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Gross Anatomy I
MGH IHP Anatomy Flashcards
279
Anatomy
Graduate
06/26/2011

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Term
Papillary Layer
Definition
most superficial layer; has papillae; creates fingerprint, epidermis follows indentations
Term
Reticular Layer
Definition
deep to papillary layer; sweat glands, sebaceous glands, & hair follicles; is thicker in thick skin
Term
Stratum Basale (basal layer; a.k.a. stratum germinativum)
Definition
single layer of cuboidal cells resting on basement membrane; cells constantly dividing mitotically
Term
Stratum Spinosum (spiny layer)
Definition
2-3 layers of polygonal-shaped cells; cells still alive in this level
Term
Stratum Granulosum (granular layer)
Definition
3-4 layers of granular, flattened cell; cells undergo keratinization here
Term
Stratum Lucidum (clear layer)
Definition
only seen in thick skin; 2-3 layers of flattened, anucleate cells
Term
Stratum Corneum (hornlike layer) 25-30 layers of dead
Definition
anucleated cells; outer cells are constantly shed
Term
Stratum Corneum (hornlike layer)
Definition
25-30 layers of dead, anucleated cells; outer cells are constantly shed
Term
Papillary Layer
Definition
most superficial layer; has papillae; creates fingerprint, epidermis follows indentations
Term
Reticular Layer
Definition
deep to papillary layer; sweat glands, sebaceous glands, & hair follicles; is thicker in thick skin
Term
DERMIS
Definition
middle layer- dense irregular connective tissue- contains many blood vessels- contains nerve endings, hair follicles, glands- papillae (projections of dermal tissue into the epidermis)
Term
Nails
Definition
form from stratum corneum of epidermis- function: protection and grasping
Term
Sebaceous (oil glands)
Definition
associated with hair follicles; secrete sebum (oil); functions: lubrication and waterproofing
Term
Eccrine(Merocrine)
Definition
found throughout most of skin- release perspiration
Term
Hair
Definition
bulb, root, and shaft- function: protection- arrector pili muscle associated with root, sympathetic innervation
Term
Ceruminous
Definition
in external auditory canal- secrete cerumen (earwax)
Term
HYPODERMIS
Definition
A. deepest layerB. loose CT and adipose tissueC. a.k.a. superficial fascia
Term
DEEP FASCIAA
Definition
Dense connective tissue covering musclesa.k.a. epimysium
Term
LYMPHATICS: What are they and What do they do?
Definition
A. Lymphatic system drains, filters and recirculates extracellular fluidB. Tiny lymph vessels are found throughout the body. These vessels collect extracellular fluid.C. Along the path there are lymph nodes where lymphocytes are exposed to any antigens in the lymph fluidD. The lymph fluid eventually is circulated back into the venous blood. More on how this happens later
Term
Dermatome
Definition
area of skin innervated by a single spinal cord segment
Term
Myotome
Definition
muscle fibers innervated by a single spinal cord segment
Term
First-degree (superficial) burns
Definition
1. First-degree burns affect only the epidermis, or outer layer of skin.2. The burn site is red, painful, dry, and with no blisters. Mild sunburn is an example.3. Long-term tissue damage is rare and usually consists of an increase or decrease in the skin color.
Term
Second-degree (partial thickness) burns
Definition
1. Second-degree burns involve the epidermis and part of the dermis layer of skin.2. The burn site appears red, blistered, and may be swollen and painful.
Term
Third-degree (full thickness) burns
Definition
1. Third-degree burns destroy the epidermis and dermis.2. May also damage the underlying bones, muscles, and tendons.3. The burn site appears white or charred.4. There is no sensation in the area since the nerve endings are destroyed.
Term
Bladder openings
Definition
Internal is automatic; relaxation of spincter; External is somatic
Term
Fibrous joints
Definition
Sutures, syndesmosis, Gomphosis
Term
Cartilaginous joints
Definition
Symphysis, Synchondrosis
Term
Bursa
Definition
are little synovial sac, usually run b/w tendons and bones.
