we do a blood draw or look at a smear, we are only seeing the WBCs in the ___.
Definition
 CNP
Term
 When making a Dx, always look to what cell?
Definition
 neutrophils
Term
 What does a moth-eaten neutrophil indicate?
Definition
 toxic neutrophil - poison in blood stream or marrow
Term
 __ have granules which contain histaminase.
Definition
 eosinophils
Term
 Cell that has a characteristic "crescent moon"?
Definition
 lymphocyte
Term
 Cell with an ameboid nucleus?
Definition
 monocyte
Term
 The 3 W's are associated with what cell?
Definition
 eosinophils
Term
 What are the 3 W's?
Definition
 worms, wheezes, weird diseases
Term
 ___ have granules that contain histamine.
Definition
 basophils
Term
 Where does lymphocytopoiesis occur?
Definition
 fetus- medullaafter birth- lymphatic tissues
Term
 What are the types of lymphocytes?
Definition
 -can be big or small-B, T or NK
Term
 Cows may have a cleft in the nucleus of the ___.
Definition
 lymphocyte
Term
 A macrophage is a ___ that has...
Definition
 monocyte that has left the CNP
Term
 When looking at a blood smear, only Dx when under...
Definition
 oil immersion
Term
 What species has the most delicate blood and is generally crenated?
Definition
 pigs
Term
 What species generally exhibits rouleaux?
Definition
 horses
Term
 Large lymphocytes are found in what group of animals (small or large?)
Definition
 LA
Term
 In most species, the SNP has a ___ worth of mature ___. What species does not?
Definition
 week's worth of mature segs; cows have day's worth
Term
 What does "egress" refer to in terms of neutrophil movement in the body?
Definition
 After marginating, the neutrophil passes through endothelium into tissue, or "egresses" into the tissue.
Term
 What instrument is used to take a Total WBC Count?
Definition
 hemocytometer
Term
 Diff WBC is always expressed as...
Definition
 %
Term
 How do you determine the diff WBC?
Definition
 # different leukocytes per 100 cells counted
Term
 What conditions signify a regenerative left shift?
Definition
 normal WBC count, #segs >/= #bands
Term
 What conditions signify a degenerative left shift?
Definition
 normal WBC count, #segs < #bands
Term
 A degenerative left shift lasting _____ has a poor ____ and means the animal needs euthanasia.
Definition
 lasts 24-48h, guarded prognosis
Term
 How might pleokaryocytes in a blood sample result from a tech's actions?
Definition
 -leave at RT, segs continue to mature into pleos
Term
 What is "pissed-off cat syndrome"?
Definition
 stressed cats has ^BP which sweeps marginal leuks back into CNP; thus WBC count is increased
Term
 How does aspirin affect neutrophil pools?
Definition
 makes endothelium less sticky, so marginal leuks are swept back into CNP, increased WBC
Term
 How do glucocorticoids affect neutrophil pools?
Definition
 Makes endothelium less sticky, leuks stuck in the CNP
Term
 How do glucocorticoids increase the chance of infection?
Definition
 leuks can't exit CNP, can't migrate to site of invading bugs
Term
 What type of blood cell is responsible for most cases of tissue rejection after grafts/implants?
Definition
 Killer T
Term
 Monocytosis indicates...
Definition
 chronic infection
Term
 What type of cell can live for months in the body tissues?
Definition
 macrophages
Term
 Eosinophil granules contain...
Definition
 lysozymes and histaminase
Term
 What type of leuk can regenerate granules?
Definition
 eosinophil
Term
 What type of granule makes holes in nematode larvae? What cell produces these granules in this particular case?
Definition
 lysozyme, eosinophil
Term
 Term for when # leukocytes is above normal range?
Definition
 leukocytosis
Term
 Term for when # leukocytes is below normal range?
Definition
 neutropenia
Term
 What two species may exhibit SMALL amounts of rouleaux on blood smears?