Term
Intervertebral discs joint
Definition
Cartilaginous joints, Symphysis
Term
Synovial joint
Definition
has joint capsule; Articulation supported by ligaments; Inner surface produce synovial fluid; Articulating surface lines with hyaline cartilage, very smooth
Term
Synchondrosis
Definition
epiphyseal plate, Costochondral joint
Term
Hinge joint
Definition
part of elbow joint, finger joints; One degree of freedom
Term
Pivot joint
Definition
only one true pivot joint - b/w C1 and C2; one degree of freedom
Term
Plane joint
Definition
3 degree of freedom; Intervertebral facet joint
Term
Condyloid joint
Definition
convex and concave; 2 degree of freedom
Term
Synarthroses
Definition
immovable joints
Term
Amphiarthroses
Definition
slightly moveable
Term
Diarthroses
Definition
freely moveable
Term
Cartilaginous Joints
Definition
cartilage binds the bones together; no joint cavity
Term
Synovial Joints
Definition
ligaments support articulating bones; includes a joint cavity
Term
Open Chain
Definition
1. the options for movement are greater2. the distal end is not fixed so the chain is freely moveable3. movement at one link does not determine movement at other segments
Term
Closed Chain
Definition
1. the option for movement is restricted2. the segments are closed or fixed at the distal end of the chain3. movement at one link produces predictable movement in other segments
Term
Kidney
Definition
retroperitoneal; surrounded by fat, connective tissue, renal fascia; move with respiration; left kidney higher than right (left at ribs 11 and 12; right at rib 12)
Term
Aortic Aneurysms
Definition
People may have back pain; Full of coagulated blood; Palpable;Ruptured aneurysm has high mortality (50-70%); Due to congental or acquired weakness in arterial wall
Term
Renal Blood Supply
Definition
renal aa. (L and R off aorta); 30% may have aberrant aa. that enter at hilus or somewhere else on the kidney; venous drainage into IVC via renal veins
Term
hydronephrosis
Definition
may occur in pregnancy. It is a distension of the kidney due to; enlargement of ovarian a. which compresses the ureter
Term
Ureters
Definition
run downward and medially in front of psoas major; ureter is smooth muscular tube; are crossed anteriorly by gonadal vessels
Term
suprarenal gland (aka adrenal gland)
Definition
retroperitoneal; endocrine gland; needs a lot of blood supply. Each has single vein; right adrenal triangular; left adrenal half moon-shaped
Term
Suprarenal - Arterial Supply
Definition
each one has multiple aa. from; aorta; inferior phrenic a. (from aorta); renal aa.
Term
Suprarenal - Venous Drainage
Definition
each gland has only one vein; left to left renal vein; right to IVC
Term
Suprarenal - Functions
Definition
Endorine; Cortex secretes corticosteroids; Medulla secretes epinephrine
Term
Quadratus Lumborum - Origins
Definition
O-iliac crest, iliolumbar ligament (runs btwn iliac crest and L5 T-proc), transverse processes of lower lumbar vertebrae
Term
Quadratus Lumborum - insertions
Definition
transverse processes of upper lumbar vertebrae, 12th rib
Term
Quadratus Lumborum - Innervation
Definition
Ventral rami, N - L12, T 1,2,3 (nearby)
Term
Psoas Major - O
Definition
all lumbar transverse processes and vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs; crosses sacroiliac joint anteriorly
Term
Psoas Major - I
Definition
lesser trochanter of femur
Term
Psoas Major N
Definition
ventral rami
Term
Psoas Major A
Definition
Hip Flexion
Term
Psoas Minor O
Definition
with highest fibers of psoas major
Term
Psoas Minor I
Definition
long tendon inserts on pubic crest
Term
Psoas Minor N
Definition
ventral rami of upper lumbar levels
Term
Psoas Minor A
Definition
posterior pelvic tilt
Term
Superior thoracic aperture
Definition
opening between 1st ribs, slopes downward and forward to sternum
Term
Inferior thoracic aperture
Definition
bounded by 12th thoracic vertebra, 12th ribs, costal cartilages, sternum; covered by diaphragm
Term
Joint between 1st costal cartilage of 1st rib and sternum (sternochondral joint)
Definition
synchondrosis
Term
Joints between other (2nd - 7th) costal cartilages and sternum are
Definition
synovial joints
Term
interchondral joints is
Definition
synovial joints
Term
The joints of 2nd to 7th pairs of costal cartilages articulates with the sternum are
Definition
synovial joints
Term
Head of rib articulates with body of vertebra of what # and #
Definition
same number and with the body of the vertebra above.
Term
Costovertebral joints (synovial)
Definition
Head of rib articulates with body of vertebra of same number and with the body of the vertebra above; Except for the 1st rib and ribs 10 (sometimes), 11, and 12 which articulate only with their own vertebra.
Term
Costotransverse joints (synovial)
Definition
With the tubercle of the rib and the transverse process of its own vertebra (ribs 11 and 12 do not have this)
Term
External Intercostal Muscle
Definition
runs between adjacent ribs; from tubercle of ribs to costochondral junction; fibers run downward and forward; anteriorly external intercostal membrane continues to sternum
Term
Internal Intercostal Muscle
Definition
from sternum to costal angle; fibers run downward and backward; continues posteriorly as the internal intercostal membrane
Term
Innermost Intercostal
Definition
less developed that the other 2; runs in same direction as internal intercostal; found only in the middle section of the intercostal space; nerves and vessels run between it and internal intercostal
Term
Subcostal Muscle
Definition
on inner surface of posterior thorax; fibers cross 2 or 3 ribs
Term
Transversus Thoracis
Definition
on inner surface of anterior thorax; runs from sternum to costal cartilage; helps to secure blood vessels; helps to maintain thoracic wall during respiration
Term
Quiet Breathing
Definition
Quiet Inspiration diaphragm; Quiet Expiration Passive recoil
Term
Breathing with Effort - Inspiration
Definition
external intercostals, interchondral part of internal intercostals, sternocleidomastoid and scalenes, even possibly pectoral muscles with reverse action
Term
Breathing with Effort - Expiration
Definition
Internal intercostals, abdominal muscles
Term
Posterior Intercostal Arteries
Definition
from thoracic aorta; run in intercostal spaces 3-11; spaces 1 and 2 supplied by branches of the subclavian arteries
Term
Internal thoracic a. bifurcates into
Definition
musculophrenic a.; superior epigastric a.
Term
musculophrenic a.
Definition
goes to diaphragm; gives off anterior intercostal aa. to lower spaces
Term
superior epigastric a.
Definition
coming from internal thoracic a.; continues into abdomen
Term
The anterior and posterior intercostal aa. run between
Definition
the internal intercostal muscle and the innermost intercostal muscle in the costal groove along with intercostal nerve and vein.
Term
Intercostal nerve
Definition
cutaneous branches; muscular branches
Term
Posterior Intercostal Veins
Definition
drain into azygos or hemiazygos veins to superior vena cava
Term
Anterior Intercostal Veins
Definition
drain into the internal thoracic veins to brachiocephalic veins on each side
Term
parietal pleura
Definition
attaches to ribs via connective tissue called endothoracic fascia.
Term
Parietal Pleura
Definition
Named according to where it attaches; costal pleura; diaphragmatic pleura; mediastinal pleura; cupula of pleura
Term
Transversus Thoracis
Definition
on inner surface of anterior thorax-runs from sternum to costal cartilage-helps to secure blood vessels-helps to maintain thoracic wall during respiration
Term
1st - 7th rib are
Definition
true ribs; connecting directly to sternum via costal cartilage
Term
8th-12th rib
Definition
are false ribs; 11th-12th are floating ribs
Term
Cutaneous nerves
Definition
intercostal, maybe some cervical
Term
Platysma muscle
Definition
muscle of facial expression, extends over clavicle
Term
pectoral fascia
Definition
Covers pectoralis major muscle
Term
Clavipectoral fascia
Definition
encloses pectoralis minor; Attaches to clavicle
Term
External Intercostal Muscle
Definition
-runs between adjacent ribs-from tubercle of ribs to costochondral junction-fibers run downward and forward-anteriorly external intercostal membrane continues to sternum
Term
Internal Intercostal Muscle
Definition
-from sternum to costal angle-fibers run downward and backward-continues posteriorly as the internal intercostal membrane
Term
Innermost Intercostal
Definition
-less developed that the other 2-runs in same direction as internal intercostal-found only in the middle section of the intercostal space-nerves and vessels run between it and internal intercostal
Term
Subcostal Muscle
Definition
-on inner surface of posterior thorax-fibers cross 2 or 3 ribs
Term
Transversus Thoracis
Definition
-on inner surface of anterior thorax-runs from sternum to costal cartilage-helps to secure blood vessels-helps to maintain thoracic wall during respiration
Term
The middle lobe of right lung
Definition
is bounded superiorly by the horizontal fissure and inferiorly by the oblique fissure
Term
Trachea bifurcates at
Definition
T4 (sternal angle)
Term
Middle Mediastinum
Definition
heart and roots of the great vessels: ascending aorta, pulmonary trunk, superior vena cava, phrenic nerve and pericardiacophrenic vessels
Term
Visceral pleura
Definition
closely covers the lungs including those within horizontal and oblique fissures
Term
Parietal pleura
Definition
adhere with mediastinum, diaphragm, and thoracic wall
Term
fibrous pericardium
Definition