Definition
 cats and pigs
Term
 What is a Dohle body and what does it indicate?
Definition
 a dark spot in the cytoplasm of a seg; signifies septicemia/toxemia or some other problem of marrow
Term
 Polychromatophils make up ___% of circulating RBCS in a healthy animal.
Definition
 1%
Term
 What is a polychromatophil?
Definition
 early RBC, the stage before mature erythrocyte
Term
 What species will NEVER have polychromatophils? Why not?
Definition
 horses skip that stage, go from metarubricyte to erythrocyte
Term
 Polychromatophils are pale, or _____.
Definition
 hypochromic
Term
 Difference between polychromatophil and reticulocyte?
Definition
 Polychromatophils contain RNA granules that dissolve in diff-quick/Rominowsky stains; if stained in new methylene blue, granules are visible and it's called a reticulocyte
Term
 Erythrocytopoiesis takes about ___, and RBCs live ___.
Definition
 takes 5 days, they live 100 days
Term
 Describe the stages of maturation of RBCs:
Definition
 rubriblast > prorubricyte > rubricyte > metarubricyte > polychromatophil
Term
 Term for a nucleated RBC?
Definition
 metarubricyte
Term
 MPS
Definition
 mononuclear phagocyte system
Term
 Where is hemoglobin synthesized?
Definition
 nucleus of premature RBCs
Term
 What is a Howell Jolly body?
Definition
 round, basophilic, refractile object inside a RBC; normally removed by MPS
Term
 Term for differently sized RBCs in a sample?
Definition
 anisocytosis
Term
 Term for differently shaped RBCs?
Definition
 poikilocytosis
Term
 IMHA
Definition
 immune-mediated hemolytic anemia
Term
 What are spherocytes?
Definition
 Small RBCs, usu. indicate IMHA
Term
 Difference between regular anemia and IMHA?
Definition
 regular- decreased # of RBCsIMHA- # RBCs is normal, but they're agglutinated by immunoglobulins and can't function
Term
 What is a Heinz body?
Definition
 a blister-like material on the outside of a RBC, generally only seen in cats
Term
 A stomatocyte is a type of ___.
Definition
 polychromatophil
Term
 A polychromatophil that looks like it's smiling is known as a ___.
Definition
 stomatocyte
Term
 How do you Dx anemia in the horse?
Definition
 Don't have polychromatophils, must look at marrow.
Term
 If you see NRBCs on a smear, the animal has ___.
Definition
 anemia
Term
 EPO
Definition
 erythropoietin
Term
 What will the kidney do if blood flowing through it has decreased O2 concentration?
Definition
 increase erythropoietin output
Term
 Young red blood cells start out (color?) because...
Definition
 pale/hypochromic, because hemoglobin not exposed to much O2 yet
Term
 As RBC matures, it becomes (color?).
Definition
 redder/normochromic
Term
 A mature RBC is (color?) because...
Definition
 pink because it loses granules and oxygenated Hb
Term
 polycythemia
Definition
 # RBCs higher than normal range
Term
 What may cause polycythemia?
Definition
 going to high altitude
Term
 Basophilic stippling indicates what?
Definition
Term
 What is basophilic stippling?
Definition
 smattering of dark particles within a RBC caused by some toxicity like lead poisoning
Term
 Describe how lymphocytes differentiate in the fetus.
Definition
 -made in bone marrow-some become NK-some go to thymus (T-lymphos)-some go to Peyer's patches in intestines (B-lymphos)-some stay in bone marrow (B-lymphos)
Term
 What lymphatic tissue is very prominent in ruminants?
Definition
 Peyer's patches
Term
 T-lymphocytes are from the ____.
Definition
 thymus
Term
 B-lymphocytes are from the ____.
Definition
 bone marrow or Peyer's patches
Term
 Activated lymphocytes are known as ___.
Definition
 immunocytes
Term
 Non-specific immunity consists of...
Definition
 natural: because of speciesinnate: inflammation, skin, MM, enzymes in saliva/tears, etc
Term
 Specific immunity consists of...