outer layer, blends with roots of great vessels; in contact with pleura; phrenic nerve and pericardiacophrenic vessels located on either side; fused to central tendon of diaphragm
Term
"serous" means
Definition
an epithelium that produces fluid
Term
visceral serous pericardium
Definition
epicardium; lines the surface of the heart; at points is continuous with parietal serous pericardium
Term
parietal serous pericardium
Definition
inner lining of sac
Term
Left Recurrent laryngeal nerve
Definition
passes under arch of aorta lateral to ligamentum arteriosum; ascends between esophagus and trachea to larynx (right recurrent laryngeal loops under subclavian a; not in mediastinum)
Term
Superior Mediastinum
Definition
Infrahyoid Muscles; Internal Thoracic Arteries; Thymus Gland; Brachiocephalic Veins; Superior Vena Cava; Left Phrenic Nerve; Right Phrenic Nerve; Arch of the Aorta; Left Vagus; Left Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve
Term
Thymus Gland
Definition
generates white blood cells; atrophies in adult; fatty remnant of 2 lobes
Term
Left Phrenic Nerve
Definition
C3,4,5 innervation of diaphragm; runs behind left brachiocephalic vein then anterior to arch of aorta; runs through middle mediastinum on pericardial sac anterior to root of the lung
Term
Right Phrenic Nerve
Definition
runs along right brachiocephalic vein, then posterior to superior vena cava; also runs along pericardial sac in middle mediastinum anterior to the root of the lung
Term
ligamentum arteriosum
Definition
attaches inferior surface of arch with left pulmonary artery; a small ligament attached to the superior surface of the pulmonary trunk and the inferior surface of the aortic arch. It is a nonfunctional vestige of the ductus arteriosus, and is formed within three weeks of birth
Term
Left Vagus
Definition
descends along left common carotid artery; anterior to arch to aorta; gives of recurrent laryngeal nerve; passes posterior to root of the lung to posterior mediastinum; to esophagus to form esophageal plexus
Term
Left recurrent laryngeal nerve
Definition
passes under arch of aorta lateral to ligamentum arteriosum; ascends between esophagus and trachea to larynx
Term
ligamentum arteriosum
Definition
attaches inferior surface of arch with left pulmonary artery. It is the remnant of ductus arteriosus
Term
Esophageal hiatus
Definition
hole in the diaphragm through which the esophagus passes
Term
Right Vagus Nerve
Definition
crosses right bronchus posteriorly toward esophagus; passes posterior to root of lung; enters posterior mediastinum; (right recurrent laryngeal loops under subclavian a; not in mediastinum)
Term
aortic hiatus
Definition
a hole in the human diaphragm
Term
Thoracic Duct
Definition
ascends from abdomen through aortic hiatus; lymphatic drainage from below diaphragm; ascends posterior to esophagus between azygos v. and aorta; empties at junction between left subclavian and jugular veins (in neck)
Term
Trachea
Definition
bifurcates at lower border of superior mediastinum (T4)
Term
Cardiac Plexuses
Definition
2 of them: 1. superficial cardiac plexus medial to ligamentum arteriosum; 2. deep cardiac plexus deep to the arch of the aorta
Term
Cardiac Plexuses - Contributions from
Definition
Vagus (upper and lower cervical cardiac branches and thoracic cardiac branches); Sympathetic- branch from each cervical sympathetic ganglion
Term
Esophagus
Definition
behind trachea; passes through esophageal hiatus in diaphragm
Term
Where does thoracic duct empty into
Definition
empties at junction between left subclavian and jugular veins (in neck)
Term
Descending Aorta
Definition
Branches to (structure along the way i.e.): bronchi and esophagus, posterior intercostal arteries, diaphragm; then passes through aortic hiatus to enter abdomen
Term
Anterior vagal trunk
Definition
consists primarily of fibers from the left vagus
Term
Posterior vagal trunk
Definition
consists primarily of fibers from the right vagus
Term
Azygos Venous System
Definition
drains blood from body wall; azygos vein on right (larger); hemiazygos (inferiorly) and accessory hemiazygos (superiorly) on left. Interconnected with each other and drain by connecting veins into; azygos; azygos extends up to T4 then loops over the root of the lung and then empties into superior vena cava
Term
Azygos Venous System
Definition
transports deoxygenated blood from the posterior walls of the thorax and abdomen into the superior vena cava vein
Term
splanchnic nerves
Definition
arise from the sympathetic trunk in the thorax and travel inferiorly to provide sympathetic innervation to the abdomen
Term
Sympathetic Chain and Ganglia
Definition
covered by pleura superiorly; grey and white communicantes for each spinal nerve; 11 or 12 ganglia; Splanchnic Nervee; preganglionic sympathetic fibers
Term
T4
Definition
- nipple
Term
T10
Definition
- umbilicus
Term
L1
Definition
– groin, upper most thigh
Term
Cephalic vein
Definition
superficial vein from arm runs in groove between deltoid and pectoralis major. It pierces clavipectoral fascia to empty into axillary vein.
Term
Thoracoacromial trunk
Definition
Branch of axillary arteryHas clavicular, deltoid, acromial and pectoral branches
Term
Hip Bone
Definition
os coxa
Term
2 os coxa
Definition
pelvis
Term
pelvis
Definition
pubis, ischium, ilium
Term
ischial tuberosity
Definition
inferior knob, “sit” bone
Term
ischial spine
Definition
posterior projection between greater (ilium) and lesser (ischium) sciatic notches
Term
ischial ramus
Definition
extend forward forming inferior border of obturator foramen. Joins with inferior pubic ramus to form ischiopubic ramus
Term
Pubis
Definition
forms anterior/inferior region of os coxa; unites with pubis on other side
Term
pubic crest
Definition
extends laterally from symphysis on anterior surface
Term
pubic tubercle
Definition
raised area lateral to crest
Term
superior pubic ramus
Definition
contributes to superior border of obturator foramen
Term
inferior pubic ramus
Definition
contributes to inferior border of obturator foramen
Term
body of pubis
Definition
adjacent to symphysis
Term
pectineal line
Definition
on inner superior surface, continuous with arcuate line of ilium
Term
ala
Definition
wing portion
Term
Ilium
Definition
largest, most superior part of os coxa, “wing”
Term
iliac crest
Definition
superior border of ala
Term
Anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS)
Definition
at anterior end of crest
Term
Anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS)
Definition
below ASIS
Term
Posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS)
Definition
end of crest posteriorly
Term
Posterior inferior iliac spine (PIIS)
Definition
inferior to PSIS
Term
Auricle
Definition
articular surface of sacroiliac joint
Term
Greater sciatic notch
Definition
closed in life as foramen by ligaments
Term
Arcuate line
Definition
extends posteriorly from pectineal line
Term
The pelvic brim
Definition
formed by the crest and pectineal line of the pubis, the arcuate line of the ilium and the ala and promontory of the sacrum.