Definition
 cell-mediated and humoral
Term
 What are the types of T-lymphocytes and their functions?
Definition
 --helper-T: w/macrophage's help, tells B-lymphos to make Ab to new Ag--suppressor-T: keep killer-Ts in control--killer-T: attack Ag immediately--mediator-T: make lymphokines, interferon
Term
 Interferon is deployed against what type of microbe?
Definition
 viruses
Term
 Specific immunity can also be called...
Definition
 acquired immunity
Term
 What happens when a B-lymphocyte is stimulated by an antigen?
Definition
 it morphs into plasma cell
Term
 What is a plasma cell?
Definition
 activated B-lymphocyte that produces Ab specific to certain Ag
Term
 Dohle bodies are found in ___, and Howell Jolly bodies are found in ___.
Definition
 Dohle- segHowell Jolly- erythrocyte
Term
 Where does erythropoiesis occur?
Definition
 in bone marrow, occasionally extramedullary
Term
 Term for creation of leukocytes?
Definition
 leukocytopoiesis?
Term
 Term for creation of platelets?
Definition
 thrombocytopoiesis
Term
 What certain leukocyte in the cow may have reddish-purple clusters of granules in the cytoplasm? Term for this color?
Definition
 large lymphocyte, azurophilic
Term
 What is the largest leukocyte?
Definition
 monocyte
Term
 pleomorphic
Definition
 ameboid
Term
 What type of leukocyte has a "ground glass" appearance to the cytoplasm?
Definition
 monocytes
Term
 Where are tissue macrophages found?
Definition
 spleen, lymph nodes, marrow, pleural/peritoneal cavities, liver (Kupffer cells), kidney, CNS, skin
Term
 What exactly is meant by the MPS?
Definition
 refers to whole "system" of tissue macrophages
Term
 The MPS was formerly called ___.
Definition
 reticuloendothelial system
Term
 What count is used to determine which type/s of leukocytes are above or below normal ranges?
Definition
 differential WBC
Term
 Term for increase in leukocytes?
Definition
 leukocytosis
Term
 Term for increase in neutrophils?
Definition
 neutrophilia
Term
 Term for increase in eosinophils?
Definition
 eosinophilia
Term
 Term for increase in basophils?
Definition
 basophilia
Term
 Term for increase in lymphocytes?
Definition
 lymphocytosis
Term
 Term for increase in monocytes?
Definition
 monocytosis
Term
 Term for increase in erythrocytes?
Definition
 polycythemia
Term
 Term for increase in platelets?
Definition
 thrombocytosis
Term
 Term for decrease in leukocytes?
Definition
 leukopenia
Term
 Term for decrease in neutrophils?
Definition
 neutropenia
Term
 Term for decrease in eosinophils?
Definition
 eosinopenia
Term
 Term for decrease in basophils?
Definition
 There isn't one!
Term
 Term for decrease in lymphocytes?
Definition
 lymphocytopenia
Term
 Term for decrease in monocytes?
Definition
 monocytopenia
Term
 Term for decrease in erythrocytes?
Definition
 erythrocytopenia
Term
 Term for decrease in thrombocytes?
Definition
 thrombocytopenia
Term
 Never use a needle smaller than ___ (except for smallest patients).
Definition
 22ga
Term
 Black top tubes contain __.
Definition
 oxalates
Term
 Blue top tubes contain __.
Definition
 citrates
Term
 "Clot tubes" refers to what?
Definition
 red top tube - no anticoagulant
Term
 The best smears are made from ______ with _____.
Definition
 fresh blood, no anticoagulant
Term
 Where/how to save blood smears?
Definition
 dry area at room temp
Term
 How much blood to collect?
Definition
 enough to run planned chemical assays three times
Term
 Increases or decreases in leukocyte numbers should be described how?
Definition
 absolute #s, not relative
Term
 neutrophilic leukocytosis
Definition
 increase in total leukocytes, including neutrophils
Term
 Neutropenia is generally due to...