Term
base of sacrum
Definition
superior surface of S1
Term
sacral promontory
Definition
anterior protrusion of S1 vertebrae
Term
ala
Definition
lateral “wings”
Term
auricular surface
Definition
articulating surface of S1 join
Term
camper’s fascia
Definition
is the fatty, superficial layer
Term
Scarpa’s fascia
Definition
is the deep membranous layer or surface that opposes the deep fascia covering the muscles
Term
Aponeurosis
Definition
white stuff in the midle, fuse in the midline; def; broad, flat tendon
Term
linea alba
Definition
where aponeurosis of left and right sides fuse; extends from xiphoid process to pubis
Term
External Abdominal Oblique - Origin
Definition
Slips from lower 8 ribs; (interdigitates with serratus anterior; external oblique shares the same ribs with serratu anterior); runs medially and downward
Term
External Abdominal Oblique - Insertion
Definition
aponeurosis fuses at linea alba; contributes to rectus sheath; iliac crest and ASIS; pubic tubercle, crest and symphysis; lower free edge forms inguinal ligament (ASIS to pubic tubercle)
Term
External Abdominal Oblique - Innervation
Definition
All abdominal muscles are innervated segmentally by T7-T12 or L1
Term
Internal Abdominal Oblique - Origin
Definition
Fascia of the back (thoracolumbar); Iliac crest; Fibers run upward and medially
Term
Internal Abdominal Oblique - Insertion
Definition
lower 3 or 4 ribs and costal cartilages, and linea alba; medial aponeurosis contributes to rectus sheath
Term
All abdominal muscles are innervated
Definition
segmentally by T7-T12 or L1
Term
Transversus Abdominus
Definition
Deepest; more horizontal; Comes from thoracal lumber fascia
Term
Transversus Abdominus - Origin
Definition
Thoracolumbar fascia; inner surface of costal cartilages; iliac crest; fibers run horizontally
Term
Transversus Abdominus - Insertion
Definition
Linea alba
Term
Rectus Abdominus Muscle - Origin
Definition
xiphoid process; costal cartilages ribs 5-7; fibers run vertically; in shorter bundles being interrupted by tendinous insertions; Make it become 4 or 5 segments
Term
Rectus Abdominus Muscle - Insertion
Definition
pubic crest and tubercle; Indentation is lina alba
Term
Transversalis Fascia
Definition
lines abdominal cavity; on inner surface of transversus abdominus
Term
Vessels and nerves in abdominal wall
Definition
run between the internal oblique and the transversus abdominus muscles
Term
The inguinal canal
Definition
is the passageway for the testes and the spermatic cord on the way to the scrotum
Term
the spermatic cord
Definition
vas deferens, testicular artery and plexus of veins
Term
peritoneal
Definition
Abdominal organs are either covered and suspended from posterior body wall
Term
retroperitoneal
Definition
Abdominal organs covered by peritoneum on anterior surface and positioned against the posterior body wall
Term
major duodenal papilla
Definition
The common bile duct and the pancreatic duct together perforate the medial side of the second portion of the duodenum
Term
Teniae colon
Definition
long bands of smooth muscle
Term
Haustra
Definition
saccular enlargement; Semi compartemnt
Term
Common hepatic
Definition
via branches supplies gall bladder, liver, pancreas, duodenum
Term
Left gastric
Definition
supplies esophagus and lesser curvature
Term
Splenic a.
Definition
upplies pancreas, spleen, stomach
Term
Portal Vein
Definition
Pick up nutrition goes to liver, feed the liver; Veins, capillary bed veins, veins
Term
Rectovesical pouch
Definition
in male between bladder and rectum
Term
Rectouterine pouch
Definition
in female between uterus and rectum
Term
Vesicouterine pouch
Definition
in female between bladder and uterus
Term
round ligament in anterior lamina
Definition
-runs along pelvic rim, through deep ring to labia majora
Term
“proper” ligament of the ovary in posterior lamina
Definition
-runs between ovary and uterus
Term
Broad ligament
Definition
2 layers of peritoneum that fuse together after draping over the uterus; within the broad ligament
Term
Bladder openings
Definition
Internal is automatic; relaxation of spincter; External is somatic
Term
micturition
Definition
parasympathetics contract detrusor muscle and relaxes internal sphincter; voluntary relaxation of external sphincter
Term
Ureters
Definition
pass anterior to the bifurcation of common iliac aa-anterior to sacroiliac joint-to base of bladderc
Term
Prostate Gland
Definition
between bladder and urogenital diaphragm-adds to the ejaculate-contains a large amount of smooth muscle-prostatic tissue actually forms the wall of the prostatic urethraVast majority men 70 has enlarged prostateYou have prostate cancer, but you cannot take entire prostate because it makes up wall of bladderUse more forceBladder can get larger
Term
Seminal Vesical
Definition
Lies against posterior-lateral bladder-Secretions add to ejaculate
Term
ejaculatory duct
Definition