Definition
 rapid movement from CNP to tissue pool, or decrease in available cells from MTNP/SNP
Term
 leukemia
Definition
 abnormal white blood cells in circulation, usually with neoplasia
Term
 leukemoid response
Definition
 abnormal white blood cells without evidence of neoplasia
Term
 pathological leukocytosis
Definition
 increase in leukocytes associated with inflammation
Term
 physiological leukocytosis
Definition
 increase in leukocytes not associated with inflammation or any pathological condition
Term
 Conditions that can cause physiological leukocytosis?
Definition
 -excitement, fear, pain, stress-muscular exertion-convulsions-pregnancy, estrus-age-postimmunization
Term
 What defines a stress leukogram?
Definition
 neutrophilic leukocytosis and lymphopenia, with eosinpenia and monocytosis resulting from glucocorticoid release/use
Term
 How long does the glucocorticoid response take to develop? How long does it last?
Definition
 takes 4 hours, lasts 24
Term
 Expect to see what 3 things when a stress leukogram is present?
Definition
 -hyperglycemia (dogs: mild, cats: marked)-isosthenuria- ^ALT ^ALP
Term
 What MUST you know in order to Dx a stress leukogram?
Definition
 absolute WBC counts of each leukocyte
Term
 Baby animals tend to have different WBC counts than adults. How does it differ? What animal does not exhibit this?
Definition
 babies have higher WBC counts, except in pigs
Term
 Animals delivered by caesarian have ___ WBC counts than those delivered naturally.
Definition
 much lower
Term
 Glucocorticoid-Induced Leukocytosis is also called...
Definition
 stress leukogram
Term
 Epinephrine Response is also called...
Definition
 "true" physiologic leukocytosis
Term
 Usually, the ratio of leukocytes in the MNP and CNP is ___.
Definition
 1:1
Term
 When does the epinephrine response occur? How long does it last?
Definition
 immediately after stimulus, subsides in minutes
Term
 What defines a "true" physiologic leukocytosis?
Definition
 neutrophilic leukocytosis with no change in # eosinophils or monocytes, occuring after an epinephrine surge
Term
 What may cause a cat to have a 2-fold increase in the number of WBCs?
Definition
 epinephrine response
Term
 What form of leukocytosis do dogs tend not to get?
Definition
 epinephrine response
Term
 In order to label a leukogram as inflammation, ___ must be present.
Definition
 left shift
Term
Definition
 slight +1 bands onlymoderate +2 metamyelocytesmarked +3 myelocytes & progranulocytesextreme +4 myeloblasts
Term
 How would you mark a left shift with bands only in a patient's record?
Definition
 left shift +
Term
 How does the cytoplasm of a toxic neutrophil appear?
Definition
 foamy, basophilic, basophilic granules, Dohle bodies
Term
 What can cause toxic neutrophils?
Definition
 severe infections, toxicity, acidosis
Term
 Describe the order in which blood cells decrease in number due to hematopoiesis suppression?
Definition
 1- neutrophils2- platelets3- RBCs slowly
Term
 What specific diseases can cause neutropenia?
Definition
 parvo, retroviruses, rickettsial dz
Term
 Inflammatory conditions always cause some ____, so the number of monocytes ____.
Definition
 cellular or tissue necrosis; increases
Term
 The net effect of invasion by a microbe is a ___ to ___ lymphocyte count.
Definition
 normal to slightly elevated
Term
 If inflammation brings about a systemic response, what cell would increase in numbers? Why?
Definition
 lymphocytes, because of clonal expansion
Term
 The zone of transition on a blood smear can also be called....
Definition
 monolayer
Term
 What is the name of the slide with a grid etched into it for counting cells?
Definition
 Neubauer counting grid
Term
 Small lymphocytes are more common in... whereas large lymphocytes are more common in...
Definition
 small - cat/doglarge - ruminants
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