duct of seminal vesicle joins vas deferens to form the ejaculatory duct which empties into the prostatic urethra
Term
Prostate Gland
Definition
between bladder and urogenital diaphragm-adds to the ejaculate-contains a large amount of smooth muscle-prostatic tissue actually forms the wall of the prostatic urethraVast majority men 70 has enlarged prostate
Term
Uterine Tube (a.k.a. oviduct
Definition
fallopian tube), -extend from uterus to ovary-connect uterine cavity with peritoneal cavity-10 cm long-draped in peritoneum called mesosalpinx (part of broad ligament)
Term
infundibulum
Definition
-has fimbriae, trumpet-like opening
Term
ampulla
Definition
-wide, thin walled, egg is fertilized here
Term
isthmus
Definition
-narrow, near uterus
Term
uterine portion
Definition
-passes through uterine wall
Term
Uterus
Definition
-pear-shaped-behind bladder, in front of rectum-8 cm long, 5 cm wide
Term
external os
Definition
- opening into vagina
Term
mesovarium
Definition
suspends ovary from posterior lamina
Term
mesosalpinx
Definition
surround uterine tube
Term
fornices
Definition
recesses around cervix at upper end of vagina
Term
mesometrium
Definition
part of broad ligament next to uterus
Term
Vagina
Definition
-10 cm long-fornices- recesses around cervix at upper end of vagina-posterior fornix is covered with peritoneum, adjacent to rectouterine pouch
Term
Rectum
Definition
-begins at 3rd sacral level-rectum is continuous with anal canal-turns 90 degrees as it passes through pelvic diaphragm-no teniae coli, instead a longitudinal coat of smooth muscle
Term
Papillary Layer
Definition
most superficial layer; has papillae; creates fingerprint, epidermis follows indentations
Term
Reticular Layer
Definition
deep to papillary layer; sweat glands, sebaceous glands, & hair follicles; is thicker in thick skin
Term
Stratum Basale (basal layer; a.k.a. stratum germinativum)
Definition
single layer of cuboidal cells resting on basement membrane; cells constantly dividing mitotically
Term
Stratum Spinosum (spiny layer)
Definition
2-3 layers of polygonal-shaped cells; cells still alive in this level
Term
Stratum Granulosum (granular layer)
Definition
3-4 layers of granular, flattened cell; cells undergo keratinization here
Term
Stratum Lucidum (clear layer)
Definition
only seen in thick skin; 2-3 layers of flattened, anucleate cells
Term
Stratum Corneum (hornlike layer)
Definition
25-30 layers of dead, anucleated cells; outer cells are constantly shed
Term
Stratum Corneum (hornlike layer)
Definition
25-30 layers of dead, anucleated cells; outer cells are constantly shed
Term
Papillary Layer
Definition
most superficial layer; has papillae; creates fingerprint, epidermis follows indentations
Term
Reticular Layer
Definition
deep to papillary layer; sweat glands, sebaceous glands, & hair follicles; is thicker in thick skin
Term
DERMIS
Definition
middle layer- dense irregular connective tissue- contains many blood vessels- contains nerve endings, hair follicles, glands- papillae (projections of dermal tissue into the epidermis)
Term
Nails
Definition
form from stratum corneum of epidermis- function: protection and grasping
Term
Sebaceous (oil glands)
Definition
associated with hair follicles; secrete sebum (oil); functions: lubrication and waterproofing
Term
Eccrine(Merocrine)
Definition
found throughout most of skin- release perspiration
Term
Hair
Definition
bulb, root, and shaft- function: protection- arrector pili muscle associated with root, sympathetic innervation
Term
Ceruminous
Definition
in external auditory canal- secrete cerumen (earwax)
Term
HYPODERMIS
Definition
A. deepest layerB. loose CT and adipose tissueC. a.k.a. superficial fascia
Term
DEEP FASCIAA
Definition
Dense connective tissue covering musclesa.k.a. epimysium
Term
LYMPHATICS: What are they and What do they do?
Definition
A. Lymphatic system drains, filters and recirculates extracellular fluidB. Tiny lymph vessels are found throughout the body. These vessels collect extracellular fluid.C. Along the path there are lymph nodes where lymphocytes are exposed to any antigens in the lymph fluidD. The lymph fluid eventually is circulated back into the venous blood. More on how this happens later
Term
Dermatome
Definition
area of skin innervated by a single spinal cord segment
Term
Myotome
Definition
muscle fibers innervated by a single spinal cord segment
Term
First-degree (superficial) burns
Definition
1. First-degree burns affect only the epidermis, or outer layer of skin.2. The burn site is red, painful, dry, and with no blisters. Mild sunburn is an example.3. Long-term tissue damage is rare and usually consists of an increase or decrease in the skin color.
Term
Second-degree (partial thickness) burns
Definition
1. Second-degree burns involve the epidermis and part of the dermis layer of skin.2. The burn site appears red, blistered, and may be swollen and painful.
Term
Third-degree (full thickness) burns
Definition
1. Third-degree burns destroy the epidermis and dermis.2. May also damage the underlying bones, muscles, and tendons.3. The burn site appears white or charred.4. There is no sensation in the area since the nerve endings are destroyed.
Term
Bladder openings
Definition
Internal is automatic; relaxation of spincter; External is somatic
Term
Right Vagus Nerve
Definition
-crosses right bronchus posteriorly toward esophagus-passes posterior to root of lung-enters posterior mediastinum-(right recurrent laryngeal loops under subclavian a; not in mediastinum)
Term
Cardiac Plexuses contribution
Definition
Vagus (upper and lower cervical cardiac branches and thoracic cardiac branches), Sympathetic- branch from each cervical sympathetic ganglion
Term
Anterior vagal trunk (reformed)
Definition
consists primarily of fibers from the left vagus posterior
Term
Posterior vagal trunk (reformed)
Definition
consists primarily of fibers from the right vagus
Term
Azygos Venous System
Definition
drains blood from body wall- azygos extends up to T4 then loops over the root of the lung and then empties into superior vena cava- hemiazygos (inferiorly) and accessory hemiazygos (superiorly) on left
Term
thoracic splanchnic nerves greater
Definition
- T5-T9 to celiac ganglion
Term
thoracic splanchnic nerves lesser
Definition
- T10 and T11 to aortico-renal ganglion
Term
thoracic splanchnic nerves lowest (or least)
Definition
- last thoracic ganglion to renal ganglia
Term
Coronary Sulcus (atrioventricular sulcus)
Definition
-separates atria from ventricles-separates base of heart from diaphragmatic surface-contains blood vessels and fat
Term
Right Coronary Artery supplies
Definition
a. right atriumb. right ventriclec. S-A and A-V nodes and interatrial septumd. posterior part of left ventricle
Term
left coronary artery supplies
Definition
a. left atriumb. most of left ventriclec. A-V bundle
Term
circumflex branch
Definition
runs in coronary sulcus on left-gives off ventricular branches
Term
anterior descending (interventricular)
Definition
a.-runs in interventricular groove-at acute margin, approaches terminal branches of posterior interventricular of right coronary
Term
trabeculae carnae
Definition
- rough ridges of muscle
Term
papillary muscles
Definition
- 3 nipple-like protrusions of trabeculae carne, anterior is largest
Term
chordae tendinae
Definition
- tendons run between papillary muscles and valve leaflets
Term
moderator band
Definition
- muscle connects interventricular septum to anterior papillary muscle (contains branch of A-V conduction bundle)
Term
Fibrous Connective Tissue
Definition
-forms the skeleton of heart-limits the spread of impulses-surrounds valves-separates atrium from ventricle except at A-V bundle
Term
Aortic Aperture
Definition
-lowest of 3, most posterior at T12 level
Term
Esophageal Aperture
Definition
-at T10 level (Right crus of diaphragm loop around esophagus and strengthens sphincter)
Term
Vena Caval Aperture
Definition
-highest of 3 at T8 level, through central tendon
Term
Deep Ring
Definition
this is the opening into the abdomen. It is formed by an opening in the transversalis fascia.
Term
Cardiac sphincter closes
Definition
closes off esophagus; keep food from regurgitate
Term
Pyloric sphincter closes
Definition
closes off duodenum, thick, consists of 3 layers of smooth muscle
Term
Jejunum has
Definition
1. more numerous internal mucosal folds2. thicker walls3. wider diameter
Term
Ileum has
Definition
1. more arterial arcades2. fat encroaches on gut
Term
Aorta ends
Definition
at L4 level dividing into two common iliac aa.
Term
Superior mesenteric (L1 level)
Definition
via branches supplies pancreas, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, ascending and transverse colon
Term
Inferior mesenteric (L3 level)
Definition
via branches supplies transverse, descending and sigmoid colon and part of rectum
Term
Hepatic Portal Vein
Definition
Pick up nutrition goes to liver, feed the liver; A portal system is where veins connect 2 capillary beds; Formed by joining of splenic and superior mesenteric veins
Term
Superior mesenteric vein drains
Definition
pancreas, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, ascending and transverse colon
Term
Inferior mesenteric vein drains
Definition
joins splenic vein; transverse colon, descending and sigmoid colon, part of rectum
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